Kingdom of Heaven (film)

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Kingdom of Heaven
Theatrical release poster
Directed byRidley Scott
Produced byRidley Scott
Written byWilliam Monahan
Music byHarry Gregson-Williams
CinematographyJohn Mathieson
Edited byDody Dorn
Distributed by20th Century Fox (North America and United Kingdom)
Warner Bros. Pictures (Germany)[2]
Release date
  • 2 May 2005 (2005-05-02) (London premiere)
  • 5 May 2005 (2005-05-05) (Germany)
  • 6 May 2005 (2005-05-06) (United States, United Kingdom)
Running time
144 minutes[3]
194 minutes (Director's cut)
  • United Kingdom[4]
  • Germany
  • United States
  • English
  • Arabic
  • Italian
  • Latin
Budget$130 million[2]
Box office$218.1 million[2]

Kingdom of Heaven is a 2005 epic historical drama film directed and produced by Ridley Scott and written by William Monahan. It stars Orlando Bloom, Eva Green, Ghassan Massoud, Jeremy Irons, David Thewlis, Brendan Gleeson, Iain Glen, Marton Csokas, Liam Neeson, Edward Norton, Michael Sheen, Velibor Topić and Alexander Siddig.

The story is set during the Crusades of the 12th century. A French village blacksmith goes to the aid of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in its defence against the Ayyubid Muslim Sultan, Saladin, who is fighting to claim the city from the Christians; this leads to the Battle of Hattin. The screenplay is a heavily fictionalised portrayal of the life of Balian of Ibelin (ca. 1143–93).

Filming took place in Ouarzazate, Morocco, where Scott had previously filmed Gladiator and Black Hawk Down, and in Spain, at the Loarre Castle (Huesca), Segovia, Ávila, Palma del Río, and Seville's Casa de Pilatos and Alcázar.[5][6] The film was released on May 6, 2005 by 20th Century Fox in North America and United Kingdom and by Warner Bros. Pictures in Germany and received mixed reviews upon theatrical release. On 23 December 2005, Scott released a director's cut, which received critical acclaim, with many reviewers calling it the definitive version of the film.[7][8]


In 1184 France, Balian, a blacksmith, is haunted by his wife's recent suicide. A Crusader passing through the village introduces himself as Balian's father, Baron Godfrey of Ibelin, and asks him to return with him to the Holy Land, but Balian declines. After the town priest (Balian's half brother) reveals that he ordered Balian's wife's body beheaded before burial, due to her suicide, Balian kills him and flees the village.

Balian joins his father, hoping to gain forgiveness and redemption for himself and his wife in Jerusalem. Soldiers sent by the bishop arrive to arrest Balian, but Godfrey refuses to surrender him, and in the ensuing attack, Godfrey is struck by an arrow that breaks off in his body.

In Messina, they have a contentious encounter with Guy de Lusignan, a Templar Knight and prospective future king of Jerusalem. Godfrey knights Balian, names him the new Baron of Ibelin, and orders him to serve the King of Jerusalem and protect the helpless, then succumbs to his arrow wound and dies. During Balian's journey to Jerusalem, his ship runs aground in a storm, leaving him as the only survivor. Balian is confronted by a Muslim cavalier, who attacks in a fight for his horse. Balian is forced to slay the cavalier but spares the man's servant, and the man tells Balian that this mercy will gain him fame and respect among the Saracens.

Balian becomes acquainted with Jerusalem's political arena: the leper King Baldwin IV; Tiberias, the Marshal of Jerusalem; the King's sister, Princess Sibylla, who is Guy's wife and also mother to a little boy from an earlier marriage. Guy supports the anti-Muslim brutalities of the Knights Templar, and intends to break the fragile truce between the King and the sultan Saladin to make war on the Muslims. Balian travels to his inherited estate at Ibelin, and irrigates the dry and dusty lands using his knowledge of engineering to the joy of its residents. Sibylla visits him and the two become lovers.

In 1185 Guy and his ally, the cruel Raynald of Châtillon, attack a Saracen caravan, and Saladin advances on Raynald's castle Kerak in retaliation. At the request of the king, Balian defends the villagers, despite being overwhelmingly outnumbered. Captured, Balian encounters the servant he freed, who he learns is actually Saladin's chancellor Imad ad-Din. Imad ad-Din releases Balian in repayment of his earlier mercy. Saladin arrives with his army to besiege Kerak, and Baldwin meets the army with his own. They negotiate a Muslim retreat, and Baldwin swears to punish Raynald, though the exertion of these events weakens him.

