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Providence (religious movement)

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Christian Gospel Mission
Providence (religious movement) (aka Christian Gospel Mission) logo.jpg
Abbreviation CGM
Classification Christian new religious movement
Head Pastor Jung Myung-seok
Headquarters Wol Myeong-dong (ko)
Founder Jung Myung-seok
Origin 1980
Seoul, South Korea
Separated from Unification Church
Other name(s)
  • Setsuri
  • Bright Moon Church
  • Morning Star Church
  • Jesus Morning Star (JMS)
Official website
Christian Gospel Mission
Hangul 기독교복음선교회
Hanja 基督敎福音宣敎會
Revised Romanization gidokgyobogeumseongyohoe
McCune–Reischauer kidokkyobogŭmsŏn’gyohoe
Jung Myung-seok
Jung Myung-seok, founder of Providence
Hanja 鄭明析
Revised Romanization Jeong Myeong-seok
McCune–Reischauer Chŏng Myŏng-sŏk

Providence (Officially: Christian Gospel Mission) is a Christian religious movement founded by Jung Myung-seok in 1978. It is a schismatic group from the Unification Church, and was formerly associated with Methodism.

In April 2009, the Supreme Court of South Korea sentenced Jung to 10 years imprisonment. However, several investigative reporters have begun to call into question the rulings against Jung based on evidence that emerged throughout his processing and in the aftermath of the trial.

Other names for the organization are: Jesus Morning Star (JMS), Setsuri ("Providence" in Japanese), International Christian Association (ICA), the Morning Star Church (MS Church), the Bright Moon Church, and Ae-chun Church (애천교회).


Jung Myung-seok was born in Wol Myeong-dong (ko) in Geumsan County, South Chungcheong on February 17, 1945.[1][2] He is also known by the names of Joshua Jung, Joshua Lee and Pastor Joshua.(선생님).[3] In the 1970s he was a member of the Unification Church, whose teachings have been alleged to resemble Jung's "quite closely".[4][5][6] In 1980, Jung founded the Ae-chun Church (애천교회), which was affiliated with the Methodist Church.[7][8] The church was expelled from the Methodists and he changed its name to the International Christian Association (국제크리스천연합) in the mid 1980s. In October 1999 the organization changed its name to Christian Gospel Mission (기독교복음선교회).[7][9]

Controversies in the media

In March 1999, the Seoul Broadcasting System aired stories about sexual assault allegations within Providence in its TV news magazine, The Unanswered (ko).

However, in a subsequent court case, SBS was found to have aired a falsified video of Jung and the Christian Gospel Mission. Specifically, SBS altered the audio and added additional subtitles to one of Jung’s sermons from 1995.

The program aired by the Seoul Broadcasting System, which sparked the controversy against the group, was later found in a court of law to have been doctored and photo-shopped. Specifically, SBS altered the audio and added additional subtitles to one of Jung’s sermons from 1995. The original sermon said that the tithe of life was to evangelize “one part in ten”; the version broadcast by SBS said “one woman.” Additionally, videos of Jung with males and females side by side were doctored to show only females with Jung. The Christian Gospel Mission sued SBS for this, won the lawsuit, and received 900 million won in compensation($900,000 USD).[10]

The court also gave the following orders: SBS must not broadcast material provided by the involved informant (Kim OO); SBS must inform the Christian Gospel Mission 48 hours before broadcasting any material related to their organization; SBS must guarantee 5% of the broadcasting time to the Christian Gospel Mission so that their rebuttal will also be aired. If these orders are violated, SBS must pay damages in the amount of 30 million won(30,000 US dollars) for each violation. SBS later issued an official letter of apology to the CGM.[11]

The day after the broadcasts, Jung left Korea.[12][13]

In April 2006, a press conference was held by the anti-Providence group EXODUS in which four unidentified women wearing bucket hats and surgical masks covering their faces, accused Jung of organized sex crimes against themselves and other women, who required medical treatment.[14] The press conference was orchestrated by Kim Do Hun, the founder of EXODUS, an anti-CGM group. Prior to the conference, Do Hun had secretly demanded settlement money from Jung and the CGM in the amount of ₩2,000,000,000 (US$2,000,000), without the knowledge or consent of the four accuser plaintiffs. [15][16][17]

Prior to the conference, Do Hun had sent letters of apology to Jung on 3 separate occasions (November 15, 1999, March 17, 2005, and July 21,2005). The letters contained Do Hun’s photograph and seal. In one of the letters, he stated, “I deeply regret stabbing you in the back, slandering you and spreading controversies against you, and thus causing you deep pain. I apologize again for the last six years. The members of EXODUS and I have misunderstood you and so we have slandered and insulted you…”[18][19][20]

Jung denied the charges, his followers said.[21] In 2008, in response to the rape allegations, Providence pastor Bae Jae-yong said that it was a "distorted rumor that was created by the people who have slandered [Jung]" and that "all fundamental truth will be clarified by [Jung] at the prosecutor's office".[22]

In 2015, the Yonhap Television Network (YTN), a 24 hour news network based in South Korea, officially retracted information it had broadcast about Jung Myeong Seok and the Christian Gospel Mission between May and July of 2014. The news station had originally claimed that Jung had 'stowed away' and that 'he accepted sexual favors as bribes from female members'. YTN later verified the facts and published a correction statement stating that its earlier reporting was not factual. The correction statement stated that the sexual assault charges were dismissed by the prosecutors involved, and that his travel outside of Korea was lawful. YTN's corrections also stated that the sexual bribe charges were dropped by prosecutors.[23]

Civil and Criminal Court Proceedings

Jung was not officially charged until 2001.[24] At the end of the trial in 2002, a male witness who had testified that there was no sexual exploitation from 1993-4 was found guilty of perjury, and received a 1-year prison sentence.

