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Providence (religious movement)

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Jung Myung-seok, founder of Providence

Providence (Officially: 기독교복음선교회; Christian Gospel Mission) is a Christian new religious movement founded by Jung Myung-seok (Hangul: ; RR: jeongmyeongseok; also known by the names of Joshua Jung, Joshua Lee and Pastor Joshua).[1][2] It began as a schismatic group from the Unification Church[3] in South Korea in 1982 where it still has the most members. Providence has been widely referred to by the media as a cult.[4]

Following accusations against him by South Korean police of rape, fraud, and embezzlement, Jung fled the country in 1999 and lived as a fugitive in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China before being arrested by Chinese police in May 2007.[4][5] In April 2009, the Supreme court of South Korea sentenced him to 10 years imprisonment.[6][7]

Alternate names

The official name for Providence is the Christian Gospel Mission. It has also been called Jesus Morning Star (JMS), Setsuri ("Providence" in Japanese), International Christian Association (ICA), the Morning Star Church, the Bright Moon Church, and Ae-chun Church.

Theology

Providence's teachings are similar to the Unification Church.[8] The key beliefs of Providence are contained in a series of unpublished precepts called the 30 Lessons.[9][10] According to one researcher, nine of the 30 precepts resemble the Unification Church's Divine Principle very closely.[11] A portion of these precepts aim to demonstrate that the Great Tribulation has already begun. It is also teaches that Eve was 14 years old when she first had sex with Adam.[12]

The main differences are that:

  1. it identifies Jung as the Messiah (rather than Sun Myung Moon). This is allegedly proven using numerology. Andrew Choi, Chief of External Affairs at CGM, completely denied this claim in 2014. [13]
  2. it teaches that original sin, originating in Eve's intercourse with Satan, can be defeated by having sex with Jung.[14][8][15]

It is also explained that those who do not "meet" him will not go to Heaven and that any who betray him are committing a grave crime.[16] Providence teaches that Jung is here to finish the restoration history of the Holy Trinity, asserting that he is the Messiah of this time period and has the responsibility to save all mankind,[4] and that the Christian doctrine of bodily resurrection is false, but that people can be saved through Jung.[15]

In 2012, Jo Gyeong-suk, former head of the sect's Seoul Branch and herself an alleged victim, gave the statement before the press that salvation through sexual union with Jung was part of its canon.[17] Additional confirmation comes from religious scholar Yoshihide Sakurai,[14] and a Christian anti-cult activist, Toyoshige Aizawa.[8][18]

Non-religious organisations

Jung encourages his followers to form non-religious organisations for the purpose of attracting young people without initially revealing the religious nature of the group or their real motives,[19][20] a practice ruled "fraudulent" under law by the Japanese Supreme Court.[14][21]

History

Jung was born in Geumsan County, South Chungcheong on February 17, 1945.[22][23] In the 1970s he was a member of the Unification Church, whose teachings closely resemble Jung's.[24][25][26][27][28] In 1980, Jung founded the Ae-Chun Church, which was affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Methodists and he changed its name to the International Christian Association.[9]

According to the Information Network on Christian Heresies, in 1986 the vice president of Providence attempted to act on the sex scandals surrounding the group, but he was shut out of the organizational system and Jung consolidated all power around himself.[29]

Sexual abuse allegations in the media

Sisa Journal (ko) and investigative journalists (ko) from Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS) in Korea reported how female members of Providence had been flown to and held against their will at Jung's hideout in Anshan in the Chinese provinse Liaoning on the border to Korea. One 28-year-old Korean who in April 2005 managed to escape, confided how she was sexually violated multiple times by Jung.[30][31]

In April 2006, a press conference was held by the anti-Providence group EXODUS in which four unidentified women wearing bucket hats and surgical masks covering their faces, accused Jung of organised sex crimes against themselves and other women, who required medical treatment. These four women eventually brought formal charges against Jung, in the trial for which he now serves a sentence. [32][33]

It was later discovered that Kim Do Hun, founder of EXODUS, had demanded settlement money from Jung and the Christian Gospel Mission in the amount of 2,000,000,000 won (2 million USD) at the time of the press conference and trial without the knowledge or consent of the four accusers. Also, Do Hun on three occasions sent letters of apology to Jung, in which he stated: “I deeply regret that I stabbed you in the back, slandered you by spreading controversy against/about you, and caused you deep pain...I apologize again that for the past six years, the members of (EXODUS) and I have misunderstood you, and as such slandered and insulted you...”

