Battle of Hattin
|Battle of Hattin|
|Part of the Wars of the Crusader States|
The Battle of Hattin, from a 15th-century manuscript
| Kingdom of Jerusalem
County of Tripoli
Principality of Antioch
Order of Saint Lazarus
|Commanders and leaders|
| Guy of Lusignan (POW)
Raymond III of Tripoli
Balian of Ibelin
Gerard de Rideford (POW)
Garnier de Nablus
Raynald of Châtillon (POW) †
Muzaffar ad-Din Gökböri
Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
|Casualties and losses|
|believed heavy||believed light|
The Battle of Hattin took place on July 4, 1187, between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin. It is also known as the Battle of the Horns of Hattin, from a nearby extinct volcano.
The Muslim armies under Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war. As a direct result of the battle, Muslims once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and several other Crusader-held cities. These Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which began two years after the Battle of Hattin.
The battle took place near Tiberias in present-day Israel. The battlefield, near the town of Hittin, had as its chief geographic feature a double hill (the "Horns of Hattin") beside a pass through the northern mountains between Tiberias and the road from Acre to the east. The Darb al-Hawarnah road, built by the Romans, served as the main east-west passage between the Jordan fords, the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean coast.
Guy of Lusignan became king of Jerusalem in 1186, in right of his wife Sibylla, after the death of Sibylla's son Baldwin V. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was at this time divided between the "court faction" of Guy, Sibylla, and relative newcomers to the kingdom such as Raynald of Châtillon, Gerard of Ridefort and the Knights Templar; and the "nobles’ faction", led by Raymond III of Tripoli, who had been regent for the child-king Baldwin V and had opposed the succession of Guy. Disgusted, Raymond of Tripoli watched as his fellow poulain (permanent settlers descended from the original crusaders) barons hastened to Jerusalem to make obeisance to King Guy and Queen Sibylla. The great lord of Tripoli rode in the opposite direction, up the Jordan River Valley to Tiberias. The situation was so tense that there was almost open warfare between Raymond and Guy, who wanted to besiege Tiberias, a fortress held by Raymond through his wife Eschiva, Princess of Galilee. War was avoided through the mediation of Raymond's supporter Balian of Ibelin.
Meanwhile, the Muslim states surrounding the kingdom had been united during the 1170s and 1180s by Saladin. Saladin had been appointed vizier of Egypt in 1169 and soon came to rule the country as sultan. In 1174, he imposed his rule over Damascus; his authority extended to Aleppo by 1176 and Mosul by 1183. For the first time, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was encircled by Muslim territory united under one ruler. The crusaders defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in 1177, and in the early 1180s there was an uneasy truce between the two sides, which was broken by the raids of Raynald on Muslim caravans passing through his fief of Oultrejordain. Raynald also threatened to attack Mecca itself.
In April 1187, Raymond agreed to a treaty with Saladin. As part of their agreement, Raymond allowed the sultan to send a reconnaissance force to Galilee. At the same time, a group led by Balian of Ibelin on Guy's behalf was travelling through the area. Raymond advised Balian to remain in the castle of Afula until the Muslim forces had moved on, but Balian ignored Raymond's advice. This embassy was defeated at the Battle of Cresson on May 1, by a small force under the command of Al-Afdal. Raymond, wracked with guilt, reconciled with Guy, who assembled the entire army of the kingdom and marched north to meet Saladin.
Siege of Tiberias
In late May Saladin assembled the largest army he had ever commanded, around some 30,000 men including about 12,000 regular cavalry. He inspected his forces at Tell-Ashtara before crossing the River Jordan on June 30. The opposing Crusader army amassed at La Saphorie; it consisted of around 20,000 men, including 1,200 knights from Jerusalem and Tripoli and 50 from Antioch. Though the army was smaller than Saladin's it was still larger than those usually mustered by the Crusaders. After reconciling, Raymond and Guy met at Acre with the bulk of the crusader army. According to the claims of some European sources, aside from the knights there was a greater number of lighter cavalry, and perhaps 10,000 foot soldiers, supplemented by crossbowmen from the Italian merchant fleet, and a large number of mercenaries (including Turcopoles) hired with money donated to the kingdom by Henry II, King of England. Also the army's standard was the relic of the True Cross, carried by the Bishop of Acre, who was there in place of the ailing Patriarch Heraclius.
