An Ingwe with control fins extended
|Type||Anti-tank guided missile|
|Place of origin||South Africa|
|In service||1987 – present|
|Used by||See Users|
|Wars||South African Border War|
|Designed||During the 1980s|
|Produced||1987 – present|
|Warhead||Tandem-charge HEAT warhead, Multi-Purpose Penetrator (MPP) warhead|
|250 m – 5,000 m|
|Laser beam riding|
Design and development
The ZT3 and its launch system was developed under the codename "Project Raleigh" in the 1980s as a "long-range indigenous antitank guided missile". The missile was developed to provide the South African Army's Mechanized infantry vehicles, such as the Ratel IFV, with anti-tank capabilities and to supplement the ageing MILAN missile system that was in service at the time. Pre-production models, mounted in a triple launcher on top of a Ratel IFV, saw service in Operation Moduler during the South African Border War with good effect.
In the years since, Denel Dynamics have continually upgraded the system to improve its range, accuracy, reliability and warhead effectiveness. In May 2010, Denel Dynamics and Rheinmetall Denel Munitions were working on a new series of multi-purpose warheads for the missile system. Denel stated that due to changing trends in warfare in recent years, customers required a "generic precision land-attack missile" that can be used against a variety of targets such as buildings and bunkers.
Denel is also developing the missile system for use on the Badger Infantry Fighting Vehicle that will enter service with the South African Army as part of Project Hoefyster. The company has also collaborated with the French-South African company, ATE, to integrate the missile system for use on helicopter platforms such as the Eurocopter EC635, the MI-24 Mk III Super Hind and Eurocopter Fennec for use in various Air Forces around the world. Several missile systems in use with the South African Army were also modernised in 2005 as part of Project Adrift.
In February 2013, Denel unveiled a new version of the system at the International Defence Exhibition held in Abu Dhabi. The new system, called the Portable Launch System (IPLS), is a portable, light-weight launch system that comprises a new missile launch unit designed for use on light vehicle mounts or tripods. It can fire both HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) and Multi-Purpose Penetrator versions of the Ingwe.
The system consists of a laser projection unit and guidance and control units. The system uses a Laser beam riding missile that automatically determines its own position in the laser beam and manoeuvres onto its Line-of-sight (LOS). The sighting system varies from a non-stabilised optic system for light vehicles to a stabilised day/night system on helicopter launch systems. Automatic targeting modules can also be added to the missile system that can be added to ensure fully automatic post-lock on missile guidance by the operator. The missile can engage targets at ranges from 250 m to 5,000 m. It employs a tandem warhead to defeat up to 1,000 mm (40 in) of armour. The missile is also designed to be stealthy (virtually hard to detect) and highly resistant to countermeasures.
Denel states that the Ingwe missile can be integrated on a wide variety of launch platforms, from Infantry-crewed stationary launchers to Helicopter based launchers. The missile is known to be integrated for use on the following platforms:
- Ratel Infantry Fighting Vehicle
- DefTech AV8 armoured fighting vehicle
- MI-24 Mk III Super Hind
- Eurocopter EC635
- Eurocopter Fennec
- Badger Infantry Fighting Vehicle
- Denel Rooivalk
- Algerian Air Force – 700 delivered between 2000 and 2001 for Mi-24 MKIII SuperHind helicopters.
- Iraqi Air Force – 300 delivered between 2010 and 2012 for Eurocopter EC635 helicopters.
- Malaysian Army – 216 missiles ordered and 54 missile turrets for use on the DefTech AV8 armoured combat vehicles.
- South African Army – used on the Ratel IFV and will be integrated onto the Badger Infantry Fighting Vehicle.
- Missiles of comparable design
- Missiles of comparable role
- Engelbrecht, Leon. "Fact file: Denel ZT3 Ingwe precision guided missile". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Engelbrecht, Leon. "Ingwe goes multi-purpose". Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Latest Ingwe missile debuts at IDEX". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Denel inks R3.5 billion deal with Malaysia". defenceweb.co.za. defenceweb. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". SIPRI. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Helmoed-Romer Heitman, Paul Hannon (1991). Modern African Wars: South-West Africa. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-122-9. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
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