Hondurans

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Hondurans
Hondureños
Regions with significant populations
 Honduras      9,060,000
 United States945,916 (2017)[1]
 Spain58,572[2]
 Mexico15,000[3]
 Canada10,650[4]
 France3,921[5]
 Italy2,000[3]
 Costa Rica4,000[3]
 Nicaragua13,000[3]
 El Salvador12,000[3]
 Guatemala9,000[3]
Languages
Honduran Spanish, Lencan Languaje, Mayan Language Garifuna, Miskito, Bay Islands Creole English, Hebrew, and other indigenous languages.
Religion
Roman Catholicism, Protestantism[6]
Related ethnic groups
Spaniards, Honduran American, Mexicans, Afro-Honduran, Mestizo, Garifuna, Mayans, Palestinians, Lebanese, European, Chinese.

Hondurans (Spanish: Hondureños) are a Hispanic people who descend largely from the Spaniards (Andalusians and Extremadurans), and from various tribes of indigenous peoples that belonged to Mesoamerica. Most Hondurans live in Honduras, although there is also a significant Honduran diaspora, particularly in the United States, Spain, and many smaller communities in other countries around the world. There are also people living in Honduras who are not Hondurans, because they were not born or raised in Honduras, nor have they yet gained citizenship.

Catracho[edit]

Latin Americans refer to a person from Honduras as a Catracho. The term was coined by Nicaraguans in the mid-19th century when Honduran General Florencio Xatruch returned from battle with his Honduras and El Salvador soldiers after defeating American freebooters commanded by William Walker, whose purpose was to re-establish slavery and take over all of Central America. As the general and his soldiers returned, some Nicaraguans yelled out ¡Aquí vienen los xatruches!, meaning "Here come Xatruch's boys!" However, Nicaraguans had so much trouble pronouncing the general's Catalan last name that they altered the phrase to los catruches and ultimately settled on los catrachos. Salvadorans fought side by side with their Honduran Central American brothers, against William Walker's troops.[7]

History[edit]

Lempira, native hero of the Lenca culture.

Before the conquest, "Honduras was inhabited by an aboriginal population descended from different ethnic groups." 1 Among these are: Los Lencas, Payas, Chorotegas, Xicaques, Chortis, just to mention a few. All of these groups lacked "cultural unity," and "probably had a Mesoamerican and South American cultural origin. "According to some historians: «These cultures achieved great progress in the various fields of human knowledge, driven by the development of a varied agriculture ... In this way they guaranteed adequate food for their large population. They also applied techniques of great perfection in fabrics and ceramics. They developed an intense and varied trade. »

In the north-western section of Honduras, the peoples of the Chortís, a Mayan group located in Copán and Ocotepeque, and the Lencas that extended through the departments of Santa Bárbara, Lempira, Intibucá, La Paz, Comayagua, Francisco Morazán and Valle predominated. and part of what today comprises the territory of El Salvador.

The rest of the Honduran territory was inhabited by peoples from the south of the continent, with a nomadic and semi-nomadic culture, governed by primitive communal production relations. Among these peoples were Tolupanes (also known as "xicaques"), Pechs (also known as "payas"), Tawahkas and Misquitos who, as a whole, made up the majority of the country's population.

According to the Honduran sociologist, Guillermo Molina Chocano, the first counts of the Honduran population are the product of estimates made by "historians, chroniclers, and travelers." Most of these coincide, that upon the arrival of the Spanish, the aboriginal population both in Honduras and the rest of America was very numerous. For example, the Milanese traveler, Girolaneo Benzoni (Historia del Nuevo Mundo, 1572) assures that "When the Spanish went to conquer the region of Honduras ... they encountered more than four hundred thousand Indians ..." 1 Others (El Costo de la Conquista, 1992) claim that "the aboriginal population of Honduras was approximately 800,000 indigenous people.

Demographics[edit]

Considering metropolitan areas only, the Honduran capital is the fourth largest Central American urban agglomeration, after Guatemala City, Managua, and San Salvador.

Population[edit]

In the 2017 Honduras has a population of more than 9 million people. Honduras had a population of 7.4 million according to Honduras' 2001 Census of Population, the most populous Departments are: Cortés (1.2 million), Francisco Morazán (1.2 million), Yoro (466,000), Olancho (420,000), Choluteca (391,000) siguatepeque and Comayagua (353,000). The least populous are Islas de la Bahia and Gracias a Dios.