On July 2, Saladin, who wanted to lure Guy into moving his field army away from their encampment by the springs at La Saphorie, personally led a siege of Raymond's fortress of Tiberias while the main Muslim army remained at Kafr Sabt. The garrison at Tiberias tried to pay Saladin off, but he refused, later stating that "when the people realized they had an opponent who could not be tricked and would not be contented with tribute, they were afraid lest war might eat them up and they asked for quarter...but the servant gave the sword dominion over them." The fortress fell the same day. A tower was mined and, when it fell, Saladin's troops stormed the breach killing the opposing forces and taking prisoners.
Holding out, Raymond's wife Eschiva was besieged in the citadel. As the mining was begun on that structure, news was received by Saladin that Guy was moving the Frank army east. The Crusaders had taken the bait.
Guy's decision to leave the secure base provided by his well-watered assembly point at La Saphorie, was the result of a Crusader war council held the night of July 2. Though reports of what happened at this meeting are biased due to personal feuds among the Franks, it seems Raymond argued that a march from Acre to Tiberias was exactly what Saladin wanted while La Saphorie was a strong position for the Crusaders to defend. Furthermore, Guy shouldn't worry about Tiberias, which Raymond held personally and was willing to give up for the safety of the kingdom. In response to this argument, and despite their reconciliation (internal court politics remaining strong), Raymond was accused of cowardice by Gerard and Raynald. The latter influenced Guy to attack immediately.
Guy thus ordered the army to march against Saladin at Tiberias, which is indeed just what Saladin had planned, for he had calculated that he could defeat the crusaders only in a field battle rather than by besieging their fortifications.
Saladin had also unexpectedly gained the alliance of the Druze community based in Sarahmul led by Jamal ad-Din Hajji, whose father Karama was an age-old ally of Nur ad-Din Zangi. The city of Sarahmul had been sacked by the crusaders on various occasions and according to Jamal ad-Din Hajji the crusaders even manipulated the Assassins to kill his three elder brothers.
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The crusaders began their march from Sephoria on July 3. Guy would command the center, with Raymond in the vanguard and Balian, Raynald, and the military orders made up the rearguard. The crusaders were almost immediately under harassment from the Muslim skirmishers on horseback.
By noon on that day, the Crusader army had reached a spring at the village of Tur'an some six miles (10 km) from La Saphorie. Here, according to Saladin, "The hawks of the Frankish infantry and the eagle of their cavalry hovered around the water."
It was still nine miles (14 km) to Tiberias. Therefore, with only a half day of marching time remaining, any attempt to leave this sure water source to seek that objective the same day, all while under the constant attack of Saladin's army, would be foolhardy. (In 1182 the Frankish army had only advanced 8 miles (13 km) in a full day in face of the enemy and in 1183 Guy had managed but six miles (10 km) in a similar situation, taking a full day.) But, as Saladin wrote, "Satan incited Guy to do what ran counter to his purpose." That is, for unknown reasons, Guy set out that very afternoon, marching his army forward, seeming to head for Tiberias.
When Saladin arrived from the taking of Tiberias, and after the Crusader army left Tur'an, the Muslims began their attack in earnest. Saladin sent the two wings of his army around the Frankish force and seized the spring at Tur'an, thus blocking the Frankish line of retreat. This maneuver would give Saladin victory.
There was a major change in the Crusaders plan. Believing that the Crusader army could not fight its way across Saladin's front, Raymond persuaded Guy to veer to the left and head for the springs of Hattin only 6 miles (9.7 km) away. From there they could march down to Tiberias the following day.
