Indarctos

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Indarctos
Temporal range: Miocene
Indarctos atticus.jpg
I. atticus skull
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Superfamily: Arctoidea
Family: Ursidae
Subfamily: Ailuropodinae
Tribe: †Indarctini
Abella et al., 2012
Genus: Indarctos
Pilgrim, 1913
Type species
Indarctos salmontanus
Pilgrim, 1913
Species

I. punjabensis (Lydekker, 1884)
I. zdanskyi (Qiu & Tedford, 2003)
I. sinensis (Zdansky, 1924)
I. vireti (Villalta & Crusafont, 1943)
I. arctoides (Deperet, 1895)
I. anthracitis (Weithofer, 1888)
I. salmontanus (Pilgrim, 1913)
I. atticus (Weithofer, 1888)
I. bakalovi (Kovachev, 1988)
I. lagrelli (Zdansky, 1924)
I. oregonensis (Merriam et al., 1916)
I. nevadensis (Macdonald, 1959)

Indarctos is a genus of mammals of the bear family, Ursidae, endemic to North America, Europe and Asia during the Miocene. It was present from ~11.1 to 5.3 Ma, existing for approximately 6.2 million years.

The oldest member is from Arizona (~11.1—7.7 Ma) and youngest is (~9.0—5.3 Ma) from Kazakhstan. In North America this animal was contemporary with Plionarctos (~10.3—3.3 Ma).

Taxonomy[edit]

Indarctos was named by Pilgrim (1913) Its type is Indarctos salmontanus. It was assigned to Agriotheriini by Chorn and Hoffman (1978); to Ursavini by Hunt (1998); and to Ursidae by Pilgrim (1913), Carroll (1988) and Salesa et al. (2006).[1][2][3] Abell et al. (2012) designated the genus in a new tribe Indarctini and assigned it to Ailuropodinae.[4]

Morphology[edit]

Body mass[edit]

Two specimens were examined by Legendre and Roth for body mass.[5]

  • Specimen 1 estimated to weigh: 244.4 kg

Fossil distribution[edit]

Sites and specimen ages:

[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. Chorn and R. S. Hoffman. 1978. Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Mammalian Species 110:1-6
  2. ^ Hunt, R. M. (1998). "Ursidae". In Jacobs, Louis; Janis, Christine M.; Scott, Kathleen L. Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America: Volume 1, Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulate like Mammals. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 174–195. ISBN 0-521-35519-2. 
  3. ^ M. J. Salesa, M. Antón, S. Peigné and J. Morales. 2006. Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(2):379-382
  4. ^ Abella, Juan, et al. "Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade." PLoS One 7.11 (2012): e48985.
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology 1(1):85-98
  6. ^ Abella J, Valenciano A, Pérez-Ramos A, Montoya P, Morales J (2013) On the Socio-Sexual Behaviour of the Extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: An Approach Based on Its Baculum Size and Morphology. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73711. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073711