Kipunada

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Kipunada
Kushan Ruler
Kipunada.jpg
Coin of Kipunada. Circa 335-350 CE.
Obverse: Kipunada standing left, sacrificing over altar. To the right, name vertically in Brahmi script in monogrammic form: Ki-pu-ṇa Gupta ashoka ki.jpgGupta ashoka pu.jpgGupta gujarat nn.svg. Under the ruler's arm: Bacharnatha Gupta ashoka b.svgGupta ashoka c.svgGupta ashoka r.svgGupta ashoka n.svgGupta ashoka th.svg.
Reverse: Ardoxsho enthroned facing, holding investiture garland and cornucopia.[1]
Reign335-350 CE[2]
PredecessorShaka I
SuccessorKidarites

Kipunada (Brahmi script: Gupta ashoka ki.jpgGupta ashoka pu.jpgGupta gujarat nn.svgGupta gujarat dh.svg Ki-pu-ṇa-dha), also Kipanadha, was probably the last ruler of the Kushan Empire around 335-350 CE.[2] He is known for his gold coinage.[3] He succeeded Shaka I. Kipunada was probably only a local ruler in the area of Taxila, in western Punjab, and he may have been a subject of Gupta Emperor Samudragupta.[4]

Gupta and Kidarite successors[edit]

The coins of Kipunada in Central and Western Punjab were followed by peculiar coins minted locally in Punjab, with the name "Samudra" on them (Gupta script:Gupta ashoka s.svgGupta allahabad mu.jpgGupta allahabad dr.jpg), presumably connected to the Gupta Empire ruler Samudragupta.[5][6] Soon after this, coinage was issued in Punjab by Kidarite Hun rulers known as Kirada, Peroz and then the famous Kidara, who occupied the territory formerly held by the Kushans.[5][6][7]

Preceded by
Shaka I
Kushan Ruler
c.335-350 CE[2]
Succeeded by
Gupta Empire/
Kidarites
(Kirada)
Kushan Empire
Emperors, territories and chronology
(in pink)
Territories/
dates
Western India Western Pakistan
Balochistan
Paropamisadae
Arachosia
Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura Pataliputra
INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM INDO-GREEK KINGDOM Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps
25 BCE – 10 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
APRACHARAJAS
Vijayamitra
(ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[8]
Liaka Kusulaka
Patika Kusulaka
Zeionises
Kharahostes
(ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[9]
Mujatria
Strato II and Strato III Hagana
10-20CE INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM
Gondophares
Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM
Gondophares
Rajuvula
20-30 CE Ubouzanes
Pakores
Vispavarma
(ruled c.0-20 CE)[10]
Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa
30-40 CE KUSHAN EMPIRE
Kujula Kadphises (c.50-90)[2]
Indravarma Abdagases ... ...
40-45 CE Aspavarma Gadana ... ...
45-50 CE Sasan Sases ... ...
50-75 CE ... ...
75-100 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
WESTERN SATRAPS
Chastana
Vima Takto (c.90-113)[2] ... ...
100-120 CE Abhiraka Vima Kadphises (c. 113-127)[2]
120 CE Bhumaka
Nahapana
PARATARAJAS
Yolamira
Kanishka I (c. 127-151)[2] Great Satrap Kharapallana
and Satrap Vanaspara
for
Kanishka I
130-230 CE

Jayadaman
Rudradaman I
Damajadasri I
Jivadaman
Rudrasimha I
Isvaradatta
Rudrasimha I
Jivadaman
Rudrasena I


Bagamira
Arjuna
Hvaramira
Mirahvara


Huvishka (c. 151 – c. 190)[2]
Vasudeva I (c. 190 – 230)[2]

230-250 CE

Samghadaman
Damasena
Damajadasri II
Viradaman
Yasodaman I
Vijayasena
Damajadasri III
Rudrasena II
Visvasimha

Miratakhma
Kozana
Bhimarjuna
Koziya
Datarvharna
Datarvharna

KUSHANO-SASANIANS
Ardashir I (c. 230 – 250)
Ardashir II (?-245)


Kanishka II (c. 230 – 247)[2]

250-280

Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265)
Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

Vāsishka (c. 247 – 267)[2]
Kanishka III (c. 267 – 270)[2]


280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II (c. 267 – 300)[2]

GUPTA EMPIRE
Chandragupta I
Samudragupta
Chandragupta II

300-320 CE

Visvasena
Rudrasimha II
Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Mahi (c. 300-305)[2]
Shaka (c. 305 – 335)[2]

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II
Rudradaman II
Rudrasena III
Simhasena
Rudrasena IV

Varahran I (325-350)
Shapur II Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 350)

Kipunada (c. 335 – 350)[2]


388-396 CE Rudrasimha III KIDARITES invasion

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ CNG Coins
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Cribb, Joe; Donovan, Peter (2014). Kushan, Kushano-Sasanian, and Kidarite Coins A Catalogue of Coins From the American Numismatic Society by David Jongeward and Joe Cribb with Peter Donovan. p. 4.
  3. ^ Heritage World Coin Auctions Long Beach Signature Auction Catalog #378. Ivy Press. May 2005. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-932899-79-5.
  4. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 203.
  5. ^ a b c d Cribb, Joe. "The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence.pdf". Coins, Art and Chronology II, Edited by M. Alram et Al.: 101.
  6. ^ a b c d "In the Punjab the stylistic progression of the gold series from Kushan to Kidarite is clear: imitation staters were issued first in the name of Samudragupta, then by Kirada, 'Peroz' and finally Kidara" in Errington, Elizabeth; Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh (2007). From Persepolis to the Punjab: Exploring Ancient Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. British Museum Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7141-1165-0.
  7. ^ Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-4744-0030-5.
  8. ^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary
  9. ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [1]
  10. ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published online: 09 Aug 2010 [2]

External links[edit]