Baldwin asks Balian to marry Sibylla and take control of the army, knowing they have affection for each other, but Balian refuses because it will require the execution of Guy and the Templars. Baldwin soon dies and is succeeded by his nephew, Sybilla's son, now Baldwin V. Sybilla, as regent, intends to maintain her brother's peace with Saladin. In 1186, she is devastated when she finds out that her son, like his uncle before him, has begun to develop leprosy. Driven by the common belief of eternal damnation for lepers, she makes the heartrending decision to end her son's life by pouring poison into his ear while he sleeps in her arms; she then hands the crown to her husband Guy, and withdraws in private to mourn her son.

Guy, now king, releases Raynald, who gives Guy the war he desires by murdering Saladin's sister. Sending the heads of Saladin's emissaries back to him, Guy declares war on the Saracens in 1187 and attempts to assassinate Balian, who barely survives. Guy marches to war with the army, despite Balian's advice to remain near Jerusalem's water sources. The Saracens later annihilate the tired and dehydrated Crusaders in the ensuing desert battle. Saladin takes Guy captive, executes Raynald, and marches on Jerusalem. Tiberias leaves for Cyprus, believing Jerusalem lost, but Balian remains to protect the people in the city, and knights every fighting man to inspire them. After an assault that lasts three days, a frustrated Saladin parleys with Balian. When Balian reaffirms that he will destroy the city if Saladin does not accept his surrender, Saladin agrees to allow the Christians to leave safely in exchange for Jerusalem. They ponder if it would be better if the city were destroyed, as there would be nothing left to fight over.

In the city, Balian is confronted by the humiliated Guy, and defeats him in a sword fight, though he spares Guy's life, telling him to "rise a knight" as if he never was. In the marching column of citizens, Balian finds Sibylla, who has renounced her claim as Queen. After they return to France, English knights en route to retake Jerusalem ride through the town to enlist Balian, now the famed defender of Jerusalem. Balian tells the crusader that he is merely a blacksmith again, and they depart. Balian is joined by Sibylla, and they pass by the grave of Balian's wife as they ride towards the unknown. An epilogue notes that "nearly a thousand years later, peace in the Holy Land still remains elusive."


Many of the characters in the film are fictionalised versions of historical figures:


Director Ridley Scott in 2005


The visual style of Kingdom of Heaven emphasises set design and impressive cinematography in almost every scene. It is notable for its "visually stunning cinematography and haunting music".[9] Cinematographer John Mathieson created many large, sweeping landscapes,[10] where the cinematography, supporting performances, and battle sequences are meticulously mounted.[11] The cinematography and scenes of set-pieces have been described as "ballets of light and color", drawing comparisons to Akira Kurosawa.[12] Director Ridley Scott's visual acumen was described as the main draw of Kingdom of Heaven, with the "stellar" and "stunning" cinematography and "jaw-dropping combat sequences" based on the production design of Arthur Max.[13][14]

Visual effects[edit]

British visual effects firm Moving Picture Company completed 440 effects shots for the film.[15] Additionally, Double Negative also contributed to complete the CGI work on the film.[16]


The music differs in style and content from the soundtrack of Scott's earlier 2000 film Gladiator[17] and many other subsequent films depicting historical events.[18] A combination of medieval, Middle Eastern, contemporary classical, and popular influences,[17][18] the soundtrack is largely the work of British film-score composer Harry Gregson-Williams. Jerry Goldsmith's "Valhalla" theme from The 13th Warrior and "Vide Cor Meum" (originally used by Scott in Hannibal and composed by Patrick Cassidy and Hans Zimmer), sung by Danielle de Niese and Bruno Lazzaretti, were used as replacements for original music by Gregson-Williams.