According to the same source, the main cities are: Tegucigalpa (894,000-Central District only), San Pedro Sula (517,000), Choloma (160,000), La Ceiba (140,000), El Progreso (106,000), Choluteca, Comayagua, Puerto Cortés, La Lima and Danlí. However, the main metropolitan areas are Tegucigalpa (1,200,000-est. 2007-) and San Pedro Sula (900,000). Between the 1988 and 2001 Census, San Pedro Sula's population doubled. The country has 20 cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Mestizos[edit]

The majority of the Honduran population is mestizo (a mixture of Spaniards and Amerindian), thjese people descent form inmigrants from Spain and Amerindian people like the Lencas and Mayans. According studies the mestizo population makes the 85% of the total population of Honduras. According some census the mestizo population of Honduras is made up of 58,4% European, 36,2% Amerindian, and 5,4% African.

Amerindian[edit]

The Amerindian population consists of seven indigenous groups recognized by the Confederation of Autochthonous Peoples of Honduras (CONPAH) and the government of Honduras, among them they recognize the Afro-Caribbean and Garífuna groups which are not Amerindian.

The seven indigenous groups are: the Ch'orti', a Mayan group living in the northwest on the border with Guatemala; the Garifuna speaking a Carib language., they live along the entire Caribbean coastline of Honduras, and in the Bay Islands; the Pech or Paya Indians living in a small area in the Olancho department; the Tolupan (also called Jicaque, "Xicaque", or Tol), living in the Department of Yoro and in the reserve of the Montaña de la Flor and parts of the department of Yoro; the Lenca Indians living in the western highlands of Intibuca, Lempira, La Paz, Valle and Choluteca departments; and the Miskito Indians living on the northeast coast in the Gracias A Dios department and along the border with Nicaragua.

Whites[edit]

Honduran white hero, Francisco Morazan

White Hondurans or white people from Honduras (colloquially called cheles), is a term used to refer to those Hondurans who are cataloged or considered as white people. However, the term white in Honduras similar to other Latin American countries is quite ambiguous, and some white people would not be classified as such in other countries. The first whites in Honduras came with Columbus in 1502, during the entire 16th century came a huge spaniard migration to Honduras. Whites of Honduran origin are also descended from immigrants who arrived from Europe, such as places like Catalonia, Germany, Italy, East Europe, and the Middle East in the 19th and 20th centuries. Percentages have varied from 1 to 7% due the fact that most white Hondurans identifies and adopts the mestizo identity.

Blacks[edit]

Approximately 2.9% of Honduras population is black, or Afro-Honduran, and mainly reside on the country's Caribbean or Atlantic coast. The black population comes from a number of sources. Most are the descendants of the West Indian islands brought to Honduras as slaves. Another large group are the Garífuna, descendants of an Afro-Carib population which revolted against British authorities on the island of St. Vincent and were forcibly moved to Belize and Honduras during the 18th century. Garífunas are part of Honduran identity through theatrical presentations such as Louvavagu.

Immigration[edit]

During the early 20h Century Honduras received a long migration from Europe and the middle east, however most of these Arab and Jewish migrants are considered white in Honduras.

Arabs[edit]

TV host Salvador Nasralla, a descendant of palestinian inmigrants.

Honduras hosts a significant Arab community (the vast majority of whom are Christian Arabs of Palestinian and Lebanese descent). However, these people are also cataloged as white in Honduras. The Palestinians, Syrian, and Lebanese arrived in the country in the late 19th century and early 20th century, from the otoman empire establishing themselves especially in the city of San Pedro Sula. There are other families that settled in Tegucigalpa, La Ceiba and El Progreso. The Palestinian community, well integrated in Honduras, is prominent in business, commerce, banking, industry, and politics. They are popularly known as turcos (Turks) as they came with Turkish passports, Today Honduras ranks ninth in countries with the highest Arab descent in the world.