In 2002, the Seoul District Court in South Korea found SBS guilty of airing a falsified video of Jung and the CGM. An injunction was issued against the network, which prevented it from airing the broadcast in question again.[25]

In 2001, Jung was investigated by Taiwanese authorities on charges of sexual assault, but he left the country.[26] Jung, having been wanted by Interpol since 2002,[27] was arrested in Hong Kong in July 2003 for overstaying his visa, but was released three days later on a HK$10,000,000 (US$1,3 million as of July 2003) bail. When Hong Kong authorities approved extradition to Korea, Jung fled the extradition hearing.[28][29][30][31] An Interpol Red Notice was issued on Jung in 2004.[32] In 2006, South Korean authorities put Jung on an international wanted list on rape charges,[33] and after learning that Jung had fled to China, the South Korean government officially asked China in November 2006 to extradite him.[26]

A South Korean woman and a Japanese woman filed a criminal suit in 2003 against Jung for sexual assault.[34] In January 2008, the Supreme Court of South Korea awarded the two females 50,000,000 (US$52000 as of January 2008) and ₩10,000,000 (US$10400) in damages for rape. The court said Jung forced the followers to have sex with him, saying that it is a religious behavior meant to save their souls.[35][36] Providence followers started riots outside of newspapers that reported the court's verdict, broke into the Seoul office of the leading newspaper The Dong-a Ilbo trashing office furniture, and demanded the removal of articles critical of Jung.[37][38][39]

After about 8 years on the run,[40] Chinese Ministry of Public Security announced that Jung had been arrested in Beijing by Chinese police on May 1, 2007.[29][41][42] Liaoning Provincial Higher People's Court (zh) ruled in September 2007 to extradite Jung, a decision upheld by the Supreme People's Court.[43][44] He was extradited back to South Korea to stand charges on February 20, 2008.[22][45]

In the criminal case heard by the Seoul Central District Court (ko), former members told the court that Jung was provided with female members of his sect as "gifts", and he would then have sex them on a religious pretext.[46]

In the course of the trial, evidence adduced to the Central District Court included medical documents issued by a Chinese hospital which indicated that the victims, who were allegedly sexually assaulted, presented no physical signs of having been sexually assaulted. The Korean Police Hospital also reported that there were no signs of sexual assault on the women’s bodies.[47]

In August 2008, Jung was convicted of sexual assault against female followers and sentenced by the Seoul Central District court to six years imprisonment.[48][49][50] On February 10, 2009, the Seoul High Court (ko) added four years to the district court's sentence of six years, overturning one of the lower court's acquittals and finding Jung guilty on a total of four counts of rape.[51][52] Jung appealed his 10 years imprisonment sentence to the Supreme Court of South Korea, but the sentence was upheld in April 2009.[53][54]

In 2010, concerns regarding the fairness and conduct of the trial were raised in an independent Korean magazine (Min Jeong), which was commonly distributed to government offices throughout South Korea.[55]

One of the sexually assaulted women subsequently filed a civil lawsuit against Jung. In its verdict in November 2009 Seoul Western District Court (ko) ruled that "the plaintiff's right to bodily integrity was violated and she suffered psychological pain as a result of the sexual violence of defendant... The defendant is obligated to compensated plaintiff for her pain." and that Jung should pay ₩50,000,000 in compensation.[56][57]

Controversies about the trial

Following his trial, several investigative reporters have called into question the proceedings against Jung Myeong Seok, citing the following:

1. During Jung's trial, one of the four original accusers, last name Jang, officially withdrew her lawsuit, stating on record that not committed a single act of sexual abuse, but that he was innocent. The court warned that recanting her testimony at that stage would mean she had committed perjury. Ms. Jang later appeared in court with her mother, said she did not care if she was punished, but maintained that no sexual abuse occurred and Jung was innocent. Additionally, she stated that plaintiff D--who filed together with her in a joint lawsuit—had also fabricated her allegations at the instruction of the original informer (Kim Do-hun of the anti-JMS group EXODUS). Jang was later convicted of perjury.[58]

2. During Jung's trial the Korean Police Hospital released the following report on the plaintiffs: “The results from the first medical examination showed that the victims’ hymens were completely intact. They presented no medically identifiable signs of having been sexually assaulted.” (This came following reports from a separate hospital in China, which also stated that none of the accusers displayed signs of having been sexually abused).

3. While the actual trial of Jung involved a total of four plaintiffs, reporters criticize the media for “scrambling” to publish reports of former Providence members. Prior to the trial, a number of former members came forward citing mass sexual crimes, and these allegations were published and disseminated without thorough fact checking. As time progressed, all charges of sexual abuse against Jung were dropped, except for the four plaintiffs who brought formal charges against him.[59]

Criticisms of the Verdict

Given these controversies, several reporters have criticized the ultimate verdict in Jung's trial, in that Jung was convicted despite an absence of physical evidence and despite the fact that one of the four plaintiffs withdrew her lawsuit, stating that all allegations of sexual abuse against Jung were untrue and that her accusations had been incited by Kim Do Hun.

Many also used this as case-in-point to highlight the weaknesses of the legal system in South Korea, in which district cases are decided by a single judge with no jury.