The letters were written on November 15th, 1999; March 17th, 2005; and July 21st, 2005; and contained Kim’s photograph and seal. [34]

South Korean media reported that Jung had claimed to have received a "special revelation" from God, and that many female members of his organization were ordered to undress for a "health check" and have sex with him to wipe off their sins.[4] Jung denies the charges, his followers say.[15]

In 2008, in response to the rape allegations, Providence pastor Bae Jae-yong said that it was "distorted rumor that was created by the people who have slandered [Jung]" and that "all fundamental truth will be clarified by [Jung] at the prosecutor's office".[15]

According to allegations by Ex-JMS whistleblowers, as of 2012, some 500 to over 1,000 women members were still being groomed for future sexual exploitation by Jung. Known internally as the "Evergreens" (Hangul: 상록수; hanja: 常緑樹; RR: Sang-rok-su), these female members are said to comprise a "reserve corps" for "sex bribes" (Hangul: 성상납; hanja: 性上納; RR: seong sangnap), a term for sexual favors accorded to those exercising power.[a][17][18][35] The "Evergreens" are educated and handled by 10 women in Providence's leadership.[b] Jo Gyeong-suk, former head of the cult's Seoul branch, said that "not a few of those women committed suicide. They become severely depressed and receive psychiatric treatment, suffer various illnesses and social phobias as a result of the stress, and are unable to marry."[2][36] The accusers added that Providence leader Jung, even while serving sentence in prison, is supplied with profiles of candidates with photographs from which he selects women to be inducted as "evergreens".[35]

Civil lawsuits and criminal conviction

In 1999, SBS reported about sexual abuse allegedly committed by Jung. According to former members, Jung had forced dozens of women to have sex with him, and said that they would go to hell if they told anyone what he had done.[37] This resulted in Jung fleeing the country one day later.[15] He was officially charged in 2001.[38] Providence sued SBS to prevent them from airing the show again. At the end of the trial in 2002, a witness who had testified that there was no sexual exploitation from 1993-4 was found guilty of perjury, and received a 1-year prison sentence.[39]

Later, SBS was found to have committed certain broadcast infractions against Jung Myeong Seok and the CGM. In it's original broadcast, SBS altered the audio and added additional subtitles to one of Jung’s sermons from 1995. The original sermon said that the tithe of life was to evangelize “one part in ten”; the version broadcast by SBS said “one woman.” Additionally, videos of Jung with males and females side by side were doctored to show only females with Jung. The Christian Gospel Mission sued SBS for this, won the lawsuit, and received 900 million won in compensation($900,000 USD). The court also gave the following orders: SBS must not broadcast material provided by the involved informant (Kim OO); SBS must inform the Christian Gospel Mission 48 hours before broadcasting any material related to their organization; SBS must guarantee 5% of the broadcasting time to the Christian Gospel Mission so that their rebuttal will also be aired. If these orders are violated, SBS must pay damages in the amount of 30 million won(30,000 US dollars) for each violation. SBS later issued an official letter of apology to the CGM.[40]

In 2001, Jung was investigated by Taiwanese authorities under charges of raping women in Taiwan, but he fled the country.[41] Jung, having been wanted by Interpol since 2002,[4] was arrested in Hong Kong in July 2003 for overstaying his visa, but was released three days later on a HK$10,000,000 (US$1,3 million as of July 2003) bail. When Hong Kong authorities approved extradition to Korea, Jung fled the extradition hearing.[30][42][43] An Interpol Red Notice was issued on Jung in 2004.[15] In 2006, South Korean authorities put Jung on an international wanted list on rape charges,[44] and after learning that Jung had fled to China, the South Korean government officially asked China in November 2007 to extradite him.[41]