Critical response[edit]

Upon its release it was met with a mixed reception, with many critics being divided on the film. Critics such as Roger Ebert found the film's message to be deeper than that of Scott's Gladiator.[14]

The cast was widely praised. Jack Moore described Edward Norton's performance as the leper-King Baldwin as "phenomenal", and "so far removed from anything that he has ever done that we see the true complexities of his talent".[19] The Syrian actor Ghassan Massoud was praised for his portrayal of Saladin, described in The New York Times as "cool as a tall glass of water".[20] Also commended were Eva Green, who plays Princess Sibylla "with a measure of cool that defies her surroundings",[10] and Jeremy Irons.[21]

Lead actor Bloom's performance generally elicited a lukewarm reception from American critics, with the Boston Globe stating Bloom was "not actively bad as Balian of Ibelin", but nevertheless "seems like a man holding the fort for a genuine star who never arrives".[22] Other critics conceded that Balian was more of a "brave and principled thinker-warrior" than a strong commander,[10] and that he used brains rather than brawn to gain advantage in battle.[23]

Bloom had gained 20 pounds for the part,[10] and the extended director's cut (detailed below) of Kingdom of Heaven reveals even more complex facets of Bloom's role, involving connections with unknown relatives. Despite the criticism, Bloom won two awards for his performance.

Online, general criticism has been also divided. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 39% based on reviews from 190 critics. The site's critical consensus reads: "Although it's an objective and handsomely presented take on the Crusades, Kingdom of Heaven lacks depth."[24] Review aggregator Metacritic gives the film a 63/100 rating based on 40 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews" according to the website's weighted average system.[25]

Academic criticism[edit]

In the time since the film's release, scholars have offered analysis and criticisms through a lens situating Kingdom of Heaven within the context of contemporary international events and religious conflict, including: broad post-9/11 politics, neocolonialism, Orientalism, the Western perspective of the film, and the detrimental handling of differences between Christianity and Islam.[26]

Academic criticism has focused on the supposed peaceful relationship between Christians and Muslims in Jerusalem and other cities depicted. Crusader historians such as Jonathan Riley-Smith, quoted by The Daily Telegraph, called the film "dangerous to Arab relations", calling the movie "Osama bin Laden's version of history" which would "fuel the Islamic fundamentalists". Riley-Smith further commented against the historical accuracy, stating that "the fanaticism of most of the Christians in the film and their hatred of Islam is what the Islamists want to believe. At a time of inter-faith tension, nonsense like this will only reinforce existing myths", arguing that the film relied on the romanticised view of the Crusades propagated by Sir Walter Scott in his book The Talisman, published in 1825 and now discredited by academics, "which depicts the Muslims as sophisticated and civilized, and the Crusaders are all brutes and barbarians. It has nothing to do with reality."[27][28][29] Paul Halsall defended Ridley Scott, claiming that "historians can't criticize filmmakers for having to make the decisions they have to make ... [Scott is] not writing a history textbook".[23]

Thomas F. Madden, Director of Saint Louis University's Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, criticised the film's presentation of the Crusades:

Given events in the modern world it is lamentable that there is so large a gulf between what professional historians know about the Crusades and what the general population believes. This movie only widens that gulf. The shame of it is that dozens of distinguished historians across the globe would have been only too happy to help Scott and Monahan get it right.[30]

Scott himself defended this depiction of the Muslim–Christian relationship in footage on the DVD version of the movie's extra features—Scott sees this portrayal as being a contemporary look at the history.[citation needed] He argued that peace and brutality are concepts relative to one's own experience, and since contemporary society is so far removed from the brutal times in which the movie takes place, he told the story in a way that he felt was true to the source material, yet was more accessible to a modern audience.[citation needed] In other words, the "peace" that existed was exaggerated to fit modern ideas of what such a peace would be. At the time, it was merely a lull in Muslim–Christian violence compared to the standards of the period. The recurring use of "Assalamu Alaikum", the traditional Arabic greeting meaning "Peace be with you", is spoken both in Arabic and English several times.[citation needed]

The "Director's Cut" of the film is a four-disc set, two of which are dedicated to a feature-length documentary called "The Path to Redemption". This feature contains an additional featurette on historical accuracy called "Creative Accuracy: The Scholars Speak", where a number of academics support the film's contemporary relevance and historical accuracy. Among these historians is Dr. Nancy Caciola, who said that despite the various inaccuracies and fictionalised/dramatized details, she considered the film a "responsible depiction of the period."[31]

Screenwriter William Monahan, who is a long-term enthusiast of the period, has said "If it isn't in, it doesn't mean we didn't know it ... What you use, in drama, is what plays. Shakespeare did the same."[32]

Caciola agreed with the fictionalisation of characters on the grounds that "crafting a character who is someone the audience can identify with" is necessary in a film. She said that "I, as a professional, have spent much time with medieval people, so to speak, in the texts that I read; and quite honestly there are very few of them that if I met in the flesh I feel that I would be very fond of."