In the ensuing struggle, the Crusader rearguard was forced to a standstill by continuous attacks, thus halting the whole army on the arid plateau near the village of Meskana. The crusaders were thus forced to make camp surrounded by the Muslims. They now had no water nor any hope of receiving supplies or reinforcements. Guy hoped that the Christian army could force its way through to the Spring of Hattin the following morning.
Throughout the night the Muslims further demoralized the crusaders by praying, singing, beating drums, showing symbols, and chanting. They set fire to the dry grass, making the crusaders' throats even drier. The Crusaders were now thirsty, demoralized and exhausted. The Muslim army by contrast had a caravan of camels bring goatskins of water up from Lake Tiberias (now known as the Sea of Galilee).
Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad summarizes the situation of the Frankish army:
They were closely beset as in a noose, while still marching on as though being driven to death that they could see before them, convinced of their doom and destruction and themselves aware that the following day they would be visiting their graves.
On the morning of July 4, the crusaders were blinded by smoke from the fires set by Saladin's forces. They came under fire from Muslim mounted archers from the divisions commanded by Gökböri, who had been resupplied with 400 loads of arrows that had been brought up during the night. Gerard and Raynald advised Guy to form battle lines and attack, which was done by Guy's brother Amalric. Raymond led the first division with Raymond of Antioch, the son of Bohemund III of Antioch, while Balian and Joscelin III of Edessa formed the rearguard.
Thirsty and demoralized, the crusaders broke camp and changed direction for the springs of Hattin, but their ragged approach was attacked by Saladin's army which blocked the route forward and any possible retreat. Count Raymond launched two charges in an attempt to break through to the water supply at the Lake Tiberias. The second of these enabled him to reach the lake and make his way to Tyre.
After Raymond escaped, Guy's position was now even more desperate. Most of the Christian infantry had effectively deserted by fleeing in a mass onto the Horns of Hattin where they played no further part in the battle. Overwhelmed by thirst and wounds, many were killed on the spot without resistance while the remainder were taken prisoner. Their plight was such that five of Raymond's knights went over to the Muslim leaders to beg that they be mercifully put to death. Guy attempted to pitch the tents again to block the Muslim cavalry. The Christian knights and mounted serjeants were disorganized, but still fought on. Christian chronicles record how the gold reliquary holding the True Cross was hustled into Guy's red tent for safety.
Now the crusaders were surrounded and, despite three desperate charges on Saladin's position, were eventually defeated. An eyewitness account of this is given by Saladin's 17-year-old son, al-Afdal. It is quoted by Muslim chronicler Ibn al-Athir:
When the king of the Franks [Guy] was on the hill with that band, they made a formidable charge against the Muslims facing them, so that they drove them back to my father [Saladin]. I looked towards him and he was overcome by grief and his complexion pale. He took hold of his beard and advanced, crying out "Give the lie to the Devil!" The Muslims rallied, returned to the fight and climbed the hill. When I saw that the Franks withdrew, pursued by the Muslims, I shouted for joy, "We have beaten them!" But the Franks rallied and charged again like the first time and drove the Muslims back to my father. He acted as he had done on the first occasion and the Muslims turned upon the Franks and drove them back to the hill. I again shouted, "We have beaten them!" but my father rounded on me and said, "Be quiet! We have not beaten them until that tent [Guy's] falls." As he was speaking to me, the tent fell. The sultan dismounted, prostrated himself in thanks to God Almighty and wept for joy.
Surrender of crusaders
The Muslim forces had captured the royal tent of King Guy, and the True Cross after the Bishop of Acre was killed in the fighting. Prisoners included Guy, his brother Amalric II, Raynald de Chatillon, William V of Montferrat, Gerard de Ridefort, Humphrey IV of Toron, Hugh of Jabala, Plivain of Botron, Hugh of Gibelet, and many other barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Perhaps only as few as 3,000 Christians escaped the defeat. The anonymous text De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum Libellus claims that Raymond, Joscelin, Balian, and Reginald of Sidon fled the field in the middle of the battle, trampling "the Christians, the Turks, and the Cross" in the process, but this is not corroborated by other accounts.