A South Korean woman and a Japanese woman filed a criminal suit in 2003 against Jeong for allegedly raping them.[45] In January 2008, the Supreme Court of South Korea awarded the two females 50,000,000 (US$52000 as of January 2008) and ₩10,000,000 (US$10400) in damages for sexual assault. The court said Jung forced the followers to have sex with him, saying that it is a religious behavior meant to save their souls.[46][47] Providence followers started riots outside of newspapers that reported the court's verdict, broke into the Seoul office of the leading newspaper The Dong-a Ilbo trashing office furniture, and demanded the removal of articles critical of Jung.[48][49][50]

After about 8 years on the run,[15] Jung was arrested by Chinese police on May 1, 2007.[4] He was extradited back to South Korea on February 20, 2008.[15] Jung was also charged with fraud and embezzlement of church funds.[15]

In August 2008, Jung was convicted for raping female followers and sentenced by Seoul Central District Court (ko) to six years imprisonment.[5] In February 2009, the Seoul High Court (ko) added four years to the district court's sentence of six years, overturning one of the lower court's acquittals and finding Jung guilty on a total of four counts of rape.[6][7] Jung appealed his 10 years imprisonment sentence to the Supreme Court of South Korea in April 2009, but the sentence was upheld.[51][52]

One of the sexually assaulted women subsequently filed a civil lawsuit against Jung. In its verdict in November 2009 Seoul Western District Court (ko) ruled that "the plaintiff's right to bodily integrity was violated and she suffered psychological pain as a result of the sexual violence of defendant... The defendant is obligated to compensated plaintiff for her pain." and that Jung should pay 50,000,000 in compensation.[53][54]

Outside of Korea

Australia

Providence began operating in Australia during 1997. Members of Providence have reported to been actively recruiting for new members at the Australian National University. On April 9, 2014, the Australian government-funded television network Special Broadcasting Service reported on their activities in Australia, including statements by former members that they sought young attractive women. Providence refused numerous requests for a spokesperson to be interviewed for the program in Australia and Korea. The organization's Chief of External Affairs denied in writing to answer specific questions about the sect's Australian activities; however, he did disclose that it had charitable status for tax purposes.[55][56][13]

Hong Kong

Providence has been reported about in Hong Kong, known as "月明教會" (The Bright Moon Church) there. In October 2006 a former member told Oriental Daily News that it has about 100 core members in Hong Kong, including many medical graduates and some assistant professors. Though it has been in Hong Kong for years, its slow development kept it fairly unknown until its media exposure. Providence temporarily created an organisation to run various community activities, known as the United Culture and Arts Network (UCAN).

Japan

Providence became active in Japan around 1987.[44] Most Japanese news reports about Providence have been about the sexual allegations. In 2006 the national newspaper Asahi Shimbun reported that Providence is "causing serious social problems in Japan", labeling it as a "cult" and "sect". It also reported that the organization was pressuring members to live together, make regular donations, marry within the organization, and follow the strict guidance of its founder.[19]

The group's church usually consisted of a single apartment room, where their religious studies occurred.[44] Sometimes the church was were where some of the faithful cohabitated. There were some 40 such churches across Japanese cities as of 2006.[57][58] Members while still a students were expected to contribute a minimum of 1,000 yen at the weekly services, and as wage-earners paid monthly tithes and bonus-time contributions.[59] Believers were instructed to live frugally on cheap food and never indulge in alcohol.[59] They were forbidden from dating, but at a suitable time married within the group in mass ceremonies.[19][58]

Police raided eight Providence facilities in Chiba, Japan on suspicion a senior member illegally obtained residence status. They also searched a facility in the city's Chuo Ward.[60] The senior member, a Korean, was arrested for overstaying her visa. It was learned that Providence recruited "high class, high income" men and selected women for "style and looks".[61]

Taiwan

Providence's earliest activity in Taiwan was in 1988.[62] It is commonly known as Jesus Morning Star church (JMS), Chinese: 晨星會; Hanyu Pinyin: Chéngxīng huì; Tongyong Pinyin: chéeng sīn hùei; literally: "Jesus Morning Star church"), "攝理教" or "攝禮教" (shè lǐ jìao). Providence itself rejects these common names, officially registered as "中華基督教新時代青年會" (China Christian Youth Association, CCYA), and sometimes calls itself "攝理教會", and Providence Church.[63]

