La Línea de la Concepción

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La Línea de la Concepción
View of La Línea as seen from the Rock of Gibraltar
View of La Línea as seen from the Rock of Gibraltar
Flag of La Línea de la Concepción
Coat of arms of La Línea de la Concepción
Location within Cádiz
Location within Cádiz
La Línea is located in Province of Cádiz
La Línea
La Línea
Location in the Province of Cádiz
La Línea is located in Andalusia
La Línea
La Línea
La Línea (Andalusia)
La Línea is located in Spain
La Línea
La Línea
La Línea (Spain)
Coordinates: 36°10′05″N 5°20′55″W / 36.16806°N 5.34861°W / 36.16806; -5.34861Coordinates: 36°10′05″N 5°20′55″W / 36.16806°N 5.34861°W / 36.16806; -5.34861
Country Spain
Autonomous community Andalusia
Province Cádiz
ComarcaCampo de Gibraltar
Judicial districtLa Línea
Founded1870 (1870)
 • MayorJuan Franco (2015) (Independent)
 • Total19.27 km2 (7.44 sq mi)
5 m (16 ft)
 • Total62,940
 • Density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
Dialing code(+34) 956 ó 856
Click on the map for a fullscreen view
Gibraltar, as seen from La Línea.
Topographic map of the Bay, showing the Lines. circa 1750

La Línea de la Concepción (Spanish pronunciation: [la ˈlinea ðe la konθepˈθjon], more often referred to as La Línea) is a municipality of Spain belonging to the province of Cádiz, Andalusia.

The city lies on the sandy isthmus which is part of the eastern flank of the Bay of Gibraltar, and it limits with the Gibraltar–Spain border to the south. La Línea has close economic and social links with the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

The first dwellings, which date back to the 18th century, were behind the Spanish lines, being part of the municipality of San Roque until 1870, when La Línea became a standalone municipality.

The people of La Línea have traditionally found work in Gibraltar, from the days in the 18th century when Gibraltar was an important naval port. This stopped with the total closure of the border by the Spanish government between 9 June 1969 [2] and 15 December 1982 [3] as a result of the dispute between Spain and Britain regarding the sovereignty of Gibraltar. The border was fully reopened on 5 February 1985.[4]

La Línea is a major supplier of fruit and vegetables to Gibraltar; other industries include the manufacture of cork, liquor, and fish paste. It also had an important military garrison with substantial fortifications and a port.[citation needed]


The town derives its name firstly from the línea or boundary line separating Spain from Gibraltar, and secondly from the Immaculate Conception of Mary, the Mother of Jesus. Its people are called in Spanish linenses.[citation needed]


The War of Spanish Succession and the British occupation of Gibraltar[edit]

When Charles II died in 1700 without an heir to the Crown of Spain, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out between the two main pretenders to the Spanish throne: Philip of Anjou and Charles, Archduke of Austria (later Charles VI of the Holy Roman Empire). Philip was the grandson of Louis XIV of France, and had the support of France. Austria, England, and the Netherlands feared a possible alliance and/or a hypothetical union between the French and Spanish royal houses, and so favoured the Habsburg Charles. In November 1700, Philip was declared king.[citation needed]

The Grand Alliance[5][6] captured Gibraltar on 3 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession after abortive attempts elsewhere.[7] It was selected for its strategic value, weak garrison and to encourage the rejection of Philip V (the Bourbon Claimant) in favour of Charles III (the Hapsburg claimant).[8] Following orders to respect civilians,[9] officers tried to maintain control but discipline broke down and the men[10] ran amok.[11] After order was restored,[12][13] despite the surrender agreement promising property and religious rights,[14] most of the population left with the garrison on 7 August citing loyalty to Philip.[15] Several factors influenced the decision including the expectation of a counter attack[16] and the violence[17] during the capture, which ultimately proved disastrous for the Hapsburg cause.[18] The subsequent siege failed to dislodge the Hapsburg forces and the refugees settled around Algeciras and the hermitage of San Roque.[19] In 1711, the British and French Governments started secret negotiations to end the war leading to the cession of Gibraltar to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.[20] The municipality of San Roque still has as its motto "La Muy Noble y Más Leal Ciudad de San Roque, donde reside la de Gibraltar " ("the Most Noble and Most Loyal City of San Roque, where reside those [the people] of Gibraltar"). The town lands included the area of the modern La Línea de la Concepción.[citation needed]

