Banded bullfrog

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Banded bullfrog
Banded Bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra), Angkor Wat, Cambobia.jpg
Taken at Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae
Subfamily: Microhylinae
Genus: Kaloula
Species: K. pulchra
Binomial name
Kaloula pulchra
Gray, 1831

The banded bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) is also known as the chubby frog (in the pet trade), Asian painted frog, rice frog, or bubble frog. In Cambodia, it is called ហ៊ីង (hing). These frogs, belonging to the microhylid (narrow-mouthed frog) family have round bodies with mahogany brown backs and cream stomachs. The distinctive stripes down the side can range from copper-brown to salmon pink in color. Males have darker throats than females. Frogs grow to 7–8 cm or about 3 inches with females generally being larger than males. They may live for as long as 10 years.[2]

Distribution[edit]

This frog is native to Southeast Asia, and usually lives on the forest floor, in rice fields, and even inside homes. These frogs are voracious eaters, and will eat flies, crickets, moths, grasshoppers, earthworms and more. Painted frogs hide under leaf litter during the day hours and eat in the evening.

Like many other narrow-mouthed frogs, painted frogs have the ability to expand themselves when threatened, and to secrete toxic glue-like substances from their bodies as a defense mechanism. They are also able to survive dry conditions by burying themselves in the ground and waiting for rain.[3]

Banded bullfrog

The species is a potential invasive species. It has been introduced and become established in Guam,[4] Singapore, Borneo and Sulawesi with specimens noted in Australia and New Zealand.[5][6][7]

Behaviour[edit]

Young frog

In India, the frogs call after the first heavy monsoon showers in April–May. The males call while afloat in pools of water. The pulses of the calls recorded in India were 28–56 per second with a frequency range of 50–1760 Hz. In Thailand the dominant frequency was 250 Hz (duration 560–600 ms long) and 18–21 pulses/call.[8]

The tadpoles can metamorphose in as little as two weeks.[9]

Appetite[edit]

These frogs are big eaters and are very slow. They are primarily ant specialists, consuming up to a couple hundred ants in one night, and can often be found sitting along an ant trail picking off individuals one by one. Mealworms can be fed once a week or so if one Asian Painted Frog is kept at home, but should not make up most of its diet they can be used as a laxative.

Pet trade[edit]

Chubby Frogs are commonly sold in pet stores. They are sensitive to chlorine in water. They are maintained in aquariums with substrate choices consisting of peat–soil mixes or potting soil with sphagnum moss. They need high humidity and prefer temperatures of 80–85 °F (27–29 °C).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kuangyang; et al. (2004). "Kaloula pulchra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 May 2006. 
  2. ^ Snider, A.T. & J.K. Bowler. (1992). Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections. Second edition. Herpetological Circular No. 21.
  3. ^ Sharon B. Emerson (1976). "Burrowing in frogs". Journal of Morphology. 149 (4): 437–458. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051490402. 
  4. ^ Christy, M.; Savidge, J. & Rodda, G. (2007). "Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island". Diversity & Distributions. 13 (5): 598–607. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00378.x. 
  5. ^ Tyler MJ; TF Chapman (2007). "An Asian species of frog (Kaloula pulchra, Microhylidae) intercepted at Perth International Airport, Australia". Applied Herpetology. 4: 86–87. doi:10.1163/157075407779766697. 
  6. ^ Gill, B.J.; Bejakovich, D.; Whitaker, A.H. (2001). "Records of foreign reptiles and amphibians accidentally imported to New Zealand". New Zealand Zool. 28 (3): 351–359. doi:10.1080/03014223.2001.9518274. 
  7. ^ Inger, R.F. (1966). "The systematics and zoogeography of the amphibia of Borneo". Fieldiana Zoology. 52: 1–402. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3147. 
  8. ^ Kanamadi RD; GG Kadadevaru & H Schneider (2002). "Advertisement Call and Breeding Period of the Frog, Kaloula pulchra (Microhylidae)" (PDF). Herpetological Review. 33 (1): 19–21. 
  9. ^ Richard D. Bartlett; Patricia P. Bartlett (1996). Frogs, Toads, and Treefrogs: Everything About Selection, Care, Nutrition, Breeding, and Behavior. Barron's Educational Series. p. 98. ISBN 0-8120-9156-6. 

External links[edit]