In November 2001 the Taiwanese version of Next Magazine published the article "Korean cult leader raped over one hundred Taiwanese female college students". Allegedly involved National Taiwan University, Fu Jen Catholic University, and National Chengchi University all denied the report, stated that there were no cult activities in their campuses at the time. NCCU acknowledged that there had been such activities many years ago. There had been similar reports in 1997.[64][65] Members of EXODUS soon came to Taiwan and held a press conference with an involved woman.[66]

In October 2005 Apple Daily reported that many student clubs in National Central University and other campuses are recruiting for Providence Church. These clubs hold a wide variety of activities including the "Eagle Cup" soccer tournament in Taipei city and regular model training. The paper quoted an undisclosed former church member, that the church's "modeling department" is in fact a channel of recruiting sexual partners for Jung. The paper obtained three audio recordings of dialogs of some female members, which say that Jung have had sex with ten female members by mutual consent, most of them college students from the modeling department.[67]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Reporter Song Ju-youl's in one story quotes a JMS defector A revealing there are about 500,[35] while another quotes an alleged victim who estimates over 1,000.[2]
  2. ^ Kim Jin-ho (김진호), former director of the cult and now representative of the group No JMS (JMS 피해대책협의회), "JMS는 현재 여성지도자 10여 명이 상록수를 관리하고 있다"

