Institute for Advanced Study
|Motto||Truth and Beauty|
|Endowment||$741 million (2014) |
|Location||Princeton, New Jersey, USA|
The institute consists of four schools: Historical Studies, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences; in addition there is a program in theoretical biology. There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the Institute, and research is funded by endowments, grants, and gifts. The school does not charge tuition or fees. Research is never contracted or directed; it is left to each individual researcher to pursue his or her own goals.
There is a permanent faculty of approximately thirty members, and each year fellowships are awarded to about 200 visiting members from over 100 universities and research institutions. Individuals apply to become Members at the Institute, and each of the Schools has its own application procedures and deadlines. Members are selected by the Faculty of each School from more than 1,500 applicants, and come to the Institute for periods from one term to a few years, most staying for one year. All Members, whether emerging scholars or scientists at the beginning of their careers or established researchers, are selected on the basis of their outstanding achievements and promise.
The Institute was founded in 1930 by Abraham Flexner, known for his major role in the reform of medical education,together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. Flexner, ever the education reformer, had studied European schools such as Heidelberg University, All Souls College, Oxford, and the Collège de France–and he wanted to establish a similar advanced research center in the United States.
In his autobiography Abraham Flexner reports a phone call which he received in the fall of 1929 from representatives of the Bamberger siblings that led to their partnership and the eventual founding of the IAS:
The Bamberger siblings wanted to use the proceeds from the sale of their department store in Newark, New Jersey, to found a medical school as an expression of gratitude to the state of New Jersey. Flexner convinced them to put their money in the service of more abstract research. (There was a brush with near-disaster when the Bambergers pulled their money out of the market just before the Crash of 1929.) The eminent topologist Oswald Veblen at Princeton University, who had long been trying to found a high-level research institute in mathematics, urged Flexner to locate the new institute near Princeton where it would be close to an existing center of learning and a world-class library. In 1932 Veblen resigned from Princeton and became the first professor in the new Institute for Advanced Study. He selected most of the original faculty and also helped the Institute acquire land in Princeton for both the original facility and future expansion
Flexner and Veblen set out to recruit the best mathematicians and physicists they could find. The rise of fascism and the associated anti-semitism forced many prominent mathematicians to flee Europe and some, such as Einstein and Hermann Weyl (whose wife was Jewish), found a home at the new institute. Indeed, the IAS became the key lifeline for scholars fleeing Europe. Einstein was Flexner's first coup and shortly after that he recruited Austrian-Hungarian polymath John von Neumann  and Veblen's brilliant student James Alexander. Thus, the fledgeling institute in 1933 was led by five of the most prominent mathematicians in the world. In 1935 quantum physics pioneer Wolfgang Pauli became a faculty member. With the opening of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton replaced Göttingen as the leading center for mathematics in the twentieth century.
For the 6 years from its opening in 1933, until Fuld Hall was finished and opened in 1939, the Institute was housed within Princeton University—in Fine Hall, which housed Princeton's mathematics department. Princeton University's science departments are less than two miles away and informal ties and collaboration between the two institutions occurred from the beginning. This helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the University, one that has never been completely eradicated.
Purpose of the Institute
The IAS Bluebook says, "The Institute for Advanced Study is one of the few institutions in the world where the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is the ultimate raison d’être. Speculative research, the kind that is fundamental to the advancement of human understanding of the world of nature and of humanity, is not a product that can be made to order. Rather, like artistic creativity, it benefits from a special environment." This was the belief to which Abraham Flexner, the founding Director of the Institute, held passionately, and which continues to inspire the Institute today; Flexner wrote,
Special Year Programs
Flexner’s vision of the kind of results that can emerge in an institution devoted to the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is illustrated by the "Special Year" programs frequently sponsored by the IAS. For example, in 2012–13 researchers at the IAS school of mathematics held A Special Year on Univalent Foundations of Mathematics. Intuitionistic type theory was created by the Swedish logician Per Martin-Löf's in 1972 to serve as an alternative to set theory as a foundation for mathematics. The special year brought together researchers in topology, computer science, category theory, and mathematical logic with the goal of formalizing and extending this theory of foundations. The program was organized by Steve Awodey, Vladimir Voevodsky and Thierry Coquand, and resulted in a book being published in Homotopy type theory. The authors—more than 30 researchers ultimately contributed to the project—noted the essential contribution of the IAS saying,
Special thanks are due to the Institute for Advanced Study, without which this book would obviously never have come to be. It proved to be an ideal setting for the creation of this new branch of mathematics: stimulating, congenial, and supportive. May some trace of this unique atmosphere linger in the pages of this book, and in the future development of this new field of study.— The Univalent Foundations Program, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, April 2013
One of the researchers, Andrej Bauer said,
We are a group of two dozen mathematicians who wrote a 600 page book in less than half a year. This is quite amazing, since mathematicians do not normally work together in large groups. But more importantly, the spirit of collaboration that pervaded our group at the Institute for Advanced Study was truly amazing. We did not fragment. We talked, shared ideas, explained things to each other, and completely forgot who did what.— Andrej Bauer, Mathematics and Computation, June 20, 2013
Other Institutes for Advanced Study
A consortium known as Some Institutes for Advanced Study (SIAS) is considered the Ivy League of advanced research institutes. It includes the original institute in Princeton and eight other institutes founded explicitly to emulate the model of the original IAS. The nine Institutes for Advanced Study are:
- Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California
- National Humanities Center in North Carolina
- Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in Wassenaar, the Netherlands
- Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in Uppsala, Sweden
- Berlin Institute for Advanced Study in Berlin, Germany
- Israel Institute for Advanced Studies in Jerusalem, Israel
- Nantes Institute for Advanced Study Foundation in Nantes, France
- Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey
Neither the Princeton IAS nor SIAS is connected with, and should not be confused with, the Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies which comprises some twenty research institutes located throughout Great Britain and Ireland. The name Institute for Advanced Study, along with the acronym IAS, is also used by various other independent institutions throughout the world. See Institute for Advanced Study (disambiguation) for a complete list.
