Afro-Seminole Creole

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Afro-Seminole Creole
Native to United States, Mexico
Ethnicity Black Seminoles
Native speakers
(200 in Mexico cited 1990)[1]
English Creole
  • Atlantic
    • Eastern
      • Northern
Language codes
ISO 639-3 afs
Glottolog afro1254[2]
Linguasphere 52-ABB-ac

Afro-Seminole Creole is a dialect of Gullah spoken by Black Seminoles in scattered communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and Northern Mexico.

It was first identified in 1978 as a language by Ian Hancock, a linguist at the University of Texas. The Creole developed when Black Seminoles and Seminoles lived together in Florida in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Speakers of Afro-Seminole Creole live in Seminole County, Oklahoma, and Brackettville, Texas, in the United States and in Nacimiento de los Negros, Coahuila, in Mexico. There are about 200 speakers of the language.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Afro-Seminole Creole at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Afro-Seminole Creole". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 

External links[edit]