References

  1. ^ Cubby, Ben (March 10, 2007). "Claims sect using social groups to recruit members". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved October 28, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Song, Ju-youl (March 28, 2012). "JMS 정명석, 탈퇴자에 대한 테러 지시" [Jung Myung-Seok orders terror on JMS defectors]. CBS (Korea) Newsroom (in Korean). No Cut News. ; English translation by Nathan Schwartzman (April 2, 2012)
  3. ^ 監禁、傷害での立件視野]. "世界基督教統一神霊協会(統一教会)を脱会した韓国人の鄭明析教祖が1980年ごろに設立した宗教集団 [Foreseeable indictment on confinement and bodily harm]. Chunichi Shinbun (in Japanese). February 17, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Alleged South Korean Rape Cult Leader Arrested in China". Fox News Channel. May 16, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  5. ^ a b "South Korean religious sect leader jailed for rape". Reuters. August 12, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Cult head jailed for sex crimes". The Straits Times (Singapore). Agence France-Presse. February 10, 2009. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Ser, Myo-ja (February 11, 2009). "Cult head gets harsh new sentence". Korea JoongAng Daily (JoongAng Ilbo). Retrieved August 23, 2015. The Seoul High Court ruled yesterday that Jung is guilty of a total four counts of rape, overturning one acquittal and handing down a heavier punishment. 
  8. ^ a b c Schreiber, Mark (October 27, 2002). "'Love' cult snares students". Japan Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2003. Retrieved April 7, 2015. The church's doctrine is composed of the so-called '30 precepts,' although it's pretty clear that they're derived from the Unification Church," explains Toyoshige Aizawa, a Christian minister engaged in weaning young people away from cults. "Jong has twisted the biblical story of Adam and Eve to deal with sex, saying, 'To atone for Adam and Eve's original sin, which was visited upon all mankind, it's necessary to engage in intercourse with the Lord.' In this case, he means himself, since he claims to be a reincarnation of Jesus. 
  9. ^ a b Cheung Chi-fai (July 31, 2003). "Wanted cult leader may be repatriated to South Korea". South China Morning Post. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Mr Jung founded the so-called Ae-Chun Church in 1980 and it became affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Christian body and he changed its name to the International Christian Association. Mr Jung also wrote the '30 lessons', which criticise Christian teachings and beliefs and end with his adopting the role of Jesus Christ at the second coming. 
  10. ^ 총, 신대 (July 4, 2014). "정명석에 대한 신학적 비판" [Theological critique of Jeongmyeongseok]. Cult Research Commitee (in Korean) (Christian Portal News). Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  11. ^ Tahk, Myeong Hwan [탁명환, 卓明煥] (1986). 기독교 이단 연구 [Study on Christian cults]. 국제 종교 문제 연구소. 
  12. ^ Sakurai, Yoshihide (March 2007a), カルト問題と格差社会との関連 [The context of social disparity and the cult problem], 宗教と現代がわかる本 [Religion in the Modern World] (in Japanese): 140–143, 人間の始祖、アダムとイブは堕天使ルシファーにより誘惑され、成長以前に不義の性交を行い(元摂理信者のノートによれば、禁断の木の実を食べたイブは当時 14 歳であった!)(The first humans, Adam and Eve engaged in underage intercourse -- according to Providence believers, Eve was 14 when she partake of the forbidden fruit!) 
  13. ^ a b Tozer, Joel (April 9, 2014). "Extracts of Correspondence With Providence Representative in South Korea". Scribd.com. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c Sakurai (2007a), p. 140 (p. 1/5).
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "South Korean fugitive cult leader Jung extradited back to Seoul". Associated Press Television News. February 20, 2008. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved February 29, 2008. 
  16. ^ Sakurai, Yoshihide (December 2007c), キャンパス内のカルト問題 : 学生はなぜ「摂理」に入るのか? [Cult Problems on Campus : Why were students involved in the "Setsuri" (Providence) cult group?], Journal of Higher Education and Lifelong Learning (in Japanese and with English abstract) (Center for Research and Development in Higher Education, Hokkaido University) 15: 1–14 
  17. ^ a b Sin, Dong-myeong (신동명) (April 6, 2012). "테러·성폭행 ... 독버섯처럼 자라고 있다" :'JMS' 탈퇴 지도자들, 실체폭로 기자회견 ['Terrorism, Rape, growing like poison mushrooms': JMS defected leader(s) hold press conference revealing actual goings-on]. The Christian Times (ko:기독교타임즈). 
  18. ^ a b Jeong, Jae-won (April 4, 2012). "'나체 동영상' 파문으로 다시 주목받는 JMS" [JMS: 'Naked' video again in the spotlight] (in Korean). NewsNJoy ([[ko:뉴스앤조이|]]). Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. (registration required (help)). 논란이 된 동영상에 대해서는 "5년 이상 지난 과거의 영상이며, 성상납의 증거가 될 수 없다"고 반박했다 ([The JMS members-distributed pamphlet] retorted that regarding the controversial videos "were footages from at least 5 years ago, and cannot be evidence for sex bribery). 