Chung Jik Ei, an investigative reporter who has been following the CGM case since 1999, said: “...the court should reflect to see if the verdict of the presiding judges was clouded by their lack of understanding of religion and a public opinion that was forcibly manipulated… it should examine the injustice done to [Jung].” .[60]

Secular organisations

In 1999, Jung founded the Global Association of Culture and Peace (the GACP), which is an organization for global cultural exchanges. The GACP is premised on the teachings of Jesus Christ; with the purpose of forming a global community based on the spirit of tolerance, peace and neighborly love, which transcends the boundaries of nations, ethnicity, language and culture. The organization runs sporting events and art events for the purpose of implementing that objective. [61]

Another organization is the Bright Smile Movement, which campaigned during the 2002 Soccer World Cup in Korea to show to foreigners that Korea is a nation of happy people.[62]

In August 2012, a group of Japanese medical professionals from the Christian Gospel Mission held a national seminar, sponsored by the International Medical Corps, held in Seoul and Busan for prospective medical students and future health care providers. The issues discussed at the seminar included the motivations for pursuing a medical career; the value of caring for people balanced against the motivation for wealth and fame. The doctors from the Christian Gospel Mission promoted the view that medical professionals need to have the mindset of love for lives.[63]

Sports, particularly soccer, is one activity run by Providence or its affiliated organizations for evangelism purposes.[64] Later in 2005, Taipei officials were embarrassed by the revelation that the Eagle Soccer Club had ties with Providence, and stated that the municipal government Sports Department would no longer be able to cooperate if the alleged ties turned out to be true.[65]

A Japanese Supreme Court ruled that the operation of secular organizations was 'fraudulent' under Japanese law.[66][67]


Providence's core teaching are found in a series of unpublished precepts called the 30 Lessons, which bear considerable resemblance to the "Divine Principle" of the Unification Church.[5][68][69] According to one researcher, nine of the 30 lessons exhibit a "considerable level of resemblance" with the Divine Principle.[70][71] The Lessons are based on a Biblical interpretation that points to the sect's leader being identified with the Second Coming of Christ.[a][7][73][74]

One lesson implies that those who do not "meet" him will not go to Heaven; another that any who betray him are committing a grave crime.[75] During the instruction of the advanced level[a] of the 30 Lessons, Jung is taught to be the Messiah, proven through the interpretation of prophesied dates and times in the book of Daniel.[76] Although, more recent statements from a representative seems to contradict this claim.[77]

Providence preaches about the advent of the "Completed Testament time period". Providence also explains that the relationship between God and man is one of love; a love that can be likened to a groom and bride, or two lovers.[78]

Outside of Korea

Christian Gospel Mission is proselytizing under different names in different regions. Providence or Providence Church in Europe and the US, Setsuri (摂理, Japanese for "providence") in Japan, the Bright Moon Church, the Morning Star Church, and Jesus Morning Star (JMS). Each church branch that follows Jung's teaching keeps its own name (e.g. Nak-seong-dae Church, Seoul Church, etc.).[74][79][80]


Providence began operating in Australia during 1997. Members of Providence have been reported to be actively recruiting for new members at the Australian National University. On April 9, 2014, the Australian TV newsshow The Feed (on the government-funded SBS network) reported Providence activities in Australia. Former members stated that the group sought out young attractive women for recruitment. Providence refused numerous requests for a spokesperson, either from Australia or Korea, to be interviewed for the program. The organization's Chief of External Affairs denied in writing to answer specific questions about the group's Australian activities.[77][81][82]

Hong Kong

Providence has been reported about in Hong Kong, known as The Bright Moon Church there (月明教會). In October 2006 a former member told Oriental Daily News that it has about 100 core members in Hong Kong, including many medical graduates and some assistant professors. Providence temporarily created an organisation to run various community activities, known as the United Culture and Arts Network (UCAN).[83][84]


Providence was introduced in Japan around 1987.[33] In 2006 the national newspaper Asahi Shimbun reported that Providence is "causing serious social problems in Japan", labeling it as a "cult" and "sect". It also reported that the organization was pressuring members to live together, make regular donations, marry within the organization, and follow the strict guidance of its founder.[85][86]

In Japan, there were 2,000 Providence members as of 2006, almost entirely students and graduates of prestigious colleges, and 60% women.[87]

The group's church usually consisted of a single apartment room, where their religious studies occurred. Sometimes the church was where some of the faithful cohabitated. There were some 40 such churches across Japanese cities as of 2006.[88][85] Members, even if still students, were expected to contribute a minimum of ¥1,000 at the weekly services, and as wage-earners paid monthly tithes and bonus-time contributions.[89] Believers were instructed to live frugally on cheap food and never indulge in alcohol.[89] They were forbidden from dating, but at a suitable time married within the group in mass ceremonies.[85][86] Although the Supreme Court of Japan in 1996 ruled mass weddings performed by the Unification Church were invalid, more than 300 Japanese members of Providence were wed in six mass ceremonies held between 1996 and 2006 modeled on the Unification Church. While being wanted on rape charges, Jung at a July 2003 mass wedding urged the couples via a big-screen Internet connection to have babies to increase the number of Providence members.[90][91]

Police raided eight Providence facilities in Chiba on suspicion a senior member illegally obtained residence status. They also searched a facility in the city's Chuo Ward.[92]


Providence's earliest activity in Taiwan was in 1988.[93] It is commonly known as Jesus Morning Star Church (JMS), (Chinese: 晨星會; Hanyu Pinyin: chéngxīng huì; Tongyong Pinyin: chéeng sīn hùei; literally: "Jesus Morning Star Church", 攝理教 or 攝禮教 (shè lǐ jìao)). Providence itself rejects these common names, officially registered as 中華基督教新時代青年會 (China Christian Youth Association, CCYA), and sometimes calls itself 攝理教會 (Providence Church).[94]

A prominent pastor of the Church denied allegations of sexual misconduct made against Jung. [95] Taiwanese authorities investigated Jung for raping women, but he had already left the country.[26][96] Members of EXODUS soon came to Taiwan and held a press conference with an involved woman.[97]