King Felipe V, the name by which Philip of Anjou was crowned, ordered the Marquis de Villadarías to besiege the Plaza de Gibraltar. This first attempt to regain the city was unsuccessful and the Spanish army lifted the siege. However, to monitor the isthmus and to oppose a possible invasion of the rest of the territory, a permanent garrison was established in the area, under the military government of Campo de Gibraltar.[citation needed]

The Contravallation Line or La Línea de Gibraltar[edit]

Gibraltar was under constant surveillance and subjected to the unsuccessful Siege of Gibraltar 1727 and the Great Siege of Gibraltar 1779-1783. After the 1727 siege, the Spanish government began the construction of a line of fortifications, the "Contravallation Line" or "La Línea de Gibraltar" thus eventually giving rise to the town La Línea De La Concepción. This would isolate the British outpost from the Spanish mainland.[21]

An order was issued on 2 November 1730 to the Director of Engineering Prospero Jorge de Verboom, for the construction of two strongholds, one located to the east and the other at west of the isthmus, both united by a line of fortification, with the aim of preventing the movement and to assert rights over the isthmus, in addition to consolidate the Spanish presence in the area.

Construction began in 1731 on the two major strongholds, known as Santa Bárbara and San Felipe. The first was named in honor of the patroness of the Artillery, located at the east beach, where their remains are still visible. The second took its name to honor King Felipe V, and is situated on the west beach. Between these two strongholds a large wall was built with central square tip diamond shaped bulwarks with their respective bodies, running from Santa Bárbara to San Felipe. All of them were located at equidistant distances and were called Santa Mariana, San Benito, semi-square and body guard of San José, San Fernando and San Carlos.

Construction of this formidable defensive line was completed in 1735; described now as 'Contravallation Line' or La Línea de Gibraltar.[citation needed]

Thus, La Línea originated from a provisional camp made by artisans and merchants who supplied the military and their families in the vicinity of the fortifications erected to besiege Gibraltar.[citation needed]

The bastions of The Line of Gibraltar would remain intact for twenty years, serving the purpose for which they were built. In the early 19th century the Iberian peninsula was invaded by Napoleonic troops, leading to the Spanish War of Independence and the Peninsular War.

Fearing that the French troops of Napoleon Bonaparte, which had already arrived in the Campo de Gibraltar, might take over the fortresses of La Línea, the Gibraltar Commanding Royal Engineer Charles Holloway decided to blast an opening through them on 14 February 1810.[22] Gibraltar, supported by La Línea, became an important base for Spanish fighters against Napoleon's troops.

After the destruction of the physical line that blocked the passage through the isthmus, the city continued to grow with a strong dependence on Gibraltar, covering all sorts of services to Gibraltar (supply of food, meat, fruit, vegetables and physical space for housing nearby and a labor force in the service of an expanding port, etc.).

In due time, traders, merchants and workers wanted the simple line of buildings to become an independent municipality of San Roque, controlled by the military, landowners and aristocrats. On 17 January 1870 the segregation of La Línea from San Roque was approved.

Some 300 inhabitants were located at Gibraltar Line, the place being named therefore, in Spanish, La Línea. The new municipality included the current Plaza de la Iglesia, Plaza de la Constitución, calle Real (Royal Street), Jardines Street and España Avenue. It had a cemetery, the command, and a customs post, guards and soldiers barracks being located beyond the neighborhood and Espigón far east on the beach.

Properly speaking, La Atunara or Tunara, should not be considered as a contemporary part of the line because its origins date back to some 640 years before the city itself.

On 20 July 1870 La Línea got its first mayor, Lutgardo López Muñoz, chosen by a committee of residents appointed by the provincial council. At the first meeting of the new city hall, it was unanimously decided the name should be La Línea de la Concepción, as the Immaculate Conception was deeply rooted in Spanish army tradition of the time. The name is recorded from 1883.