  19. ^ a b c "Another problem cult" [教団のワナにはまるな]. Asahi Shimbun (in English and original Japanese). August 18, 2006. Archived from the original on January 1, 1900. Retrieved December 18, 2013. The gimmicks the sect uses to increase its membership are nothing new. At university campuses, the sect's recruiters first approach students under the guise of a sports or cultural circle. After building close personal relationships with these students, the members reveal the religious nature of their group and start indoctrinating them. The favorite targets are serious-minded young people who feel alienated from their families and schools and wish to change their lives. 
  20. ^ "Alleged Cult Sows Seeds Via Campus Event |". The Guardian, University of California, San Diego, USA. November 13, 2006. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Members of a controversial religious group, led by an international fugitive wanted for numerous instances of alleged rape and sexual assault of female members, recently held an event at UCSD, which included a modeling show featuring young women, singing and videotaped religious messages from the group's founder – hallmarks of the group's tactics to recruit new members. The group, known as the Global Association of Culture and Peace, was established by 61-year-old South Korean national Jung Myung Seok, who also goes by the name Joshua Jung. The group, widely regarded by international press as a cult, also goes by several other names, including JMS, Providence, Setsuri and the Bright Smile Movement. 
  21. ^ "Cult aimed at elite in 50 universities". Asahi Shimbun. July 31, 2006. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2014. Ex-members say recruiting on campus started on Jung's orders in the mid-1990s. "It's a fraudulent activity, as they conceal the group's identity in luring members," a lawyer said. An ex-member in his 30s said he and other cultists were deprived of sleep--forced to work late into the night and then wake up early to listen to Jung's videotaped preaching. 
  22. ^ 이대복 (2000). 이단종합연구 [Comprehensive Heresy Studies] (in Korean). 기독교이단문제연구소. p. 647. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  23. ^ 심창섭 (1997). 기독교의이단들 [Christian Heresies] (in Korean). 대한예수교장로회총회. p. 274. ISBN 978-89-88327-28-9. 
  24. ^ Luca, Nathalie (March 2002). "After the Moon sect: South Korea and indoctrination through the sacred game of football". CNRS. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  25. ^ Luca, Nathalie (January 1, 1997). Le salut par le foot: une ethnologue chez un messie coréen (in French). Labor et Fides. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-2-8309-0787-2. On y apprend que JMS est un ancien adepte de la "secte Moon". 
  26. ^ Sakurai, Yoshihide (May 18, 2007b), 日本のカルト問題 : 「摂理」を事例に [Japan's cult problem: a case study of 'Providence'], 日本近代学会大会 [Japan Modern Society], 1975-77年の間に統一教(統一教会)に関わった。そのために、摂理の教義は統一教会の教義とかなり似通ったものになっている。(From 1975 to 1978 he was involved with the Unification Church. For this reason, Providence's teachings resemble the Unification Church quite closely.) 
  27. ^ Information Network on Christian Heresy. ///현대종교/// (in Korean). Retrieved November 4, 2013. 정명석은 1975년도에 측근 신도들에게 통일교 창시자 문선명의 사명은 끝났고 1978년부터 자신의 사명이 시작됐다고 공언하기도 했다. 
  28. ^ "South Korean cult merges sex with prayer". Kyodo News Service, Japan. July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2015. Jung honed his sagely credentials as an acolyte of South Korea's Unification Church ... Its Bible-based teaching is similar to that of the Unification Church but departs from it 
  29. ^ 현대종교 발행인 (April 27, 2002). 신흥종교 2002 실태조사연구집  자칭 한국의 재림주들. 국제종교문제연구소장. 
  30. ^ a b 신, 호철 (April 23, 2006). "정명석, ‘황제 도피’ 즐긴다" [Jung Myung-Suk enjoys being a runaway emperor?]. 시사저널 (Sisa Journal) (in Korean) (Sisa Press). Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  31. ^ 김, 대원 (June 4, 2007). "SBS "정명석, 중국에서도 성폭행 혐의"" [SBS "Jeongmyeongseok, sexual assault allegations in China."]. Christian Today (in Korean). Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  32. ^ ""JMS 정명석 성폭행 계속...정부 뭐하나" 울분" [JMS Jung Myong Suk molestations continue ... where are the officials in all this?] (in Korean). CNB News. April 18, 2006. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 이 날 기자회견장에는 피해자들 뿐 만 아니라 JMS 교도였다가 현재는 JMS를 탈퇴한 교도 등이 모여 만든 단체인 엑소더스에서 활동하고 있는 김도형씨가 이들과 함께했다. 김도형씨는 격앙된 목소리로 "우리들은 현재 목숨을 건 싸움을 하고 있다"며 "(JMS의) 조직적 성범죄가 근절될 수 있도록 해달라"고 호소했다. (Not only were the former JMS members-turned victims present at the press conference, but together with them was a representative of the JMS Exodus, Kim Do-Hyung. In an exasperated voice, Kim Do-Hyung exclaimed, "We are fighting for our lives right now...please put a stop to their (JMS) organized sex crimes....") 
