Liberal international order
In international relations, the liberal international order, also referred to as the rules-based international order or the US-led liberal international order, describes the notion that contemporary international relations are organized around principles of international cooperation through multilateral institutions like the United Nations and World Trade Organization, open markets, security cooperation, promotion of liberal democracy, and leadership by the United States and its allies. The order was established in the aftermath of World War II, led in large part by the United States.
The debate about liberal international order has grown especially prominent in International Relations. Influential scholars Deudney and Ikenberry list five components of this international order: security co-binding, in which great powers demonstrate restraint; the open nature of US hegemony and the dominance of reciprocal transnational relations; the presence of self-limiting powers like Germany and Japan; the availability of mutual gains due to "the political foundations of economic openness"; and the role of Western "civil identity." The more supportive views of scholars such as Ikenberry have drawn criticism from scholars who have examined the imperial and colonial legacies of liberal international institutions. The contributions of non-Western actors to the formation of the liberal international order have also recently gained attention from scholars advancing global International Relations theory. In the case of Latin America, for example, "From as far back as the 1860s, Latin American jurists have made prominent contributions to international jurisprudence, the ‘mortar’ that binds international order. ... However, in other ways, historically the LIO has been—and remains—superficial in its reach in Latin America."
International organizations play a central role in the liberal order. The World Trade Organization, for example, creates and implements free trade agreements, while the World Bank provides aid to developing countries. The order is also premised on the notion that liberal trade and free markets will contribute to global prosperity and peace. Critics argue that the liberal order has sometimes led to social problems such as inequality and environmental degradation.
Critics also argue that the liberal order tilts the scales in favour of the United States and its Western allies, as seen in voting shares in the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.
Relations with individual countries
Some see China as a potential challenger to the liberal order, as its initiatives such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and One Belt One Road Initiative appear to compete with existing international institutions.
Van Niewenhuizen is categorical that Xi Jinping, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, seeks to supplant the LIEO. Xi distinguishes his own concept "国际关系法治化", which can be translated as "rule of law in international relations", from international law "国际法" and international rule of law "国际法治". Van Niewenhuizen writes that
Xi’s use of the character hua (化) here is instructive: it signifies a change in state, meaning the Chinese government does not believe international relations are characterised by the rule of law, and this requires revision.
Nisha Mary Mathew remarks that the quest for dominance of the Eurasian land mass in which China finds itself causes Iran to be a favourite. In 2017 alone, the Chinese signed deals for Iranian infrastructure projects worth more than US$15 billion. Joint projects include "high-speed rail lines, upgrades to the nation’s electrical grid, and natural gas pipelines". From 2019 to 2025 the two nations seek to increase bilateral trade to US$600 billion.
- New International Economic Order
- Perpetual peace
- Spheres of influence
- Western culture
- Bound to Fail: The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order by John J. Mearsheimer
- A World Imagined: Nostalgia and Liberal Order By Patrick Porter
- There's No Such Thing as 'the' Liberal World Order by Michael Lind
- Will Current World Order Survive Without US Power? by Rajesh Rajagopalan
- Asia after the liberal international order by Amitav Acharya
- Misreading the “Liberal Order” by Paul Staniland
- Paeans to the ‘Postwar Order’ Won’t Save Us by Stephen Wertheim
- How do you solve a problem like the liberal international order? by Jeet Heer
- The Amnesia of the U.S. Foreign Policy Establishment by John Glaser
- Mourning a phantom: the cherished “rules-based order” never existed by Helen Thompson
- The ‘Liberal World Order’ Was Built With Blood by Vincent Bevins
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- John Ikenberry. 2001. After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars. Princeton University Press.
- Latin America and the liberal international order by Tom Long
- Ordering the world? Liberal internationalism in theory and practice, edited by G. John Ikenberry, Inderjeet Parmar, Doug Stokes
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