Jews[edit]

In the case of Honduras, the origin of modern Jews living in the country begins in 1920, between this year and 1940 the majority of Jews who arrived in the country were Ashkenazis of German, Polish, and Romanian origin, most of whom were from Harvest. Jews are also cataloged as white people in Hondurans; most of them came fleeing the growing anti-Semitism in Europe and the Second World War, in 1939 a total of 455 Germans were registered and 95 were Jews The rest are French, Italian and a small number of British people.

Asians[edit]

Also present in an East Asian community that is primarily of Chinese descent, and to a lesser extent Japanese, Korean, Ryukyuan, Vietnamese also make up a small percentage due to their arrival to Honduras as contract laborers in the 1980s and 1990s.

Religion[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Iglesia de La Merced is the oldest Church in the Honduran territory.

Today, Hondurans are primarily Catholic with 46% and Protestants 41%, dividing equally between Protestants and Catholics. Historically, at the beginning of the 20th century, due to the influence of the United States that arrived during this period, Protestants outnumbered the Catholics, representing two-thirds of the country, mainly in the north.

With the loss of the Protestant regions after World War II, coupled with the increase in agnosticism and atheism in the eastern region of the country the Protestant population decreased. Today there are rural and urban regions where Protestantism has ceased to predominate.

Indigenous faiths[edit]

Today in almost no Hondurans who practice autochthonous polytheistic religions derived from Nahualism, which venerated different deities, however many of the Mayan, Lenca and other native religious customs were mixed with the Catholic tradition, thus creating a syncretism. The vestiges of these ancient religions can be seen in various archaeological sites in the country.

Garifuna religion[edit]

The Garífuna religion is the Dugú, it is a mixture of African, Catholic, and indigenous beliefs.

Culture[edit]

The popular culture of the Honduran people, as in most countries, consists of artistic creations attended by large audiences or shows. Such artistic-cultural exhibitions are held during certain days of the year through very creative celebrations.

Holydays[edit]

Our lady of Suyapa.

Among the most popular holidays are; on September 15, Honduras' independence day. This commemoration is carried out with parades of schools and colleges throughout the country. Some companies also participate who adorn the parade with floats of any kind. Since the conquest of Honduras, the predominant religion in the country is Catholic, because of this, special interest is given to the Holy Week celebrations.

The day of the Virgin of Suyapa is celebrated on February 3 of each year with a great pilgrimage to Tegucigalpa to give it veneration. During the Easter holidays, most of the population takes advantage of this holiday week that begins on Wednesday and ends on Sunday to walk on the beaches and spas of the country, and enjoy the tropical summer that is only enjoyed at this time of year mainly on the North and South Coast of Honduras.

Literature[edit]

Literature in Honduras dates back to the Mayan codices, although new literary genres were introduced after the conquest. Among the most notable writers of Honduras are David Fortin, Froylán Turcios, Juan Ramón Molina, Rafael Heliodoro Valle, Antonio José Rivas, Clementina Suárez, Ramón Amaya Amador, Marco Antonio Rosa, Roberto Sosa, Lucila Gamero de Medina, Roberto Quezada, Armando García , Helen Umaña, Alberto Destephen, Argentina Díaz Lozano, Rony Bonilla and Julio Escoto.

Cinema[edit]

Cinema in the country has its true beginning in 1962, The first official Honduran filmmaker was Sami Kafati, he studied cinematography in Rome in the 1960s. His first cinematographic work was the experimental short film Mi Amigo Ángel, produced in 1962, is the first fictional cinematographic work produced in Honduras, according to the Honduran film historian Marxis Lenin Hernández "the film was not so well received in its time, but today it is highly valued." This short film has a great expressive force and a great social and artistic sensitivity. The most prominent modern Honduran filmmakers are Hispano Duron, Rene Pauck, and Juan Carlos Fanconi.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "US Census Bureau 2017 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  2. ^ "TablaPx". Ine.es. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". migrationpolicy.org. February 10, 2014.
  4. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019-02-20. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Honduras - Emigrantes totales 2019". datosmacro.com.
  6. ^ The Latin American Socio-Religious Studies Program / Programa Latinoamericano de Estudios Sociorreligiosos (PROLADES) PROLADES Religion in America by country
  7. ^ Sánchez Ramírez, Roberto. "El general que trajo a los primeros catrachos". La Prensa (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2007-11-27.