  33. ^ ""JMS 정명석 성폭행 계속...정부 뭐하나" 울분" [Jung Myung Seok assaults continuing; outrage over government inaction] (in Korean). CNB News. April 18, 2006. Retrieved January 20, 2007. 피해자들은 이 날 오후 4시 안국동 느키나무까페에서 'JMS 비리 폭로 및 수사 촉구를 위한 기자회견'을 열고 최근 언론을 통해 알려진 정명석의 성폭행 당시 상황 등을 낱낱이 공개했다. (Victims held a press conference at 4 pm today in the Nukinamu Cafe in Anguk Dong demanding the exposure and investigation into the JMS corruption case and more fully clarifying events surrounding the Jung Myung Seok sexual assaults that had recently been reported in the media.) 
  34. ^ “기독교복음선교회(JMS)와 정명석 총재, 가려진 10년의 진실 (The Truth Behind JMS and Jung Myeong Seok)" NewsDaily. 2010-10-12.
  35. ^ a b c Song, Ju-youl (송주열) (March 25, 2012). "JMS, 탈퇴자 테러 지시...성상납 돕는 조직 '상록수' 실체 드러나" [JMS ordered terror on its defectors.. the evergreen organization that helps sex bribery. Real circumstances revealed]. JoongAng Ilbo.  (from CBS NoCut News)
  36. ^ Song, Ju-youl (March 28, 2012). "JMS 정명석, 탈퇴자에 대한 테러 지시" [JMS's Jung Myung Seok ordered terror on defectors]. Newspower. 
  37. ^ "2,000 Japanese join cult led by suspected sex offender on the run from Interpol". Asahi Shimbun. July 29, 2006. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2015. He stayed at his aides' homes in Osaka and Chiba prefectures, where he summoned up to 10 female followers almost every day and indecently assaulted them under the pretext of 'health checks,' they said. Some Japanese female followers were instructed to go overseas for a rendezvous with Jung, they said. The aides told them to never mention the meetings with Jung, warning they would go to hell if they revealed the secret. 
  38. ^ "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. July 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008. Jung Myoung Seok has been wanted on the charge of rape since 30 June 2001. 
  39. ^ Sakurai, Yoshihide (October 2006). "「摂理」は大学のキャンパスにいる カルトの被害をどう食い止めるか". 中央公論 121 (10): 142–149. 2002 年ソウル地方法院では、SBS 放送禁止仮処分訴訟において、1993-4 年にかけて鄭との集団性交渉はなかったと証言した証人を偽証罪により懲役 1 年に課した。 (In 2002, the Seoul District Court, in the matter of the SBS broadcast ban injunction, ruled that a witness who had testified that there was no mass sexual relations from 1993-4 had committed perjury, and sentenced him to 1 year in prison.) 
  40. ^ “기독교복음선교회(JMS)와 정명석 총재, 가려진 10년의 진실 (The Truth Behind JMS and Jung Myeong Seok)" NewsDaily. 2010-10-12.
  41. ^ a b "Founder of cult captured in China after eight years". Korea JoongAng Daily. May 17, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  42. ^ "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. September 21, 2003. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2006. Seoul Interpol requested the suspect's deportation to Hongkong Interpol on 1 July 2003. The suspect was arrested for illegal stay in Hongkong, China by Hongkong Immigration Department on 9 July 2003 but released on bail after 3 days. Hongkong Immigration Department approved the exit order for Korea against Myung Sok JUNG. However, the suspect disappeared since he appealed dissatisfaction to Immigration Department on 1 August 2003. Hongkong police cancelled the bail against the suspect and are searching for him after registering the suspect on watching lists. 
  43. ^ "Accused rapist cult leader faces extradition to Korea". January 2, 2008. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  44. ^ a b c "Lawyers eye cult rape accusations". Japan Times. July 31, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2015. South Korean authorities have put Jung, 61, on an international wanted list on rape charges. Watanabe said the head of Setsuri persuaded Japanese women to join the cult, introduced them to Jung and took them to Jung’s hideout. Jung allegedly raped the women, Watanabe said, while they were under mind control. 
  45. ^ "S. Korean sect leader facing rape charges". United Press International. February 23, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  46. ^ "Religious sect leader formally arrested on rape charges". Yonhap. February 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  47. ^ "JMS 정명석씨, 신도 성폭행 6천만원 위자료 확정" [Court upholds compensation for JMS's raped followers in the amount of 60 million won] (in Korean). Donganuri News. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2008. JMS 정명석 총재에게 성추행ㆍ성폭행 당한 여성신도 2명이 위자료를 받게 됐다. (Two female followers received compensation for sexual assault and rape by Leader Jung Myung Soek.) 