John Harlow of the Times Online wrote that Christianity is portrayed in an unfavourable light and the value of Christian belief is diminished, especially in the portrayal of Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem.[33] When journalist Robert Fisk watched the film in a Beirut cinema, he reported that the Muslim audience rose to their feet and applauded during a scene in the film in which Saladin respectfully places a fallen cross back on top of a table after it had fallen during the three-day siege of the city.[34]

Box office[edit]

The film was a box office disappointment in the US and Canada, earning $47.4 million against a budget of around $130 million, but did better in Europe and the rest of the world, earning $164.3 million, with the worldwide box office earnings totalling at $211,643,158.[35] It was also a big success in Arabic-speaking countries, especially Egypt. Scott insinuated that the US failure of the film was the result of bad advertising, which presented the film as an adventure with a love story rather than as an examination of religious conflict.[citation needed][36] It has also been noted that the film was altered from its original version to be shorter and follow a simpler plot line. This "less sophisticated" version is what hit theatres, although Scott and some of his crew felt it was watered down, explaining that by editing, "You've gone in there and taken little bits from everything".[37]


Awards for Kingdom of Heaven
Award Date of ceremony Category Recipient Outcome
Golden Schmoes Awards Best DVD/Blu-ray of the Year 4-Disc Director's Cut Special Edition Nominated
Goya Awards 26 January 2006 Best Costume Design Janty Yates
Hollywood Film Awards 24 October 2005 Composer of the Year Harry Gregson-Williams (also for The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe) Won
International Film Music Critics Association Best Original Score for an Action/Adventure Film Harry Gregson-Williams Nominated
International Online Cinema Awards Best Costume Design Janty Yates
Motion Picture Sound Editors 4 March 2006 Best Sound Editing in Feature Film – Foreign
Best Sound Editing in Feature Film – Music
Satellite Awards 17 December 2005 Outstanding Actor in a Supporting Role, Drama Edward Norton
Outstanding Art Direction and Production Design Arthur Max
Outstanding Costume Design Janty Yates
Outstanding Visual Effects Tom Wood
Outstanding Original Score Harry Gregson-Williams Won
Teen Choice Awards 14 August 2005 Choice Movie: Action Adventure Nominated
Choice Movie Actor: Action Adventure/Thriller Orlando Bloom
Choice Movie Love Scene Orlando Bloom and Eva Green
Choice Movie Liplock
Visual Effects Society Awards 15 February 2006 Outstanding Supporting Visual Effects in a Motion Picture Wesley Sewell, Victoria Alonso, Tom Wood, and Gary Brozenich Won

Extended director's cut[edit]

Unhappy with the theatrical version of Kingdom of Heaven (which he blamed on paying too much attention to the opinions of preview audiences, and acceding to Fox's request to shorten the film by 45 minutes), Ridley Scott supervised a director's cut of the film, which was released on 23 December 2005 at the Laemmle Fairfax Theatre in Los Angeles, California.[38] Unlike the mixed critical reception of the film's theatrical version, the Director's Cut received overwhelmingly positive reviews from film critics, including a four-star review in the British magazine Total Film and a ten out of ten from IGN DVD.[39][40][41] Empire magazine called the reedited film an "epic", adding, "The added 45 minutes in the director's cut are like pieces missing from a beautiful but incomplete puzzle."[7] One reviewer suggested it is the most substantial director's cut of all time[8] and James Berardinelli wrote that it offers a much greater insight into the story and the motivations of individual characters.[42] "This is the one that should have gone out," reflected Scott.[7]

The DVD of the extended director's cut was released on 23 May 2006. It comprises a four-disc box set with a runtime of 194 minutes, and is shown as a roadshow presentation with an overture and intermission in the vein of traditional Hollywood epic films.[38] The first Blu-ray release omitted the roadshow elements, running at 189 minutes, but they were restored for the 2014 'Ultimate Edition' release.[43]