In October 2005 Apple Daily reported that many student clubs in National Central University and other campuses are recruiting for Providence Church. These clubs hold a wide variety of activities including the "Eagle Cup" soccer tournament in Taipei city and regular model training.[65]

See also


  1. ^ a b First 12 lessons are considered introductory and elementary levels, 13–20 intermediate, and 21–30 advanced.[72]


  1. ^ 이대복 (2000). 이단종합연구 [Comprehensive Heresy Studies] (in Korean). 기독교이단문제연구소. p. 647. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ 심창섭 (1997). 기독교의이단들 [Christian Heresies] (in Korean). 대한예수교장로회총회. p. 274. ISBN 978-89-88327-28-9. 
  3. ^ Miller, Mallory (April 8, 2014). "South Korean ‘cult’ JMS recruiting students at US universities". Cult News. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  4. ^ Luca, Nathalie (March 2002). "After the Moon sect: South Korea and indoctrination through the sacred game of football". CNRS. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  5. ^ a b Luca 1997, pp. 14–: "On y apprend que JMS est un ancien adepte de la ‘secte Moon’".
  6. ^ Sakurai 2007b: "1975-77年の間に統一教(統一教会)に関わった。そのために、摂理の教義は統一教会の教義とかなり似通ったものになっている。(From 1975 to 1978 he was involved with the Unification Church. For this reason, Providence's teachings resemble the Unification Church quite closely.)"
  7. ^ a b c Cheung Chi-fai (July 31, 2003). "Wanted cult leader may be repatriated to South Korea". South China Morning Post. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Mr Jung founded the so-called Ae-Chun Church in 1980 and it became affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Christian body and he changed its name to the International Christian Association. Mr Jung also wrote the '30 lessons', which criticise Christian teachings and beliefs and end with his adopting the role of Jesus Christ at the second coming. 
  8. ^ 監禁、傷害での立件視野. "世界基督教統一神霊協会(統一教会)を脱会した韓国人の鄭明析教祖が1980年ごろに設立した宗教集団 [Foreseeable indictment on confinement and bodily harm]. Chunichi Shinbun (in Japanese). February 17, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25. Retrieved April 6, 2015. [dead link]
  9. ^ Hyundae Jongyo (2007).
  10. ^ “기독교복음선교회(JMS)와 정명석 총재, 가려진 10년의 진실 (The Truth Behind JMS and Jung Myeong Seok)" NewsDaily. 2010-10-12. (당시 방송에서 나왔던 장면은 교단에서 촬영한 영상으로 95년 주일예배 '감사하는 생활'이라는 설교였다.그런데 방송에서 발췌한 부분의 원본내용은 "생명의 십일조 열의 하나를 전도하라"는 내용이었다.방송은 '열의 하나'라는 부분을 명확하게 들을 수 없게 처리하였고 자막에는 '여자하나'라고 표시하여 방영하였다. 두번째는 정 총재와 함께 있는 사람들이 모두 '여성(?)'이었던 장면이다.방영 장면은 예배와 행사때 였는데 실제 비디오를 검토해보면 남녀가 같이 있었던 장면이었음에도 불구하고 방송은 여자들만 나오는 장면만 편집을 하여 방영하였다....이후로도 계속되었던 S방송사의 편파적인 보도에 대해 법원은 결국 화해권고결정을 내렸고 주요 내용은 다음과 같다. 김○○씨 등의 일방적인 제보 자료를 방송에 쓰면 안된다. 방송 48시간 전에 해당 단체에 고지해야 한다.방송분의 5%를 보장하여 반론 보도를 할 수 있도록 해야한다.이를 어길 시에는 건당 3,000만원을 배상해야 된다.)
  11. ^ "Why is JMS (CGM's) President Jung Myeong Seok bearing the cross?".Minjung (Civil Affairs Magazine). 2010-02-15. Publisher: Asiamade (SBS의 이와 같은 편파적인 보도에 대해 법원은 결국 화해권고결정을 내렸다. 주 내용으로는 '김 OO씨 등의 일방적인 제보 자료를 방송에 써서는 안 되며 방송 48시간 전 고지할 것과 방송분의 5%를 보장하여 반론 보도를 할 수 있도록 하라는 것이었다. 또한 이를 어길 시에는 건당 3,000만원을 배상하라'는 결정이었다[In dealing with the misleading coverage by SBS, the Court decided that the matter should be resolved by way of settlement between the two parties. A court order was given regarding the terms of the settlement, which included the following:·SBS must not report on President Jung if it intends on using information directly provided by Kim OO in its reporting. ·SBS must give at least 48 hour notice to Christian Gospel Mission of the basic contents of what it plans to broadcast.·SBS must provide 5% of the broadcast time for the Christian Gospel Mission to respond to SBS’s reporting.·In the event that SBS violates any of the above terms, it must pay compensation for the damages caused to Christian Gospel Mission in the amount of 30 million won ($30,000 USD) per violation.])
  12. ^ "<韓国新興宗教>「摂理」信者国内に2千人 教祖を告訴も" [South Korean new religion Setsuri, members in Japan 2000, even lawsuits against leader]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 2006-08-08. Archived from the original on 2006-08-07. Retrieved 2014-05-08. 
  13. ^ "China extradites SKorea cult leader". Radio Australia. February 21, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  14. ^ Kim, Min-hui (김민희) (April 18, 2006). "'JMS 정명석 성폭행 계속...정부 뭐하나' 울분" [JMS's Jung Myung Seok assaults continuing; outrage over government inaction] (in Korean). CNB News. Retrieved September 14, 2015. 피해자들은 이 날 오후 4시 안국동 느키나무까페에서 'JMS 비리 폭로 및 수사 촉구를 위한 기자회견'을 열고 최근 언론을 통해 알려진 정명석의 성폭행 당시 상황 등을 낱낱이 공개했다. (Victims held a press conference at 4 pm today in the Nukinamu Cafe in Anguk Dong demanding the exposure and investigation into the JMS corruption case and more fully clarifying events surrounding the Jung Myung Seok sexual assaults that had recently been reported in the media.) 
  15. ^ Moon Il Seok, “Reconsideration Needed for the Case of Jung Myeong Seok.” Break News. 2010-2-15
  16. ^ Won Ki Chun “JMS President Jung Myeong Seok, is this a social or religious issue?” Monthly Politic and Economic. 2012-05-31