  48. ^ "Cult Followers Break into Dong-A Ilbo Office". The Dong-a Ilbo. January 15, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Members of the religious cult JMS broke into the editorial office of the Dong-A Ilbo Monday morning. They smashed the glass entrance on the 13th floor to enter the daily's office, demanding the removal of articles on the cult's founder Jeong Myeong-seok. Jeong is reportedly hiding in China after being accused by former women followers of committing sexual assault and rape. 
  49. ^ "언론계에 'JMS 공포'" [JMS terror in the world of media]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). January 17, 2008. 17일 언론계에 따르면 JMS 신도 40여명은 지난 14일 서울 광화문 동아일보 사옥 13층 편집국에 난입, "정명석 총재 관련 기사를 내리라"고 강요하며 장시간 난동을 부렸다. (The press reported on the 17th that on the 14th, 40 followers of JMS forced their way into the editorial department on the 13th floor of the Dong-a Ilbo Building in Gwanghwamun Seoul, demanded the paper recall articles about Jung Myung-seok, and created a general disturbance for several hours.) 
  50. ^ "검찰, 본사난입 JMS 신도 7명 기소 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). July 24, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  51. ^ "JMS 정명석 징역 10년 확정" [Jung Myung-Seok's 10-year prison sentence upheld] (in Korean). Yonhap. April 23, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 여신도들을 성폭행한 혐의(강간) 등으로 구속기소된 국제크리스천연합(JMS) 총재 정명석(64)씨에게 징역 10년을 선고한 원심을 확정했다. 
  52. ^ "Court Upholds 10-Yr Sentence on Cult Leader". The Korea Times. April 23, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2014. The Supreme Court upheld a 10-year-imprisonment sentence on Jung Myung-suk, the leader of the JMS (Jesus Morning Star) religious cult Thursday for the rape and sexual assault of five Korean female followers. Jung was indicted for sexually assaulting the victims between 2003 and 2006 in Hong Kong, Malaysia and China. A lower court convicted him on three counts sentencing him to a six-year-prison term, but a high court extended this to 10 years convicting him on all five counts. 
  53. ^ "한국일보 : 법원, JMS 정명석 5천만원 배상 판결" [South Korean cult leader hit by new judgment]. Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). November 16, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  54. ^ "South Korean cult leader hit by new judgment". Asian Correspondent. November 18, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  55. ^ ""성폭행범이 이끄는 한국의 밀교" - 기독교포털뉴스". Kportalnews.co.kr. April 10, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  56. ^ Tozer, Joel (April 9, 2014). "Inside Providence: The secretive Korean church led by a convicted rapist". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  57. ^ Sakurai 2007b, p. 4
  58. ^ a b "韓国カルト、日本で2千人 若者勧誘、教祖が性的暴行". Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 
  59. ^ a b "「摂理」献金年間1億円超、教祖の逃亡資金にも". Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). July 31, 2006. Archived from the original on July 31, 2006. Retrieved May 8, 2014. 
  60. ^ "Setsuri cult facilities raided over immigration suspicions". Japan Times. January 20, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2013. 
  61. ^ "カルトSEX教団に強制捜査...教祖にせっせと女性貢ぐ" (in Japanese). January 19, 2007. Archived from the original on February 26, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 
  62. ^ 總會長的點點滴滴--海外宣教. 總會長的點點滴滴 (in Chinese). 中華基督教新時代青年會CCYA(攝理教會). Archived from the original on March 28, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2006. 台灣的宣教活動自從1988年開始 
  63. ^ 立案證書 (in Chinese). 中華基督教新時代青年會CCYA(攝理教會). 
  64. ^ 李美嬅, 陳洛薇 (November 9, 2001). 宗教染指 上百女生受害?某周刊指韓國攝理教會教主涉嫌引誘非禮 遭點名臺大、政大、輔大否認 (in Chinese). Central Daily News. p. 8. 
  65. ^ "S Korean religious figure faces sexual assault accusations". Taipei Times. November 12, 2001. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Chung [sic] Myung-seok (鄭明析), founder of the South Korean Jesus Morning Star Church (南韓攝理教會), is suspected of sexually assaulting his female followers. A Chinese-language magazine said Chung had sexually assaulted the women, many of them students from National Taiwan and National Chengchi universities, telling them it was part of a religious ceremony. The accusation prompted the police to investigate. 
  66. ^ 陳志東 (December 10, 2001). 攝理教韓受害女性控訴教主 記者會火爆口角衝突 (in Chinese). ETtoday.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  67. ^ 黃白雪 (October 13, 2005). "踢爆邪教魔爪校園再現" (in zh-tw). Apple Daily (Taiwan). 

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