Kamboj

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kamboj
Regions with significant populations
India • Pakistan
Languages
PunjabiDogriHindiUrdu
Religion
HindusimIslamSikhism
Related ethnic groups
Muslim Kamboh

group : Jatt Sikh Kamboj

The Kambojs (Hindi: कम्बोज Kamboj, Urdu: کمبوہALA-LC: Kamboh, Punjabi: ਕੰਬੋਜ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan. Kamboj is frequently used as a surname in lieu of the sub-caste or the Gotra name by the Hindu Kambojs of India. Their Muslim counterparts living in Pakistan mostly use the last name Kamboh instead of the gotra name. A good many Muslim Kamboh are also found in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh, especially in the town of Marehra, and call themselves Zuberis.

Udham Singh KamBoj[edit]

Udham Singh (26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940) was an Indian revolutionary and a brave hearted man best known for assassinating Michael O'Dwyer on 13 March 1940 in what has been described as an avenging of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.[1] Singh is a prominent figure of the Indian independence struggle. He is sometimes referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh (the expression "Shaheed-i-Azam," Urdu: شهید اعظم, means "the great martyr"). A district (Udham Singh Nagar) of Uttarakhand is named after him.

Singh was born Sher Singh on 26 December 1899, at Sunam in the Sangrur district of Punjab, India, to a Kamboj Sikh .[2] His father, Sardar Tehal Singh Jammu (known as Chuhar Singh before taking the Amrit), was a railway crossing watchman in the village of Upalli.[citation needed] His mother died in 1901, and his father in 1907.[citation needed]

After his father's death, Singh and his elder brother, Mukta Singh, were taken in by the Central Khalsa Orphanage Putlighar in Amritsar. At the orphanage, Singh was administered the Sikh initiatory rites and received the name of Udham Singh. He passed his matriculation examination in 1918 and left the orphanage in 1919.[cit

Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh[edit] Main article: Jallianwala Bagh massacre On 10 April 1919, a number of local leaders allied to the Indian National Congress including Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested under the Rowlatt Act. Protestors against the arrests were fired on by British troops, precipitating a riot during which British banks were burned and four Europeans were killed. On 13 April, over twenty thousand unarmed protestors were assembled in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar. Singh and his friends from the orphanage were serving water to the crowd.[3][verification needed]

Troops were dispatched to restore order after the riots, under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer. Dyer ordered his troops to fire without warning on the assembled crowd in Jallianwala Bagh. Since the only exit was barred by soldiers, people tried to escape by climbing the park walls or jumping into a well for protection. An estimated 379 people were killed and over 1,200 were wounded[4] although that has been debated.[5][verification needed][6]

Singh was deeply affected by the event. The governor of Punjab, Michael O'Dwyer, had supported the massacre, and Singh held him responsible.[7][verification needed]

Revolutionary politics[edit] Singh became involved in revolutionary politics and was deeply influenced by Bhagat Singh and his revolutionary group.[8] In 1924, Singh became involved with the Ghadar Party, organizing Indians overseas towards overthrowing colonial rule. In 1927, he returned to India on orders from Bhagat Singh, bringing 25 associates as well as revolvers and ammunition. Soon after, he was arrested for possession of unlicensed arms. Revolvers, ammunition, and copies of a prohibited Ghadar Party paper called "Ghadr-i-Gunj" ("Voice of Revolt") were confiscated. He was prosecuted and sentenced to five years in prison.

Upon his release from prison in 1931, Singh's movements were under constant surveillance by the Punjab police. He made his way to Kashmir, where he was able to evade the police and escape to Germany. In 1934, Singh reached London, where he planned to assassinate Michael O'Dwyer.[9][10][verification needed]

Shooting in Caxton Hall[edit] On 13 March 1940, Michael O'Dwyer was scheduled to speak at a joint meeting of the East India Association and the Central Asian Society (now Royal Society for Asian Affairs) at Caxton Hall. Singh concealed his revolver in a book, entered the hall, and stood against the wall. As the meeting concluded, Singh shot O'Dwyer twice as he moved towards the speaking platform, killing him immediately. Others hurt in the shooting include Luis Dane, Lawrence Dundas, 2nd Marquess of Zetland, and Charles Cochrane-Baillie, 2nd Baron Lamington. Singh did not attempt to flee and was arrested on site.[11][verification needed]