  17. ^ “기독교복음선교회(JMS)와 정명석 총재, 가려진 10년의 진실 (The Truth Behind JMS and Jung Myeong Seok)" NewsDaily. 2010-10-12.
  18. ^ Moon Il Seok, “Reconsideration Needed for the Case of Jung Myeong Seok.” Break News. 2010-2-15
  19. ^ Won Ki Chun “JMS President Jung Myeong Seok, is this a social or religious issue?” Monthly Politic and Economic. 2012-05-31
  20. ^ “기독교복음선교회(JMS)와 정명석 총재, 가려진 10년의 진실 (The Truth Behind JMS and Jung Myeong Seok)" NewsDaily. 2010-10-12.
  21. ^ "South Korean fugitive cult leader Jung extradited back to Seoul". Associated Press Television News. February 20, 2008. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved February 29, 2008. 
  22. ^ a b "South Korean religious sect leader extradited from China to face rape charges". International Herald Tribune, AP. February 20, 2008. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  23. ^ Oon, Young-Ja (김준호) (2015-03-16). "Corrections on the Reporting of President Jung Myeong Seok". 
  24. ^ "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. July 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008. Jung Myoung Seok has been wanted on the charge of rape since 30 June 2001. 
  25. ^ Sakurai (2006), p. 146: "2002 年ソウル地方法院では、SBS 放送禁止仮処分訴訟において、1993-4 年にかけて鄭との集団性交渉はなかったと証言した証人を偽証罪により懲役 1 年に課した。 (In 2002, the Seoul District Court, in the matter of the SBS broadcast ban injunction, ruled that a witness who had testified that there was no mass sexual relations from 1993-4 had committed perjury, and sentenced him to 1 year in prison.)"
  26. ^ a b c "Founder of cult captured in China after eight years". Korea JoongAng Daily. May 17, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  27. ^ Kang, Shin-who (May 13, 2007). "Suspect of Cult Founder Arrested in China". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on September 13, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  28. ^ 신, 호철 (April 23, 2006). "정명석, ‘황제 도피’ 즐긴다" [Jung Myung-Suk enjoys being a runaway emperor?]. 시사저널 (Sisa Journal) (in Korean) (Sisa Press). Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  29. ^ a b "Asian Cult Leader Arrested". The Australian. May 15, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2015. Jung, wanted by Korean police for rape, fraud and embezzlement, escaped South Korea in 1999 and was later placed on the Interpol wanted list. He next surfaced in Hong Kong in 2003, where he was charged with being an illegal immigrant, granted bail and fled again - apparently to China. He was caught by police in Anshan, in Liaoning, the Chinese province that borders North Korea. It is believed he has also, while on the run, lived in Italy and Taiwan. 
  30. ^ "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. September 21, 2003. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2006. Seoul Interpol requested the suspect's deportation to Hongkong Interpol on 1 July 2003. The suspect was arrested for illegal stay in Hongkong, China by Hongkong Immigration Department on 9 July 2003 but released on bail after 3 days. Hongkong Immigration Department approved the exit order for Korea against Myung Sok JUNG. However, the suspect disappeared since he appealed dissatisfaction to Immigration Department on 1 August 2003. Hongkong police cancelled the bail against the suspect and are searching for him after registering the suspect on watching lists. 
  31. ^ "Accused rapist cult leader faces extradition to Korea". January 2, 2008. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  32. ^ "Cult Leader Extradited to Korea". The Korea Times. February 21, 2008. Archived from the original on April 1, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. He'd been on Korean wanted lists since 1999 (and the Interpol Red Notice since 2004) after fleeing the country after charges of rape emerged. While overseas, he made constant headlines for allegedly raping female devotees in various countries. 
  33. ^ a b "Lawyers eye cult rape accusations". Japan Times. July 31, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2015. South Korean authorities have put Jung, 61, on an international wanted list on rape charges. Watanabe said the head of Setsuri persuaded Japanese women to join the cult, introduced them to Jung and took them to Jung’s hideout. Jung allegedly raped the women, Watanabe said, while they were under mind control. 
  34. ^ "S. Korean sect leader facing rape charges". United Press International. February 23, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  35. ^ "Religious sect leader formally arrested on rape charges". Yonhap. February 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  36. ^ "JMS 정명석씨, 신도 성폭행 6천만원 위자료 확정" [Court upholds compensation for JMS's raped followers in the amount of 60 million won] (in Korean). Donganuri News. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2008. JMS 정명석 총재에게 성추행ㆍ성폭행 당한 여성신도 2명이 위자료를 받게 됐다. (Two female followers received compensation for sexual assault and rape by Leader Jung Myung Soek.) 