Scott gave an interview to STV on the occasion of the extended edition's UK release, when he discussed the motives and thinking behind the new version.[44] Asked if he was against previewing in general in 2006, Scott stated: "It depends who's in the driving seat. If you've got a lunatic doing my job, then you need to preview. But a good director should be experienced enough to judge what he thinks is the correct version to go out into the cinema."[45]

Significant subplots were added as well as enhanced character relationships. The priest Balian kills at the beginning of the film is revealed to be his half-brother, while the lord presiding over Balian's hometown is revealed to be Godfrey's brother.[citation needed] Battle scenes are depicted with more violence than in the theatrical cut. More scenes with the Hospitaller offering guidance to Balian were added back in. The most significant addition was the subplot involving Sybilla's son Baldwin V, who becomes the first to inherit the throne of Jerusalem following the passing of Baldwin IV, but is shown to be afflicted with leprosy just like his uncle before him, so Sybilla peacefully poisons him to prevent him from suffering as his predecessor did.[citation needed] The gravedigger from Balian's hometown is given more attention: he is shown to be philosophical at the beginning of the film, and is shown to follow Balian to Jerusalem to seek salvation like Balian, who acknowledges his presence and personally knights him before the final siege.[citation needed] Finally, a final fight is shown between Balian and Guy, where Balian wins but spares Guy, leaving him dishonored.[citation needed]

Historical accuracy[edit]

Bloom's character, Balian of Ibelin, was a close ally of Raymond III of Tripoli, the film's Tiberias, which is in fact a city, and a member of that faction which sought a place within the patchwork of the Near East and opposed the aggressive policy of Raynald of Châtillon, the Templars, and "fanatics newly from Europe", who refused to come to terms of peace with the Muslims.[46] Balian was a mature gentleman, just a year or two younger than Raymond, and one of the most important nobles in the kingdom, not a French blacksmith. His father, Barisan (the French "Balian"), founded the Ibelin family in the east, and probably came from Italy. Balian and Sibylla were indeed united in the defence of Jerusalem but no romantic relationship existed between the two. Balian married Sibylla's stepmother Maria Komnene, Dowager Queen of Jerusalem and Lady of Nablus. Nablus, rather than Ibelin, was Balian's fief at the time of Jerusalem's fall.

The Old French Continuation of William of Tyre (the so-called Chronicle of Ernoul) claimed that Sibylla had been infatuated with Balian's older brother Baldwin of Ibelin, a widower over twice her age, but this is doubtful; instead, it seems that Raymond of Tripoli attempted a coup to marry her off to him to strengthen the position of his faction. This legend seems to have been behind the film's creation of a romance between Sibylla and a member of the Ibelin family.[47]

William of Tyre discovers Baldwin IV's leprosy; his accounts form the historical basis for much of the film.

King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, who reigned from 1174 to 1185, was a leper, and his sister Sibylla did marry Guy of Lusignan, though on her own initiative. Baldwin IV had a falling out with Guy, and so Guy did not succeed Baldwin IV immediately. Baldwin crowned Sibylla's son from her previous marriage to William of Montferrat, five-year-old Baldwin V, co-king in 1183.[48] The little boy reigned as sole king for one year, dying in 1186 at nine years of age. After her son's death, Sibylla and Guy (to whom she was devoted) garrisoned the city, and she claimed the throne. The coronation scene in the movie was—in real life—more of a shock: Sibylla had been forced to promise to divorce Guy before becoming queen, with the assurance that she would be permitted to pick her own consort. After being crowned by Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem (who is unnamed until late in the movie), she chose to crown Guy as her consort. Raymond of Tripoli was not present, but was in Nablus attempting a coup, with Balian of Ibelin, to raise Sibylla's half-sister (Balian's stepdaughter), Princess Isabella of Jerusalem, to the throne. Isabella's husband, Humphrey IV of Toron, refused to precipitate a civil war and swore allegiance to Guy.[49]