Trial and execution[edit]

Singh (second from the left) being taken from 10 Caxton Hall after the assassination of Michael O'Dwyer On 1 April 1940, Singh was formally charged with the murder of Michael O'Dwyer. While awaiting trial in Brixton Prison, Singh went on a 42-day hunger strike and had to be forcibly fed. On 4 June 1940, his trial commenced at the Central Criminal Court, Old Bailey, before Justice Atkinson. When asked about his motivation, Singh explained:

Wide view of Jallianwala Bagh memorial I did it because I had a grudge against him. He deserved it. He was the real culprit. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people, so I have crushed him. For full 21 years, I have been trying to wreak vengeance. I am happy that I have done the job. I am not scared of death. I am dying for my country. I have seen my people starving in India under the British rule. I have protested against this, it was my duty. What a greater honour could be bestowed on me than death for the sake of my motherland? [12][verification needed]

Singh was convicted and sentenced to death. On 31 July 1940, Singh was hanged at Pentonville Prison and buried within the prison grounds.

Reactions[edit] Many Indians regarded Singh's action as justified and an important step in India's struggle to end British colonial rule.[13][verification needed]

In press statements, Mahatma Gandhi condemned the 10 Caxton Hall shooting saying, "the outrage has caused me deep pain. I regard it as an act of insanity...I hope this will not be allowed to affect political judgement."[14] The Hindustan Socialist Republican Army condemned Mahatma Gandhi's statement, considering it to be a challenge to the Indian Youths.[15]

Pt Jawaharlal Nehru wrote in The National Herald, "[The] assassination is regretted but it is earnestly hoped that it will not have far-reaching repercussions on [the] political future of India."[16] In its 18 March 1940 issue, Amrita Bazar Patrika wrote, "O'Dwyer's name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget".[17]

The Punjab section of Congress in the Punjab Assembly led by Dewan Chaman Lal refused to vote for the Premier's motion to condemn the assassination.[18]

In April 1940, at the Annual Session of the All India Congress Committee held in commemoration of 21st anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, the youth wing of the Indian National Congress Party displayed revolutionary slogans in support of Singh, applauding his action as patriotic and heroic.[19]

Singh had some support from the international press. The Times of London called him a "fighter for freedom", his actions "an expression of the pent-up fury of the downtrodden Indian people."[20] Bergeret from Rome praised Singh's action as courageous.[21] In March 1940, Indian National Congress leader Jawahar Lal Nehru, condemned the action of Singh as senseless. In 1962, Nehru reversed his stance and applauded Singh with the following published statement: "I salute Shaheed-i-Azam Udham Singh with reverence who had kissed the noose so that we may be free."[22]

Repatriation[edit] In 1974, Singh's remains were exhumed and repatriated to India at the request of MLA Sadhu Singh Thind. Singh Thind accompanied the remains back to India, where the casket was received by Indira Gandhi, Shankar Dayal Sharma and Zail Singh. Udham Singh was later cremated in his birthplace of Sunam in Punjab and his ashes were scattered in the Sutlej river.