The exhausted captives were brought to Saladin's tent, where Guy was given a goblet of iced water as a sign of Saladin's generosity. When Guy passed the goblet to his fellow captive Raynald, Saladin allowed the old man (Raynald was about 60) to drink, but shortly afterwards said that he had not offered water to Raynald and thus was not bound by the Muslim rules of hospitality. When Saladin accused Raynald of being an oath breaker, Raynald replied "kings have always acted thus. I did nothing more." Saladin then executed Raynald himself, beheading him with his sword. Guy fell to his knees at the sight of Raynald's corpse. Saladin bade him to rise, saying, "It is not the wont of kings, to kill kings; but that man had transgressed all bounds, and therefore did I treat him thus. This man was only killed because of his maleficence and perfidy."
Saladin commanded that the other captive barons were to be spared and treated humanely. All 200 of the Templar and Hospitaller Knights taken prisoner were executed on Saladin's orders, with the exception of the Grand Master of the Temple. The executions were by decapitation. Saint Nicasius, a Knight Hospitaller venerated as a Christian martyr, is said to have been one of the victims.
Imad ed-Din, Saladin's secretary, wrote:
"Saladin ordered that they should be beheaded, choosing to have them dead rather than in prison. With him was a whole band of scholars and sufis and a certain number of devout men and ascetics, each begged to be allowed to kill one of them, and drew his sword and rolled back his sleeve. Saladin, his face joyful, was sitting on his dais, the unbelievers showed black despair."
Captured turcopoles (locally recruited mounted archers employed by the crusader states) were also executed on Saladin's orders. While nominally Christian, these auxiliaries were regarded as renegades who had betrayed Islam.
The True Cross was fixed upside down on a lance and sent to Damascus. Some of Saladin's men now left the army, taking lower ranking Frankish prisoners with them as slaves.
On Sunday, July 5, Saladin traveled the six miles (10 km) to Tiberias and, there, Countess Eschiva surrendered the citadel of the fortress. She was allowed to leave for Tripoli with all her family, followers, and possessions. Raymond of Tripoli, having escaped the battle, died of pleurisy later in 1187.
Guy was taken to Damascus as a prisoner and the other noble captives were eventually ransomed.
In fielding an army of 20,000 men, the Crusaders states had reduced the garrisons of their castles and fortified settlements. The heavy defeat at Hattin meant there was little reserve with which to defend against Saladin's forces. The importance of the defeat is demonstrated by the fact that in its aftermath fifty-two towns and fortifications were captured by Saladin's forces. By mid-September, Saladin had taken Acre, Nablus, Jaffa, Toron, Sidon, Beirut, and Ascalon. Tyre was saved by the arrival of Conrad of Montferrat, resulting in Saladin's assault being repulsed with heavy losses. Jerusalem was defended by Queen Sibylla, Patriarch Heraclius, and Balian, who subsequently negotiated its surrender to Saladin on October 2 (see Siege of Jerusalem).
When Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre told Pope Gregory VIII of the disastrous defeat at Hattin, Pope Gregory VIII issued the bull Audita tremendi calling for a new crusade. In England and France the Saladin tithe was enacted to raise funds for the new crusade.