King Alfonso XIII gave the title of "town" to La Línea de la Concepción in 1913.

Relations with modern Gibraltar[edit]

View of La Línea from the mainland, with the Rock of Gibraltar in the background.
Monument to the Spanish Worker in Gibraltar.
  • The Spanish dictator, Francisco Franco, ordered the closure of the border gate on 8 June 1969, in response to the new Gibraltar Constitution. Many people from La Línea lost their jobs in Gibraltar.
  • Protests were undertaken against the presence of the nuclear submarine HMS Tireless in Gibraltar for repairs in 2001.
  • In 2010, the People's Party mayor of La Línea, Alejandro Sánchez, attempted to impose a "congestion charge" on people entering or leaving Gibraltar.

In November 2017, Apymell collective of small businesses started accepting Pound sterling as a currency for payment in the town.[23]


Strongholds of San Carlos, Santa Bárbara and San Felipe[edit]

18th century military buildings. Built during the siege of Gibraltar as part of the so-called Contravalación Line of Gibraltar, a group of fortifications whose goal was to besiege Gibraltar checking on any UK further expansionist ideas.

During the War of Independence, Peninsular War, Spain had initially been allied to France while trying to invade Portugal, but France shortly after turned on its ally, Spain. Forcing the Spanish to ally itself with Great Britain and Portugal against Napoleonic France to regain control of Spain from the French, these fortifications were blown up by the British to avoid falling into the hands of France. Currently, the Ruins of Fort St. Barbara is in a recovery phase, while the Fort San Felipe remnants have appeared recently. Fort San Carlos does not seem to have left preserved evidence.

The Military[edit]

Currently it hosts the Museum of the Isthmus but was once the military command associated to the Halls Head Officers garrison. It is the oldest building in town that exists, whose Officers' pavilions date from 1863 to 1865.

The Municipal Guards Building[edit]

In 1944 it was demolished in the old "Carabineros Barracks" at the Explanada (now, the Constitution Plaza). There was a single floor building located in the left corner of it. This building was for many years, the Municipal Guards Building and next to it, the first Police Station of this city lasting till about 1936. The Santa Mariana Guard was responsible for checking the San Benito Guard, by the sidewalk near the fountain of Santa Barbara on the beach of Levante.

Torre Nueva[edit]

The Torre Nueva tower is one of 44 towers of the same characteristics that built along the coast from the river Guadiaro to the border with Portugal. All of them were built during the reign of Felipe III, with others located on the Mediterranean coast, from Málaga to Catalonia. These were built to warn the coastal population to the presence of the Berber pirate ships. Smoke signals and bonfires were used to warn of the presence of the pirate ships. At the top of the building, there was always a bundle of dry wood to be burned immediately in case of danger, transmitting the alarm signal to the towers nearby.


The Bullring was built on the old Plaza del Arenal and took 3 years to build and was completed in 1883 with capacity for 6000 people. It is considered to be one of the oldest buildings in La Línea along with the former Military Command, now the Museo del Istmo [1], which are good examples of architecture in Andalusia in the late 19th century. Various fights have taken place in the bullring including a fight between a lion and a bull in 1887. During the 1970s and 1980s the upper part of the bullring was unsafe and was demolished.

Luis Ramírez Galuzo was undoubtedly one of the neighbors of the city with more economic means of the century, and the mayor on several occasions, submitted to the council for permission to build on own property, a bullring, to celebrate the Spanish festival, other festivals such as acrobatic, and other celebrations in the year 1880, the project being led by the provincial architect Adolfo del Castillo, author among other works, of the Abastos market, today Concepción market and the former Municipal Slaughterhouse now disappeared.

Bullfights mark the beginning of the Feria de la Línea which is celebrated in mid-July and in recent times is the only time that a bullfight occurs.

Shrine of the Immaculate Conception[edit]

The main Parish church was built in the 19th century colonial style. Notable features are the 17th-century reredos and the image of St. Mary made by the Andalusian sculptor Luis Ortega Bru. The church became a shrine at the end of 2005. The Church of the Immaculate Conception has three naves. The exterior of the building echoes the interior layout, with a remarkable simplicity and beauty.