Legacy[edit] A museum dedicated to Singh is located in Amritsar, near Jallianwala Bagh. Singh's weapon, a knife, his diary, and a bullet from the shooting are kept in the Black Museum of Scotland Yard. Singh has been the subject of a number of films: Jallian Wala Bagh (1977), Shaheed Uddham Singh (1977), and Shaheed Uddham Singh (2000). Udham Singh Nagar district in Uttarakhand is named after Singh. Singh is the subject of the 1998 track "Assassin" by Asian Dub Foundation. References[edit] Jump up ^ Swami, Praveen (Nov 1997). "Jallianwala Bagh revisited: A look at the actual history of one of the most shocking events of the independence struggle". Frontline. 22 14 (India). p. 1–14. Jump up ^ Religious Dimensions of Indian Nationalism. p. 156. Jump up ^ Sikander Singh (2002). Pre-meditated Plan of Jallianwala Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad. p. 139. Jump up ^ Stephen Stratford. "British Military & Criminal History". Jump up ^ Sikander Singh (2002). Pre-meditated Plan of Jallianwala Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad. p. 139. Jump up ^ Swami, Praveen (Nov 1997). "Jallianwala Bagh revisited: A look at the actual history of one of the most shocking events of the independence struggle". Frontline. 22 14 (India). p. 1–14. Jump up ^ Sikander Singh (2002). Pre-meditated Plan of Jallianwala Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad. p. 139. Jump up ^ Academy of the Punjab in North America. "Shaheed Udham Singh (1899-1940)". Jump up ^ Dr. Fauja Singh (1972). Eminent Freedom Fighters of Punjab. p. 239-40. Jump up ^ Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. Jump up ^ Murder of Michael O'Dwyer, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, 2002, p 180-181, Prof Sikander Singh Jump up ^ CRIM 1/1177, Public Record Office, London, p. 64 Jump up ^ Government of India, Home Department, Political File No 18 March 1940, National Archives of India, New Delhi, p40 Jump up ^ Harijan, 15 March 1940 Jump up ^ Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 216. Jump up ^ National Herald, 15 March 1940. Jump up ^ Vinay Lal (May 2008). "Manas: History and Politics, British India - Udham Singh in the Popular Memory". Retrieved 23 May 2014. Jump up ^ Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 300. Jump up ^ Manmath Nath Gupta (1970). Bhagat Singh and his Times. Delhi. p. 18. Jump up ^ The Times (London). 16 March 1940. Missing or empty |title= (help) Jump up ^ Public and Judicial Department, File No L/P + J/7/3822. 10 Caxton Hall outrage. London: India Office Library and Records. p. 13–14. Jump up ^ Singh, Sikander (1998). Udham Singh, alias, Ram Mohammed Singh Azad: a saga of the freedom movement and Jallianwala Bagh. B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 300.

During Muslim rule[edit]

During the early years of Islam in India, one of the groups of this clan embraced Islam at the instance of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya Suhrawardi (of Multan) and his son Shaikh Sadruddin.[1]

Some Kamboj, such as Shahbaz Khan Kamboh,[1] occupied key military and civil positions during the Turkic and the Moghul reign in northern India.[2] The historian M. Athar Ali said that "The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favoured for high military and civil positions during Moghul rule".[3]

Muhammad Umar writes:

The (Muslim) Kamboh distinguished themselves by their courage, generosity and high spirits. They were famous for their excellent manners and were particularly gifted with wisdom and nobility....In terms of social stratification, the Kambohs were counted among the Shaikhs ... Among the Indian Muslims, the Kambohs were regarded as the noblest of all. However, perhaps with a view to maintaining the purity of their descent, or because of pride of nobility, they confined their matrimonial relationships within their own groups and did not establish marriage connections with other Muslim groups including even the Saiyids and the Mughals. Some members of this clan like Shahbaz Khan Kamboh, Nawab Abu Muhammad Khan, Bahadur Khan and Nawab Khair Andesh Khan rose to high positions during the reign of Mughals.[1]

Present day[edit]

The Kambojs/Kambohs practiced weapon-worship in the past but the practice is now going out of vogue.[4]

Traditions[edit]

Hindu Kambohs claim to be related to the Rajputs. They came in the period of Mahabharat to the regions where they live now.[5]

Agriculturists[edit]

Numerous foreign and Indian writers have described the modern Kambojs/Kambohs as one of the finest class of agriculturists of India.[6]

The majority of Krishi Pandit awards in Rajasthan/India have been won by the Kamboj agriculturists.[7] Col Lal Singh Kamboj, a landlord from Uttar Pradesh, was the first Indian farmer to win the Padma Shri award for progressive farming in 1968.[citation needed]

List of notable Kambojs[edit]

Main article: List of Kambojs

Thind

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century, 1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar
  2. ^ See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 1993, p 70, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., Robert McHenry; See also: Concise Encyclopædia Britannica, Online.
  3. ^ Ali, M. Athar (2001) [1966]. The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb (Revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19565-599-5. 
  4. ^ Jatt Tribes of Zira, p 138
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of Sikh Religion & Culture, 1997, p 24, Gobind Singh Mansukhani, Romesh Chander Dogra.
  6. ^ India and World War 1, 1978, p 218, DeWitt C. Ellinwood, S. D. Pradhan; The Transformation of Sikh Society, 1974, p 132, Ethne K. Marenco
  7. ^ Origin of names of Castes and Clans, 2004,Principal Sewa Singh.

Kamboj| Have The Best business in the world