The subsequent Third Crusade did not get underway until 1189. The three separate contingents of the Third Crusade were led by Philip II of France, Richard I of England, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
For a succession of related campaigns leading up to the Battle of Hattin on July 3–4, 1187, see:
- 1179: Battle of Montgisard
- 1179: Battle of Marj Ayyun
- 1179: Battle of Jacob's Ford
- 1182: Battle of Belvoir Castle
- 1183: Battle of Al-Fule
- 1187: Battle of Cresson
- Nicolle, David (2011-12-20), Saladin, ISBN 9781780962368
- Nicolle, David (2011-12-20), Saladin, ISBN 9781780962368
- Konstam 2004, p. 133
- Riley-Smith 2005, p. 110
- Nicolle, David (1993), Hattin 1187: Saladin's Greatest Victory. Campaign Series #19, Osprey Publishing, p. 59
- Nicolle, David (1993), Hattin 1187: Saladin's Greatest Victory. Campaign Series #19, Osprey Publishing, p. 61
- Madden 2005
- Konstam 2004, p. 119
- Madden 2000
- O'Shea 2006, p. 189
- O'Shea 2006, p. 190
- Nicolle, David (2011-12-20), Saladin, ISBN 9781780962368
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades. A Short History. p. 86. ISBN 0-300-04700-2.
- Nicolle, David (2011), Saladin: Leadership-Strategy-Conflict. Command #12, Osprey Publishing, p. 26
- Nicolle, David (2011), Saladin: Leadership-Strategy-Conflict. Command #12, Osprey Publishing, p. 27
- Steven Runciman. page 458, "A History of the Crusades. The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East", Cambridge University Press 1968, SBN 521 06162 8
- Nicolle, David (1993), Hattin 1187: Saladin's Greatest Victory. Campaign Series #19, Osprey Publishing, p. 64
- Richard, Jean. The Crusades c1071-c1291. p. 207. ISBN 0-521-625661.
- D. S. Richards, trans., The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athīr for the Crusading Period from al-Kāmil fi'l-ta'rīkh by ʻIzz al-Dīn Ibn al-Athīr, Part 2: The Years 541-589/1146-1193: The Age of Nur al-Din and Saladin (Ashgate, 2007) pg. 323.
- Payne, Robert. The Crusades. p. 208. ISBN 1-85326-689-2.
- Runciman, Stephen (1968), A History of the Crusades: Vol. 2 The Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge University Press, p. 460
- Nicholson, Helen. The Knights Templar. p. 54. ISBN 0-7509-3839-0.
- Gabrieli, Francesco (1989), Arab Historians of the Crusades, Dorset Press, p. 138
- Richard, Jean. The Crusades c1071-c1291. p. 207. ISBN 0-521-625661.
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- Gibb, Sir Hamilton A. R. (1969) , "The Rise of Saladin, 1169–1189", A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years (2nd ed.), London: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 563–589
- Konstam, Angus (2004), Historical Atlas of the Crusades, London: Mercury Books, ISBN 978-1-904668-00-8
- Madden, Thomas (2000), A Concise History of the Crusades, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-8476-9430-3
- Madden, Thomas (2005), Crusades: The Illustrated History, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-03127-6
- O'Shea, Stephen (2006), Sea of Faith: Islam and Christianity in the Medieval Mediterranean World, Profile Books, ISBN 978-1-86197-521-8
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2005), The Crusades: A History, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-7269-4
- Smail, R. C. (1995) , Crusading Warfare, 1097–1193 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45838-2
- Baldwin, M. W. (1936), Raymond III of Tripolis and the Fall of Jerusalem (1140–1187), Princeton: Princeton University Press
- Brundage, James A. (1962), "De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum", The Crusades: A Documentary Survey, Milwaukee: Marquette University Press
- Delcourt, Thierry ed. (2009), Sébastien Mamerot, Les Passages d'Outremer. A chronicle of the Crusades, Cologne: Taschen, p. 145, ISBN 978-3-8365-0555-0
- Edbury, Peter W. (1996), The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation, Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 1-84014-676-1
- Gabrieli, Francesco (1989), Arab Historians of the Crusades, New York: Dorset Press, ISBN 0-88029-460-4
- Gillingham, John (1999), Richard I, Yale English Monarchs, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-07912-5
- Holt, P. M. (1986), The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517, New York: Longman, ISBN 0-582-49302-1
- Lyons, M. C.; Jackson, D. E. P. (1982), Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-22358-X
- Nicholson, R. L. (1973), Joscelyn III and the Fall of the Crusader States, 1134–1199, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-03676-8
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