Inside the parish church of the Immaculate Conception there are images of Jesús del Gran Poder, and others belonging to four religious guilds.

The Three Graces[edit]

The Three Graces is a Monument at the Plaza de la Iglesia that is based on the Greek mythology of the three Charites, which represent charm, beauty, and creativity. This work by Nacho Falgueras is based on that by the local painter José Cruz Herrera. The recently opened monument is a tribute to the "linense" women.

Monument to the Spanish workers in Gibraltar[edit]

Work also of Nacho Falgueras. It is a tribute to the thousands of "linenses" and "campogibraltareños" who spent their lives working in Gibraltar. Because of difficult times in this part of Spain they crossed the border every day to work and support their families. It is a tribute by the town of La Línea to all those who worked and continue to work in Gibraltar.

Monument to Camarón de la Isla[edit]

Monument located on the west access of the city, between the Paseo Marítimo de Poniente and the Casa de la Juventud. It is a historical monument dedicated to the figure of the famous flamenco singer José Monge Cruz, Camarón de la Isla, who lived much of his life in this city. The sculpture is also the work of Nacho Falgueras.

Conservatorio Profesional de Música "Muñoz Molleda"[edit]

It takes its name from the "linense" José Muñoz Molleda, who gave music lessons to many young people, aged between 9 and 35 years, both "Linenses" and from other nearby cities, as this Music Conservatory was the only one in the Campo de Gibraltar area awarding a "Grado Medio"—intermediate degree.

A stepping stone for learning music in the city for many years, together with the "Linense" Municipal Foundation of Culture and the Félix Enríquez Musical Society, particularly its most recent director Ignacio Ábalos Nuevo.

Currently under reform, there is still teaching going on. On the underground parking just below the extension of the Conservatory, archaeological remains of the 18th century Contravalación line were found and are now displayed nearby.

Plans for introducing soon the area of professional Opera Singing were put forward in December 2006 by famous International Opera soprano Singer Montserrat Caballé.


  • Museo Cruz Herrera
  • Museum of the Isthmus [2]. Located at the former Military Command of the city.
  • Municipal Historical Museum.

It stores files documenting the city since 1887.

  • Museo Taurino—Bullfighting Museum.

It stores a large collection of bullfighting posters, costumes, herds, stamps, photographs of bullfighters, and so on. Composed of four rooms and a chapel, Manolete hall, El Gordito hall, Antonio Duarte "Pota" lounge, El Marinero hall and the Frascuelo hall. With thousands of photographs, bullfight posters, marking irons, torero costumes, trophies, capes, flags, stocks, etc.. With over 50 years of history, it can be considered one of the most important ones in the country. Founder: José Cabrera Duarte, a great fan of bullfighting, and a keen collector of all kinds.



Beachgoers at Playa de Poniente.

La Línea has 14 kilometres (9 miles) of beaches, named Playa de Levante, Playa de La Atunara, La Alcaidesa, Playa de La Hacienda, Playa de Poniente, Playa de Santa Bárbara, El Burgo Sobrevela, Portichuelos, Playa de Torrenueva, some of which are awarded each year a Blue Flag beach award by the Coastal European Authorities. In 2007, the beaches of La Alcaidesa and Sobrevela obtained this recognition.


In May 2014 a report by the World Health Organization showed that La Línea had the worst air quality in Spain. The report concentrated on PM10 and PM2.5 Pollutants in the air, which could only have come from the nearby Gibraltar-San Roque Refinery[24] ,[25] in the 2016 report by the World Health Organization, La Línea was the third worst place in Spain in terms of air quality.[26]


La Línea
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Weather Atlas [27]

La Línea de la Concepción has a subtropical Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with moderately warm winters and very warm summers. The summer is the driest season, while the winter is the wettest season, followed closely by the autumn. The average annual temperature is 18.6 °C. The high temperatures during winter range normally from 15 to 21 °C (59 to 70 °F), while the lows from 9 to 15 °C (48 to 59 °F). During summer, the high temperatures range normally from 26 to 30 °C (79 to 86 °F), while the lows from 18 to 22 °C (64 to 72 °F). Large fluctuation between the highs and the lows is very rare, as in average, the high temperatures are just 6 °C warmer than the lows. The city receives nearly 3,000 hours of sunshine a year. The city lies directly on the coast so humidity is normally between 60-70% and the influence of the cool sea currents is very noticeable so the temperatures are always mild, extreme temperatures are rare.