  37. ^ "Cult Followers Break into Dong-A Ilbo Office". The Dong-a Ilbo. January 15, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Members of the religious cult JMS broke into the editorial office of the Dong-A Ilbo Monday morning. They smashed the glass entrance on the 13th floor to enter the daily's office, demanding the removal of articles on the cult's founder Jeong Myeong-seok. Jeong is reportedly hiding in China after being accused by former women followers of committing sexual assault and rape. 
  38. ^ "언론계에 'JMS 공포'" [JMS terror in the world of media]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). January 17, 2008. 17일 언론계에 따르면 JMS 신도 40여명은 지난 14일 서울 광화문 동아일보 사옥 13층 편집국에 난입, "정명석 총재 관련 기사를 내리라"고 강요하며 장시간 난동을 부렸다. (The press reported on the 17th that on the 14th, 40 followers of JMS forced their way into the editorial department on the 13th floor of the Dong-a Ilbo Building in Gwanghwamun Seoul, demanded the paper recall articles about Jung Myung-seok, and created a general disturbance for several hours.) 
  39. ^ "검찰, 본사난입 JMS 신도 7명 기소 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). July 24, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  40. ^ "China extradites chief of alleged S. Korean rapist cult". China Post (Taiwan). AFP, China Post. February 21, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  41. ^ "Alleged South Korean Rape Cult Leader Arrested in China". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. May 16, 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  42. ^ "Jeong Myeong-seok Arrested in China". The Dong-a Ilbo. May 17, 2007. Retrieved February 28, 2014. Hwang Chul-kyu, who is in charge of international crime cases in Ministry of Justice, announced on May 16 that, "Chinese police informed us that a man caught in Beijing on May 1 turned out to be Jeong Myeong-seok after comparing fingerprints." 
  43. ^ 등록 (February 22, 2008). "정명석 제이엠에스 총재 구속 : 종교 : 사회 : 뉴스 : 한겨레". Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  44. ^ "8년 도피 행각 JMS 정명석, 한국 인도 결정 :: 종교신문 1위 크리스천투데이 Christian Today". Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  45. ^ "韩国"淫乱教主"郑明析中国落网". Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  46. ^ Herskovitz, Jon (August 12, 2008). "South Korean religious sect leader jailed for rape". Reuters. Retrieved December 18, 2013. A South Korean court yesterday sentenced Jung Myung-seok, the leader of a fringe religious sect, to six years in jail for raping female followers, a court official said. ... Former members have told the Seoul court that young and attractive women were presented to Jung as "gifts" and he forced them into sex as a part of a purification ritual. 
  47. ^ "JMS(기독교복음선교회) 정명석 총재는 왜? 누구를 위하여 십자가를 지는가?" [Why is JMS (CGM)’s President Jung Myeong Seok bearing the cross?]. Min Jeong Magazine (in Korean). February 15, 2010. 또한 법정에서 치열하게 공방이 이루어진 피해자의 성폭행 부분은 일반인의 상식에도 도저히 이해하기 힘든 부분이 많았다. 몇 가지 예를 들어보면 앞에 기술하였듯이 피해자에 대한 성폭행의 진위는 중국병원에서도 피해가 없었던 것으로 증명되었고, 한국경찰병원에서도 분명히 초진 결과는 “처녀막에 전혀 손상이 없고, 어떠한 형태로도 성폭행을 당한 흔적은 찾아볼 수 없다.” 라는 것이었다. (The battle in court over the allegations of sexual assault was intense. Much of the outcomes of this battle could not be made sense of, even from a non-legalistic common sense perspective. One such instance, as previously mentioned, would be medical evidence from a Chinese hospital which showed that the victims presented no signs of having been sexually assaulted. Moreover, the Korean Police Hospital subsequently reported, “The results from the first medical examination showed that the victims’ hymens were completely intact. They presented no medically identifiable signs of having been sexually assaulted.”) 
  48. ^ "Cult Leader Gets 6-Year Prison Term". The Korea Times. August 12, 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2014. Notorious cult leader Jung Myung-seok received Tuesday a six-year prison sentence for raping and sexually abusing his female followers. 
  49. ^ "정명석 JMS총재 징역 6년 선고" [JMS leader Jung Myung-Seok sentenced to six years in prison]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). August 13, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 서울중앙지법 형사26부(재판장 배기열)는 12일 여자 신도들을 성폭행한 혐의로 구속기소된 JMS(기독교복음선교회) 총재 정명석(63)씨에게 징역 6년을 선고했다. (The Seoul Central District Court No. 26 Criminal Division (Justice Bae Ki-yeol) delivered a prison sentence of six years to JMS President Jung Myung-seok, 63, who had been arrested and charged with raping 12 female followers.) 
  50. ^ 송, 경호 (Song Gyeong-ho) (February 5, 2009). "성폭행 혐의 정명석, 항소심 선고 10일로 연기". Christian Today. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 
  51. ^ "Cult head jailed for sex crimes". The Straits Times (Singapore). Agence France-Presse. February 10, 2009. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  52. ^ Ser, Myo-ja (February 11, 2009). "Cult head gets harsh new sentence". Korea JoongAng Daily (JoongAng Ilbo). Retrieved August 23, 2015. The Seoul High Court ruled yesterday that Jung is guilty of a total four counts of rape, overturning one acquittal and handing down a heavier punishment. 
