Influenza A virus subtype H10N7

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H10N7 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). In 2004 in Egypt, H10N7 was reported for the first time in humans.[1] It caused illness in two one-year-old infants, residents of Ismaillia, Egypt; one child’s father a poultry merchant.[2]

The first reported H10N7 outbreak in the US occurred in Minnesota on two turkey farms in 1979 and on a third in 1980. "The clinical signs ranged from severe, with a mortality rate as high as 31%, to subclinical. Antigenically indistinguishable viruses were isolated from healthy mallards on a pond adjacent to the turkey farms".[3]

The Influenza A (H10N7) virus was also held responsible for an increased mortality of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Europe in 2014[4]. First cases were reported in spring 2014 in Sweden and subsequently spread to Denmark.[5][6] Within a few month the virus spread to the Wadden Sea area of Germany and the Netherlands causing the death of about 10% of the local harbour seal population.[7]


  1. ^ Wright PF, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y (2013). "41-Orthomyxoviruses". In Knipe DM, Howley PM. Fields Virology. 1 (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1201. ISBN 978-1-4511-0563-6. 
  2. ^ "EID Weekly Updates - Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas". Pan American Health Organization. 2004-05-07. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  3. ^ Karunakaran D, Hinshaw V, Poss P, Newman J, Halvorson D (1983). "Influenza A outbreaks in Minnesota turkeys due to subtype H10N7 and possible transmission by waterfowl". Avian Dis. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc. 27 (2): 357–66. doi:10.2307/1590162. JSTOR 1590162. PMID 6870718. 
  4. ^ Bodewes, Rogier; Zohari, Siamak; Krog, Jesper S.; Hall, Matthew D.; Harder, Timm C.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Bildt, Marco W. G. van de; Spronken, Monique I.; Larsen, Lars E. (2016-05-01). "Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus, Northwestern Europe". Journal of Virology. 90 (9): 4269–4277. doi:10.1128/jvi.03046-15. ISSN 0022-538X. PMID 26819311. 
  5. ^ Zohari, S; Neimanis, A; Härkönen, T; Moraeus, C; Valarcher, J F (2014-11-20). "Avian influenza A(H10N7) virus involvement in mass mortality of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Sweden, March through October 2014". Eurosurveillance. 19 (46). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.es2014.19.46.20967. ISSN 1560-7917. 
  6. ^ Krog, Jesper S.; Hansen, Mette S.; Holm, Elisabeth; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Pedersen, Karl; Andresen, Lars O.; Abildstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Trine H. "Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21 (4): 684–687. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141484. 
  7. ^ Bodewes, Rogier; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Vries, Erhard van der; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Herfst, Sander; Koopmans, Marion P.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Wohlsein, Peter. "Avian Influenza A(H10N7) Virus–Associated Mass Deaths among Harbor Seals". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21 (4): 720–722. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141675. 

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