Climate data for La Línea de la Concepción
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.0
Average low °C (°F) 11.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 93.0
Source: Weather Atlas [27]
Climate data for La Línea de la Concepción
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 16.3
Source: [28]


Historical population of La Línea de la Concepción
(Source: INE (Spain))

Notable people[edit]


  • Congress and Exhibition Hall: opened in 2005 with a floor area of over 5300 , the palace is built around two main areas, the main auditorium and the conferences auditorium. It also has a scene of 200  surface and 10 m in height, which allows not only the holding of congresses, but also events such as theater, concerts and even opera. The conference auditorium seats 354, and although it is totally unrelated to the first so they can develop different activities simultaneously, the facilities are interconnected to support each other if necessary. In this palace are very frequent theater companies and concerts given by such people as Montserrat Caballé, Raphael, or other well known artists. The Palace also has a four star hotel from the Iberostar chain.
  • Menéndez Pelayo International University headquarters is located in one of the most emblematic buildings of the town, given its rationalist architecture: Villa D'Amato, family home of a prestigious Maltese trader since 1939, formerly a popular theater where people came to enjoy the most famous moment. The writer Mario Vargas Llosa gave a keynote address opened the university.
  • Real Club Náutico de La Línea: the Real Club Náutico de La Línea is located in Av/ del Mar, principally the sport of sailing, with this support have been distinguished sailors as Rafael Trujillo Villar. Diving is also practiced, with beginner and advanced courses in these two sports.
Aerial view of the Alcaidesa Marina
  • Alcaidesa Marina: The facility has 777 berths and an extension of 59,898 m2 and a sheet of water of 239,947 m2 for the construction and operation of facilities nautical-use sports and recreational commercial.
Plan of Alcaidesa Marina

Hotels in the city[edit]

  • 4 Stars: Ohtel Campo de Gibraltar.
  • 3 Stars: Hotel AC La Línea, Aparthotel Golf & Beach Vista Real


In May 2014 a report by the World Health Organization showed that La Línea de la Concepción had the worst air quality in Spain. The report concentrated on PM10 and PM2.5 Pollutants in the air.

Entertainment and Nightlife[edit]

  • The Path Bunkers.
  • Parque Municipal Reina Sofía: A place where hundreds of young people congregate every Friday and Saturday is winter or summer, in the mythical stands, which allows Botellón in the city.
  • Pubs are located in Calle Lopez de Ayala y Herrera Cruz in the Plaza and close at 4:30. In summer, in the Levante beach tents are for the enjoyment of citizens (La pija, La Suite, La Bambudha and The Circus) is now given today's Coastal Act are due to move slightly more inward and in winter the city has two discos for young people "Portobello" and "Metro" and an adult audience "Las Palmeras", which corresponds to closing hours of the morning 7-8.

Local Cultural Festivals and Events[edit]

  • Feria de La Línea also known as "The Salvaora" Fiesta declared of National Tourist Interest in Andalusia, is celebrated in mid-July.
  • Rocieros Sunday, the first Sunday of Fair.
  • Easter.
  • Medieval Fair in July and November
  • Certamen Andaluz de Música "Muñoz Molleda".
  • Feast of the Immaculate Conception (8 December, patron saint of the city)
  • Saint John's Eve celebrated by making Bonfires of Saint John
  • Carnaval de la Concha Fina, held in February / March each year.
  • Top Fair in early May, in the Complex Ballesteros.
  • National piano.


By Road:

By air:

By Train:

La Línea is one of the few cities in Spain with a population above 50,000 not to be served by a railway line. A project to complete the San Roque-La Línea railway line was aborted in the 1970s.[29]

Upcoming Projects[edit]

  • Construction of an access building adjacent to the border to link with the new terminal of the Gibraltar Airport

This will be on the site previously used by the La Línea fair.

  • New marítimo walk from Levante Beach

Currently under construction. Possible redevelopment of the Ruins of Fort St. Barbara.