  53. ^ "JMS 정명석 징역 10년 확정" [Jung Myung-Seok's 10-year prison sentence upheld] (in Korean). Yonhap. April 23, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 여신도들을 성폭행한 혐의(강간) 등으로 구속기소된 국제크리스천연합(JMS) 총재 정명석(64)씨에게 징역 10년을 선고한 원심을 확정했다. 
  54. ^ "Court Upholds 10-Yr Sentence on Cult Leader". The Korea Times. April 23, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2014. The Supreme Court upheld a 10-year-imprisonment sentence on Jung Myung-suk, the leader of the JMS (Jesus Morning Star) religious cult Thursday for the rape and sexual assault of five Korean female followers. Jung was indicted for sexually assaulting the victims between 2003 and 2006 in Hong Kong, Malaysia and China. A lower court convicted him on three counts sentencing him to a six-year-prison term, but a high court extended this to 10 years convicting him on all five counts. 
  55. ^ "JMS(기독교복음선교회) 정명석 총재는 왜? 누구를 위하여 십자가를 지는가?" [Why is JMS (CGM)’s President Jung Myeong Seok bearing the cross?]. Min Jeong Magazine (in Korean). February 15, 2010. 
  56. ^ Schwartzman, Nathan (English translator) (November 18, 2009). "South Korean cult leader hit by new judgment". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved September 20, 2015. ; original article: "법원, JMS 정명석 5천만원 배상 판결" [Court rules 50 million won damages against JMS's Jung Myeong-suk] (in Korean). JoongAng Ilbo. Yonhap News. November 16, 2009. Archived from the original on November 19, 2009. 
  57. ^ "한국일보 : 법원, JMS 정명석 5천만원 배상 판결". Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). November 16, 2009. Retrieved September 2015. 
  58. ^ Moon Il Seok, “Reconsideration Needed for the Case of Jung Myeong Seok.” Break News. 2010-2-15.(차 기자가 다섯 번째로 정 총재 관련 재판이 잘못됐다고 보는 이유는 성폭행과 관련된 내용이다. 그는 “당시 '문제 제기자'의 주장에 따르면 여성들은 '심한 성폭행을 당해 걷기가 힘들 정도로 깊은 상처를 입어 하혈을 했다'고 발표하였다. 그러나 이 사건이 법정으로 옮겨진 후, 이 진술과는 달리 피고의 변호인은 사건 현장에 있었던, 당시 cctv를 보면 이 두 사람은 피해자답지 않게 미소를 지었고, 걸음걸이 또한 전혀 불편해 보이지 않는다고 반박하였다”면서 “무엇보다 주목해야 할 사실은 성폭행 피해를 보았다며 법정고소를 함께 진행해왔던 c모양이 위증을 했다는 선언을 하고 고소를 취하한 것이다. c모양은 어머니의 손을 잡고 법정에 나와 경찰과 검찰 진술을 번복하며 피해 사실을 완전히 부인하였다. 재판부는 '증인이 고소 내용과 다르게 진술을 하면 처벌을 받을 수 있다'라고 하였지만, c모양은 '처벌을 받아도 좋다. 사실은 성폭행 당하지 않았다. 자신과 같이 고소한 d모양도 강간 등 성폭행을 당한 사실이 전혀 없음에도 '문제 제기자'의 사주에 의하여 허위로 고소를 하고 지금까지 허위 진술을 한 것이다.'라고 명백히 밝혔다”고, 원고 중의 한 사람이 법정에서 진술한 사실을 적시했다.)
  59. ^ Won Ki Chun “JMS President Jung Myeong Seok, is this a social or religious issue?” Monthly Politic and Economic. 2012-05-31 “Why is the Spotlight on the Christian Gospel Mission Again?” Newsmaker. 2012-04-01.
  60. ^ Moon Il Suk. “Reconsideration Needed for the Case of Jung Myeong Seok Case.” Break News. 2010-02-15(그는 이 사건을 추적한 후 쓴 이 기사의 결론에서 “취재를 하는 기자도 비종교의 잣대로 종교행위를 가늠하면 해괴한 그림을 만들어 내듯이 검찰도 이 사건에 대하여 공소만을 위한 것보다 ‘백 명의 도둑을 놓쳐도 한 명의 억울한 죄인을 만들지 말아야 한다’는 무죄추정원칙에 얼마나 충실했는지 돌아봐야 할 것”이라고 강조했고 “재판부는 증거와 증인이 애매한 이 사건을 10년이라는 중형을 선고한 결과에는 심리를 맡은 재판관들 역시 종교에 대한 이해부족과 억지적으로 조성된 여론에 의해 판단이 흐려지지는 않았는지를 되돌아봄으로 정 총재의 억울한 부분을 살펴야 할 것”이라고 지적했다. )
  61. ^ "VISION & MISSION". キリスト教福音宣教会. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  62. ^ "Smiling a serious business in South Korea". Taipei Times. June 13, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  63. ^ "The Japanese Medical Team from the Christian Gospel Mission delivers lectures at the Seoul National Seminar". September 21, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2015. On August 6th, 20 members from the Japanese Medical Team from the Christian Gospel mission attended the Seoul National Seminar on improving the medical profession, organised for prospective medical students and future health care providers. The seminar provided a mentorship to those students. It was held by the World Peace Medical Organization, and sponsored by the International Medical Corps. The 20 Japanese medical professionals attended first the Busan Seminar, followed by the Seoul seminar. One of the doctors, Dr Kim Myung Jae said, “Currently, there are many flaws in the medical profession, such that it has become a world where patients are seen as money. There is a need for doctors, pharmacists and nurses who can treat patients with the mindset of love for lives.” 
  64. ^ Luca (1997).
  65. ^ a b 黃白雪 (October 13, 2005). "踢爆邪教魔爪校園再現". Apple Daily (in Chinese). 
  66. ^ Sakurai (2007a), p. 140.
  67. ^ "Cult aimed at elite in 50 universities". Asahi Shimbun. July 31, 2006. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2014. Ex-members say recruiting on campus started on Jung's orders in the mid-1990s. "It's a fraudulent activity, as they conceal the group's identity in luring members," a lawyer said. An ex-member in his 30s said he and other cultists were deprived of sleep--forced to work late into the night and then wake up early to listen to Jung's videotaped preaching. 
  68. ^ Sakurai (2007b).
  69. ^ Hyundae Jongyo 2007: "정명석은 1975년도에 측근 신도들에게 통일교 창시자 문선명의 사명은 끝났고 1978년부터 자신의 사명이 시작됐다고 공언하기도 했다 (Jung Myung-seok in 1975 openly told close inner-circle members that the mission of Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon has ended, and from 1978, his mission has begun)".