Raymond of Tripoli was a cousin of Amalric I of Jerusalem, one of the Kingdom's most powerful nobles, and sometime regent. He had a claim to the throne himself, but, being childless, instead tried to advance his allies in the Ibelin family. He was often in conflict with Guy and Raynald of Châtillon, who had risen to their positions by marrying wealthy heiresses and through the king's favour. The film's portrayal of Raynald of Châtillon as insane is not supported by contemporary sources, though the same sources do portray Raynald as a reckless, aggressive freebooting warlord who frequently violated truces between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Sultanate of Egypt. The film's picture of Guy encouraging Raynald of Châtillon to attack Muslim pilgrimage convoys on their way to Mecca to provoke a war with Saladin is false. Guy was a weak, indecisive king who wanted to avoid a war with Saladin and who was simply unable to control the reckless Raynald. Saladin's abortive march on Kerak followed Raynald's raid on the Red Sea, which shocked the Muslim world by its proximity to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Guy and Raynald also harassed Muslim caravans and herders, and the claim that Raynald captured Saladin's sister is based on the account given in the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre. This claim, unsupported by any other account, is generally believed to be false. In actuality, after Raynald's attack on one caravan, Saladin made sure that the next one, in which his sister was travelling, was properly guarded: the lady came to no harm.[47] The depiction in the film of the Battle of Hattin, where the Crusader force wandered around the desert for three days without water before being ambushed, is consistent with the known facts. Although Raymond of Tripoli and his men fought in the battle as well. The scene in the film where Saladin hands Guy a cup of iced water (which in the Muslim world was a sign that the victor intended to spare the life of his prisoner), and then notes that he did not hand Raynald the cup (indicating that Raynald was to be executed) is supported by the Persian historian Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani who was present with Saladin after the Battle of Hattin.

Balian was present at the Battle of Hattin, but escaped and fled to Tyre and then Jerusalem, to retrieve his wife and children. The defenders of the city, including the military orders and the Patriarch Heraclius, named him the leader of the city's defence. On the ninth day of the siege of Jerusalem, Saladin's forces breached the wall, but the defenders held out until the tenth day, when Balian surrendered the city to Saladin. Due to Balian threatening to kill the remaining Muslim residents of Jerusalem and to destroy both mosques, Saladin allowed the Christians of the city to leave if they could ransom themselves. Balian was unable to raise the funds to ransom all the city's poor; thousands marched out into safety and thousands into slavery.[50]

Balian and Sibylla remained in the Holy Land during the events of the Third Crusade. Sibylla was a victim of an epidemic during the Siege of Acre. Balian's relations with Richard I of England were far from amicable, because he supported the claim to kingship of Conrad of Montferrat against Richard's vassal Guy. He and his wife Maria arranged her daughter Isabella's forcible divorce from Humphrey of Toron so she could marry Conrad. Ambroise, who wrote a poetic account of the crusade, called Balian "more false than a goblin" and said he "should be hunted with dogs".[51]