  • New Hospital for the Campo de Gibraltar
  • New Musical Conservatory Grade Medium

Pending the Board of Andalusia permission for its opening. Because the ruling party on the line is of a different political signal to the ruling on the Board of Andalusia, but the building is fully constructed and empowered from time to teaching, the Board of Andalusia takes three years to block its opening, damaging the music community linens

  • Boulevard Avenue 21 April

The six million visitors a year who come to Gibraltar to visit 62 stores that generate wealth for the city. Currently at an advanced stage of construction, together with the refurbishment of the tourist office.

  • Plaza remodeling Cruz Herrera

Completed in 2008.

Mentions the City[edit]

  • 2002 Award of Silver Broom
  • Golden Broom Award 2004 Given to cities at least as clean as Santiago de Compostela Vigo


  • La Línea. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006.
  • La Línea. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004


  1. ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  2. ^ "Spanish close off 'Rock'", Montreal Gazette, 9 June 1969, p1
  3. ^ "Spain ends Gibraltar blockade", by John Hooper, The Guardian (London), 15 December 1982, p1
  4. ^ "The siege of Gibraltar is over", The Observer (London), 3 February 1985, p17
  5. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Hesse's force, including the Dutch Marines and a detachment of Catalans, was just under two thousand strong
  6. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011.The British units in the landing forces were: Fox's Marines ...the Royal Regiment of Marines...Sanderson's Marines...Villier's Marines
  7. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. As the fleet sailed north toward Toulon, Hesse persuaded Rooke to attempt raising Barcelona in the archduke's cause by landing troops there
  8. ^ William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1990). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar. Gibraltar Books. p. 94. ISBN 9780948466144. Retrieved 4 February 2011. Consideration was given to what other project might be undertaken by Rooke's powerful fleet of fifty-two English and ten Dutch ships of the line. In the debate, three reasons were given for selecting Gibraltar as the target: the place was indifferently garrisoned; its possession would be of great value during the war; and its capture would encourage the Spaniards in southern Spain to declare in favour of the Hapsburgs.
  9. ^ George Hills (1974). Rock of contention: a history of Gibraltar. Hale. p. 165. ISBN 9780709143529. Retrieved 7 April 2011.Ormonde issued a proclamation. "They were come not to invade or conquer any part of Spain or to make any acquisitions for Her Majesty Queen Anne...but rather to deliver Spaniards from the mean subjection into which a small and corrupt party of men have brought them by delivering up that former glorious monarchy to the dominion of the perpetual enemies of it, the French" He laid particular stress on the respect that was to be shown to priests and nuns - "We have already ordered under pain of death of officers and soldiers under our command not to molest any person of what rank or quality so ever in the exercise of their religion in any manner whatsoever.
  10. ^ G. T. Garratt (March 2007). Gibraltar and the Mediterranean. Lightning Source Inc. p. 44. ISBN 9781406708509. Retrieved 7 April 2011.One has but to read the books left to us by the sailors to realize the peculiar horror of the life between-decks. Cooped up there, like sardines in a tin, were several hundreds of men, gathered by force and kept together by brutality. A lower-deck was the home of every vice, every baseness and every misery
  11. ^ David Francis (1 April 1975). The First Peninsular War: Seventeen-Two to Seventeen-Thirteen. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 9780312292607. Retrieved 7 April 2011.But some of the sailors, before they could be recalled to their ships broke loose in the town and plundered the inhabitants
  12. ^ George Hills (1974). Rock of contention: a history of Gibraltar. Hale. p. 175. ISBN 9780709143529. Retrieved 7 April 2011."Great disorders", he found, "had been committed by the boats crews that came on shore and marines; but the General Officers took great care to prevent them, by continually patrolling with their sergeants, and sending them on board their ships and punishing the marines
  13. ^ Allen Andrews (1958). Proud fortress; the fighting story of Gibraltar. Evans. p. 35. Retrieved 7 April 2011.a few of them hanged as rioters after the sacking. One Englishman had to throw dice with a Dutchman to determine who should hang pour encourager les autres. They stood under the gallows an diced on a drum. The Englishman threw nine to the Dutchman's ten, and suffered execution before his mates.
  14. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 99. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Article V promised freedom of religion and full civil rights