  70. ^ Sakurai (2006), p. 143–144: "研究家、卓明煥『キリスト教異端研究』(1986)によれば..14,17,19,20,26,27,28,29,30 の各章に統一教会の『原理講論』と相当程度の類似がある。(According to Tahk Myeong-hwan, Study of Christian cults (1986).. chapters 14, 17, 19, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 contain considerable levels of similarity with the Unification Church's "The Divine Principle")
  71. ^ Tahk 1986, 기독교 이단 연구 [Study on Christian cults]
  72. ^ Sakurai (2007c), p. 5.
  73. ^ Chong, Sin-dae (총신대) (July 4, 2014). "정명석에 대한 신학적 비판" [Theological critique of Jeongmyeongseok]. Cult Research Commitee (in Korean) (Christian Portal News). Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  74. ^ a b Tahk 1986, p. 120
  75. ^ Sakurai (2007c), p. 4: Lessons 20 and 22
  76. ^ Sakurai (2007c), p. 7: :"2.4 再臨主の弁証 - ...688 + 1290(ダニエル書12:11,日を年に換算)= 1978 年。第二イスラエル民族の霊的開放。鄭明析が伝道を開始した。だから,鄭明析こそ,再臨のメシアに他ならないという。(2.4 Proof of Messiah... 688 + 1290 (Daniel 12:11, days converted to years) = Year 1978. The spirial emancipation of the Second Israelites. Jung Myung-seok initiated its evangelism. Therefore, Jung Myung-seok can be none other than the Second Coming of the Savior, so they say."
  77. ^ a b Tozer, Joel (April 9, 2014). "Extracts of Correspondence With Providence Representative in South Korea". Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  78. ^ Sakurai (2007c), pp. 5–6.
  79. ^ The Apologetics Index (2006-12-31). "Jung Myung Seok / Providence". 
  80. ^ Sin, Ho-cheol (신호철) (2006-04-23). "검사가 정명석 돕고 있다?" [Is prosecution assisting Jung Myeong-suk?]. Sisa Journal [시사 저널] (in Korean) (862): 142–149. 
  81. ^ ""성폭행범이 이끄는 한국의 밀교" - 기독교포털뉴스". April 10, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  82. ^ Tozer, Joel (April 9, 2014). "Inside Providence: The secretive Korean church led by a convicted rapist". Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  83. ^ "韓邪教港核心成員逾百". 東方日報專訊 (Oriental Daily News) (Hong Kong). October 2, 2006. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2006. 
  84. ^ "韓邪教襲港 吸大學尖子 變身「月明教會」 醫科生家人求助 - 香港經濟日報網站 : 20060920 - 港聞". Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  85. ^ a b c archiveurl = "韓国カルト、日本で2千人 若者勧誘、教祖が性的暴行" [Korean Cult numbering 2000 in Japan solicits youths in Japan, cult leader commits sexual violence] Check |url= value (help). Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). July 27, 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2015. [dead link]
  86. ^ a b "Another problem cult" [教団のワナにはまるな (lit. "Don't get caught in the religious group's trap")]. Asahi Shimbun (in English and Japanese). August 18, 2006. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015. The gimmicks the sect uses to increase its membership are nothing new. At university campuses, the sect's recruiters first approach students under the guise of a sports or cultural circle. After building close personal relationships with these students, the members reveal the religious nature of their group and start indoctrinating them. The favorite targets are serious-minded young people who feel alienated from their families and schools and wish to change their lives. 
  87. ^ "2,000 Japanese join cult led by suspected sex offender on the run from Interpol". Asahi Shimbun. July 29, 2006. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  88. ^ Sakurai (2007b), p. 4.
  89. ^ a b "摂理」献金年間1億円超、教祖の逃亡資金にも". Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). July 31, 2006. Archived from the original on July 31, 2006. Retrieved May 8, 2014. 
  90. ^ "Japan court rules marriage invalid - UPI Archives". May 8, 1996. Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  91. ^ "Guru said to have raped prospective brides before mass weddings". August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  92. ^ "Setsuri cult facilities raided over immigration suspicions". Japan Times. January 20, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2013. 
  93. ^ 總會長的點點滴滴--海外宣教. 總會長的點點滴滴 (in Chinese). 中華基督教新時代青年會CCYA(攝理教會). Archived from the original on March 28, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2006. 台灣的宣教活動自從1988年開始 [dead link]
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  95. ^ "S Korean religious figure faces sexual assault accusations". Taipei Times. November 12, 2001. Retrieved March 1, 2014. Chung [sic] Myung-seok (鄭明析), founder of the South Korean Jesus Morning Star Church (南韓攝理教會), is suspected of sexually assaulting his female followers. A Chinese-language magazine said Chung had sexually assaulted the women, many of them students from National Taiwan and National Chengchi universities, telling them it was part of a religious ceremony. The accusation prompted the police to investigate. 
  96. ^ 攝理教主鄭明析 性侵女教友遭通緝 (in Chinese). TVBS. June 2, 2006. Archived from the original on December 1, 2004. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 
  97. ^ 陳志東 (December 10, 2001). 攝理教韓受害女性控訴教主 記者會火爆口角衝突 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2015. [dead link]

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