An episode of The History Channel's series History vs. Hollywood analysed the historical accuracy of the film. This program and a Movie Real (a series by A&E Network) episode about Kingdom of Heaven were both included on the DVD release.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Company Information". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Baseline & All Movie Guide. 2010. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  2. ^ a b c "Kingdom of Heaven". Box Office Mojo.
  3. ^ "KINGDOM OF HEAVEN (15)". British Board of Film Classification. 20 April 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  4. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven".
  5. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven – Production Notes"
  6. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven (2005)", IMDb, retrieved 11 March 2018
  7. ^ a b c "Directors Cuts, the Good, the Bad, and the Unnecessary". Empire. 10 January 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Kingdom of Heaven: 4-Disc Director's Cut DVD Review". Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
  9. ^ Richard J. Radcliff (29 May 2005). "Movie Review:Kingdom of Heaven". Archived from the original on 25 February 2006. visually and sonically beautiful; visually stunning cinematography and haunting music.
  10. ^ a b c d Stephanie Zacharek (6 May 2005). "Kingdom of Heaven – Salon". Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Cinematographer John Mathieson gives us lots of great, sweeping landscapes.
  11. ^ Carrie Rickey (6 May 2005). "Epic 'Kingdom' has a weak link". Philadelphia Inquirer. cinematography, supporting performances and battle sequences are so meticulously mounted.
  12. ^ Uncut, Review of Kingdom of Heaven, Uncut, 2005-07-01, page 129, web: BuyCom-Uncut: noted "Where Scott scores is in the cinematography and set-pieces, with vast armies surging across sun-baked sand in almost Kurosawa-like ballets of light and color".
  13. ^ Nix. "Kingdom of Heaven (2005)". Archived from the original on 10 October 2006. Retrieved 21 September 2006. "Scott's visual acumen is the main draw of Kingdom of Heaven" and "stunning cinematography and jaw-dropping combat sequences" or "stellar cinematography".
  14. ^ a b Roger Ebert (5 May 2005). "Kingdom of Heaven (review)". Ebert noted "What's more interesting is Ridley Scott's visual style, assisted by John Mathieson's cinematography and the production design of Arthur Max. A vast set of ancient Jerusalem was constructed to provide realistic foregrounds and locations, which were then enhanced by CGI backgrounds, additional horses and troops, and so on".
  15. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven VFX breakdown". The Moving Picture Company. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  16. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven". Double Negative VFX. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  17. ^ a b "Filmtracks: Kingdom of Heaven (Harry Gregson-Williams)".
  18. ^ a b "Kingdom of Heaven Soundtrack (2005)".
  19. ^ Jack Moore, Kingdom of Heaven: Director's Cut DVD Review Archived 22 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Manohla Dargis, The New York Times review of Kingdom of Heaven
  21. ^ James Berardinelli,
  22. ^ Ty Burr, "Kingdom of Heaven Movie Review: Historically and heroically challenged 'Kingdom' fails to conquer"
  23. ^ a b "CNN "Kingdom of Heaven" Transcript". 9 May 2005.
  24. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven". Rotten Tomatoes. 28 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven".
  26. ^ Schlimm, Matthew Richard (20 August 2010). "The Necessity of Permanent Criticism: A Postcolonial Critique of Ridley Scott's Kingdom of Heaven". Journal of Media and Religion. 9 (3): 129–145. doi:10.1080/15348423.2010.500967.
  27. ^ Charlotte Edwardes (17 January 2004). "Ridley Scott's new Crusades film 'panders to Osama bin Laden'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  28. ^ Andrew Holt (5 May 2005). "Truth is the First Victim- Jonathan Riley-Smith". Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
  29. ^ Jamie Byrom, Michael Riley "The Crusades"
  30. ^ "Thomas F. Madden on Kingdom of Heaven on National Review Online". 27 May 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Creative Accuracy: The Scholars Speak (Video 2006)".
  32. ^ Bob Thompson (1 May 2005). "Hollywood on Crusade: With His Historical Epic, Ridley Scott Hurtles Into Vexing, Volatile Territory". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  33. ^ John Harlow. "Christian right goes to war with Ridley's crusaders".
  34. ^ Robert Fisk (20 June 2005). "Kingdom of Heaven: Why Ridley Scott's Story Of The Crusades Struck Such A Chord In A Lebanese Cinema". Archived from the original on 17 December 2005.
  35. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven – Box Office Data".
  36. ^ "Kingdom of Heaven Trivia". Archived from the original on 13 January 2008.
  37. ^ Garth Franklin. "Interview: Ridley Scott's Kingdom of Heaven". DarkHorizons. Archived from the original on 5 May 2005.
  38. ^ a b "Kingdom of Heaven: Director's Cut DVD official website". Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  39. ^ "Double Dip Digest: Kingdom of Heaven". 6 June 2006.
  40. ^ "Review: Kingdom of Heaven: Director's Cut".
  41. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ Berardinelli, James. "Kingdom of Heaven Director's Cut Review".
  43. ^ Kauffman, Jeffrey (5 October 2014). "Kingdom of Heaven Blu-ray Review". Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  44. ^ "Ridley Scott interview". Archived from the original on 28 July 2011.
  45. ^ Total Film magazine, July 2006: 'Three hours, eight minutes. It's beautiful.' (Interview to promote Kingdom of Heaven: The Director's Cut)
  46. ^ Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.
  47. ^ a b "Making the Crusades Relevant in KINGDOM OF HEAVEN" by Cathy Schultz
  48. ^ Depicted in the director's cut.[citation needed]
  49. ^ Christopher Tyerman, God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Penguin, 2006.
  50. ^ Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952, pp. 463–467.
  51. ^ Ambroise; Marianne Ailes; Malcolm Barber (2003). The History of the Holy War: Ambroise's Estoire de la Guerre Sainte. Boydell Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-1-84383-001-6.


External links[edit]