  15. ^ Frederick Sayer (1862). The history of Gibraltar and of its political relation to events in Europe. Saunders. p. 115. Retrieved 4 February 2011.Letter Of The Authorities To King Philip V. 115 Sire, The loyalty with which this city has served all the preceding kings, as well as your Majesty, has ever been notorious to them. In this last event, not less than on other occasions, it has endeavoured to exhibit its fidelity at the price of lives and property, which many of the inhabitants have lost in the combat; and with great honour and pleasure did they sacrifice themselves in defence of your Majesty, who may rest well assured that we who have survived (for our misfortune), had we experienced a similar fate, would have died with glory, and would not now suffer the great grief and distress of seeing your Majesty, our lord and master, dispossessed of so loyal a city.[citation needed] Subjects, but courageous as such, we will submit to no other government than that of your Catholic Majesty, in whose defence and service we shall pass the remainder of our lives; departing from this fortress, where, on account of the superior force of the enemy who attacked it, and the fatal chance of our not having any garrison for its defence, except a few poor and raw peasants, amounting to less than 300, we have not been able to resist the assault, as your Majesty must have already learnt from the governor or others.[citation needed] Our just grief allows us to notice no other fact for the information of your Majesty, but that all the inhabitants, and each singly, fulfilled their duties in their several stations; and our governor and alcalde have worked with the greatest zeal and activity, without allowing the horrors of the incessant cannonading to deter them from their duties, to which they attended personally, encouraging all with great devotion. May Divine Providence guard the royal person of your Majesty,[citation needed] Gibraltar, August 5th (N. S.), 1704.
  16. ^ David Francis (1 April 1975). The First Peninsular War: Seventeen-Two to Seventeen-Thirteen. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 9780312292607. Retrieved 7 April 2011. ...plundered the inhabitants. Partly on account of this, partly because they expected Gibraltar to be retaken soon, all the inhabitants except a very few...chose to leave
  17. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Although Article V promised freedom or religion and full civil rights to all Spaniards who wished to stay in Hapsburg Gibraltar, few decided to run the risk of remaining in the town. Fortresses changed hands quite frequently in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The English hold on Gibraltar might be only temporary. When the fortunes of war changed, the Spanish citizens would be able to re-occupy their property and rebuild their lives. ... Hesse's and Rooke's senior officers did their utmost to impose discipline, but the inhabitants worst fears were confirmed: women were insulted and outraged; Roman Catholic churches and institutions were taken over as stores and for other military purposes ...; and the whole town suffered at the hands of the ship's crew and marines who came ashore. Many bloody reprisals were taken by inhabitants before they left, bodies of murdered Englishmen and Dutchmen being thrown down wells and cesspits. By the time discipline was fully restored, few of the inhabitants wished or dared to remain.
  18. ^ David Francis (1 April 1975). The First Peninsular War: Seventeen-Two to Seventeen-Thirteen. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 9780312292607. Retrieved 7 April 2011. So the damage was done and the chance of winning the adherence of the Andalusians was lost.
  19. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  20. ^ Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  21. ^ Francisco Tornay (1981). La Línea de Gibraltar, 1730-1810: origen histórico militar de La Línea de la Concepción (in Spanish). Diputación Provincial de Cádiz. ISBN 84-500-8990-5.
  22. ^ R. H. Vetch, ‘Holloway, Sir Charles (1749–1827)’, rev. Alastair W. Massie, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 25 May 2013
  23. ^ "Comercios de la Línea aceptan el pago en libras". 6 November 2017.
  24. ^ "La Línea tops Spanish air pollution blacklist". Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  25. ^ "Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in cities database 2014 by WHO - Excel format". Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  26. ^ "Ambient (outdoor) air pollution database, by country and city 2016 - Excel format". Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  27. ^ a b "La Línea de la Concepción, Spain - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  28. ^ La Línea de la Concepción average sea temperature -
  29. ^ Sur, Europa. "La Línea lleva más de ochenta años esperando que pase el primer tren". Europa Sur (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 November 2017.