The Institute is or has been the academic home of Michael Atiyah, Enrico Bombieri, Shiing-Shen Chern, Noam Chomsky, Paul Dirac, Freeman J. Dyson, Albert Einstein, Clifford Geertz, Kurt Gödel, Albert Hirschman, George F. Kennan, Tsung-Dao Lee, Oskar Morgenstern, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Erwin Panofsky, Atle Selberg, Stephen Smale, John von Neumann, André Weil, Hermann Weyl, Frank Wilczek, Andrew Wiles, Edward Witten and Chen-Ning Yang.
In addition to faculty, who have permanent appointments, scholars are appointed as "Members" of the Institute for a period of several months to several years. Some 190 members are now selected annually. This includes both younger and well-established natural scientists and social scientists. The "Community of Scholars" is a database of scholars and scientists affiliated with the Institute since its founding.
|J. Robert Oppenheimer||(1947–1966)|
|Marvin Leonard Goldberger||(1987–1991)|
|Robbert Dijkgraaf||(since July 2012)|
- List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study
- List of Fields medalists affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study
- Some Institutes for Advanced Study
- Institute for Advanced Study (2014)
- Institute for Advanced Study (2015): Mission and History.
- Flexner (1910).
- Bonner, p. 237.
- Review of Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning in Times Higher Education, December 19, 2003
- Flexner (1960), p. 232.
- Axtell (2007).
- Noted Figures at IAS, retrieved 2013-04-18
- Villani p. 62-63.
- Feuer, p. 98.
- Leitch (1995).
- Arntzenius, p. 8.
- Grattan-Guinness, p. 1518-19.
- Review of "Alan Turing: The Enigma" By James Case, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, March 02, 2015
- Axtell, p. 95.
- Leitch, Alexander (1978).
- Regis, p. 26.
- Institute for Advanced Study (2013): IAS Bluebook.
- "Univalent Foundations of Mathematics". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- Homotopy Type Theory: Univalent Foundations of Mathematics
- "The HoTT book". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- Hebrew U. Institute for Advanced Studies accepted into international ‘Ivy League’ of advanced institutes press release by The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, July 15, 2007
- Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies School of Advanced Study: University of London
- "A Community of Scholars". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- "Robbert Dijkgraaf Appointed Director of Institute for Advanced Study | Institute for Advanced Study". Ias.edu. 2011-11-14. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- Arntzenius, Linda G (2011). Institute for Advanced Study, pub by Arcadia, Charleston, SC. ISBN 0738574090
- Axtell, James (2007). The Making of Princeton University : From Woodrow Wilson to the Present, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691126860
- Batterson, Steve (2006). Pursuit of Genius : Flexner, Einstein, and the Early Faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study, A. K. Peters, Ltd., Wellesley, MA. ISBN 1568812590
- Bonner, Thomas Neville (2002). Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning, Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801871247
- Dyson George (2012). Turing's Cathedral: The Origins of the Digital Universe Pantheon Books, New York. ISBN 0375422773
- Edwards, Jon R. (2012). A History of Early Computing at Princeton, Princeton Turing Centennial Celebration, Princeton University, May 10–12, 2012
- Feuer, Lewis Samuel (1974). Einstein and the Generations of Science, Basic Books. ISBN 0465018718
- Flexner, Abraham (1910). Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Merrymount Press. OCLC 9795002
- Flexner, Abraham (1960). Abraham Flexner : An Autobiography, Simon and Schuster, New York. OCLC 14616573
- Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (2003). Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences, volume 2, The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801873975
- Institute for Advanced Study (2014). "Report for the Academic Year 2013–2014" (PDF). Institute for Advanced Study.
- Institute for Advanced Study (2015). "Mission and History". Institute for Advanced Study.
- Institute for Advanced Study (2013). "IAS Bluebook" (PDF). Institute for Advanced Study.
- Leitch, Alexander (1995). Oswald Veblen in A Princeton Companion, Princeton University Press
- Jogalekar, Ashutoshon (2013). Ich probiere: Revisiting Abraham Flexners dream of the useful pursuit of useless knowledge, Scientific American, December 12, 2013
- Leitch, Alexander (1978). The Institute for Advanced Study in A Princeton Companion, Princeton University Press
- Pasachoff, Naomi (1992). Science's 'Intellectual Hotel' : The Institute for Advanced Study, Encyclopædia Britannica Yearbook of Science and the Future. ISBN 0852295499
- Regis, Ed (1987). Who Got Einstein's Office: Eccentricity and Genius at the Institute for Advanced Study, Addison-Wesley, Reading. ISBN 0201120658
- Scott, Joan Wallach & Keates, Debra, eds (2001). Schools of Thought : Twenty-five Years of Interpretive Social Science, Princeton University Press. A collection of reflective pieces by former fellows at the Institute for Advanced Study School for Social Science. ISBN 0691088411
- Villani, Cédric (2015). Birth of a Theorem : A Mathematical Adventure, Faber and Faber. ISBN 0865477671
- Wittrock, Björn (1910). A brief history of institutes for advanced study
- Björn Wittrock, Institutes for Advanced Study: Ideas, Histories, Rationales (pdf file)
- Institute for Advanced Study(pdf file) (Institute for Advanced Study, 2005). An historical overview of the Institute, published on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Institute and updated in 2009.
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