Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
|Simplified Chinese: 上海合作组织
Russian: Шанхайская организация сотрудничества
Members Acceding States (2017)
|Abbreviation||SCO / ShOS|
|Formation||26 April 1996|
|Type||Mutual security, political, economic organisation|
|Dmitry Fyodorovich Mezentsev|
Deputy Secretaries General
Mikhail Alekseyevich Konarovskiy
Parviz Davlatkhodjayevich Dodov
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries, except for Uzbekistan had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation. On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members.
India and Pakistan signed the memorandum of obligations on 24 June 2016 at Tashkent, thereby starting the formal process of joining the SCO as a full member, the process will take some month's, by which they are expected to become full members by the next meeting at Astana in 2017.
- 1 Official names
- 2 Membership
- 3 Origins
- 4 Organisational structure
- 5 Activities
- 6 Summits
- 7 Future membership possibilities
- 8 Relations with the West
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
- Simplified Chinese: 上海合作组织 [ Listen (help·info)] (上合组织)
- Traditional Chinese: 上海合作組織
- Romanisation: Shànghǎi Hézuò Zǔzhī (Shànghé Zǔzhī)
- Cyrillic: Шанхайская организация сотрудничества (ШОС)
- Romanisation: Shankhayskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva (ShOS)
|26 April 1996||China||Founders|
|15 June 2001||Uzbekistan||First Enlargement|
The Shanghai Five grouping was created 26 April 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai by the heads of states of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. According to political scientist Thomas Ambrosio, one aim was to ensure that liberal democracy could not gain ground in these countries. On 24 April 1997, the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow.
Subsequent annual summits of the Shanghai Five group occurred in Almaty (Kazakhstan) in 1998, in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) in 1999, and in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) in 2000. At the Dushanbe summit, members agreed to "oppose intervention in other countries' internal affairs on the pretexts of 'humanitarianism' and 'protecting human rights;' and support the efforts of one another in safeguarding the five countries' national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and social stability."
In 2001, the annual summit returned to Shanghai. There the five member nations first admitted Uzbekistan in the Shanghai Five mechanism (thus transforming it into the Shanghai Six). Then all six heads of state signed on 15 June 2001, the Declaration of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, praising the role played thus far by the Shanghai Five mechanism and aiming to transform it to a higher level of cooperation. On 16 July 2001, Russia and the PRC, the organisation's two leading nations, signed the Treaty of Good-Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation.
In June 2002, the heads of the SCO member states met in Saint Petersburg, Russia. There they signed the SCO Charter which expounded on the organisation's purposes, principles, structures and form of operation, and established it in international law.
Its six full members account for 60% of the land mass of Eurasia and its population is a quarter of the world's. With observer states included, its affiliates account for about half of the world's population.
In July 2005, at its fifth and watershed summit in Astana, Kazakhstan, with representatives of India, Iran, Mongolia and Pakistan attending an SCO summit for the first time, the president of the host country, Nursultan Nazarbayev, greeted the guests in words that had never before been used in any context: "The leaders of the states sitting at this negotiation table are representatives of half of humanity".
By 2007 the SCO had initiated over twenty large-scale projects related to transportation, energy and telecommunications and held regular meetings of security, military, defence, foreign affairs, economic, cultural, banking and other officials from its member states.
The SCO has established relations with the United Nations, where it is an observer in the General Assembly, the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The Council of Heads of State is the top decision-making body in the SCO. This council meets at the SCO summits, which are held each year in one of the member states' capital cities. The current Council of Heads of State consists of:
- Almazbek Atambayev (Kyrgyzstan)
- Emomalii Rahmon (Tajikistan)
- Islam Karimov (Uzbekistan)
- Xi Jinping (China)
- Nursultan Nazarbayev (Kazakhstan)
- Vladimir Putin (Russia)
The Council of Heads of Government is the second-highest council in the organisation. This council also holds annual summits, at which time members discuss issues of multilateral cooperation. The council also approves the organisation's budget. The current Council of Heads of Government consists of:
- Temir Sariyev (Kyrgyzstan)
- Kokhir Rasulzoda (Tajikistan)
- Shavkat Mirziyoyev (Uzbekistan)
- Li Keqiang (China)
- Karim Massimov (Kazakhstan)
- Dmitry Medvedev (Russia)
The Council of Foreign Ministers also hold regular meetings, where they discuss the current international situation and the SCO's interaction with other international organisations.
The Council of National Coordinators coordinates the multilateral cooperation of member states within the framework of the SCO's charter.
The Secretariat of the SCO is the primary executive body of the organisation. It serves to implement organisational decisions and decrees, drafts proposed documents (such as declarations and agendas), function as a document depository for the organisation, arranges specific activities within the SCO framework, and promotes and disseminates information about the SCO. It is located in Beijing. The current SCO Secretary-General is Dmitry Fyodorovich Mezentsev of Russia, appointed to the office of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Secretary-General on 7 June 2012, to hold this position from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015.
The Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS), headquartered in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, is a permanent organ of the SCO which serves to promote cooperation of member states against the three evils of terrorism, separatism and extremism. The Head of RATS is elected to a three-year term. Each member state also sends a permanent representative to RATS.
Cooperation on security
The SCO is primarily centered on its member nations' Central Asian security-related concerns, often describing the main threats it confronts as being terrorism, separatism and extremism. However evidence is growing that its activities in the area of social development of its member states is increasing fast.
At 16–17 June 2004 SCO summit, held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the Regional Antiterrorism Structure (RATS) was established. On 21 April 2006, the SCO announced plans to fight cross-border drug crimes under the counter-terrorism rubric.
Grigory Logninov claimed in April 2006 that the SCO has no plans to become a military bloc. Nonetheless he argued that the increased threats of "terrorism, extremism and separatism" make necessary a full-scale involvement of armed forces.
In October 2007, the SCO signed an agreement with the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), in the Tajik capital Dushanbe, to broaden cooperation on issues such as security, crime, and drug trafficking. Joint action plans between the two organisations are planned to be signed by early 2008 in Beijing.
The organisation is also redefining cyberwarfare, saying that the dissemination of information "harmful to the spiritual, moral and cultural spheres of other states" should be considered a "security threat". An accord adopted in 2009 defined "information war", in part, as an effort by a state to undermine another's "political, economic, and social systems".
Over the past few years, the organisation's activities have expanded to include increased military cooperation, intelligence sharing, and counterterrorism.
There have been a number of SCO joint military exercises. The first of these was held in 2003, with the first phase taking place in Kazakhstan and the second in China. Since then China and Russia have teamed up for large-scale war games in 2005 (Peace Mission 2005), 2007 and 2009, under the auspices of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. More than 4,000 soldiers participated at the joint military exercises in 2007 (known as "Peace Mission 2007") which took place in Chelyabinsk Russia near the Ural Mountains, as was agreed upon in April 2006 at a meeting of SCO Defence Ministers. Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov said that the exercises would be transparent and open to media and the public. Following the war games' successful completion, Russian officials began speaking of India joining such exercises in the future and the SCO taking on a military role. Peace Mission 2010, conducted September 9–25 at Kazakhstan's Matybulak training area, saw over 5,000 personnel from China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan conduct joint planning and operational maneuvers.
The SCO has served as a platform for larger military announcements by members. During the 2007 war games in Russia, with leaders of SCO member states in attendance including Chinese President Hu Jintao, Russia's President Vladimir Putin used the occasion to take advantage of a captive audience: Russian strategic bombers, he said, would resume regular long-range patrols for the first time since the Cold War. "Starting today, such tours of duty will be conducted regularly and on the strategic scale", Putin said. "Our pilots have been grounded for too long. They are happy to start a new life".
All SCO members but China are also members of the Eurasian Economic Community. A Framework Agreement to enhance economic cooperation was signed by the SCO member states on 23 September 2003. At the same meeting the PRC's Premier, Wen Jiabao, proposed a long-term objective to establish a free trade area in the SCO, while other more immediate measures would be taken to improve the flow of goods in the region. A follow up plan with 100 specific actions was signed one year later, on 23 September 2004.
On 26 October 2005, during the Moscow Summit of the SCO, the Secretary General of the Organisation said that the SCO will prioritise joint energy projects; such will include the oil and gas sector, the exploration of new hydrocarbon reserves, and joint use of water resources. The creation of an Inter-bank SCO Council was also agreed upon at that summit in order to fund future joint projects. The first meeting of the SCO Interbank Association was held in Beijing on 21–22 February 2006. On 30 November 2006, at The SCO: Results and Perspectives, an international conference held in Almaty, the representative of the Russian Foreign Ministry announced that Russia is developing plans for an SCO "Energy Club". The need for this "club" was reiterated by Moscow at an SCO summit in November 2007. Other SCO members, however, have not committed themselves to the idea. However, on 28 August 2008 summit it was stated that "Against the backdrop of a slowdown in the growth of world economy pursuing a responsible currency and financial policy, control over the capital flowing, ensuring food and energy security have been gaining special significance".
At the 2007 SCO summit Iranian Vice President Parviz Davudi addressed an initiative that has been garnering greater interest and assuming a heightened sense of urgency when he said, "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation is a good venue for designing a new banking system which is independent from international banking systems".
The address by Putin also included these comments:
- "We now clearly see the defectiveness of the monopoly in world finance and the policy of economic selfishness. To solve the current problem Russia will take part in changing the global financial structure so that it will be able to guarantee stability and prosperity in the world and to ensure progress.
- "The world is seeing the emergence of a qualitatively different geo-political situation, with the emergence of new centers of economic growth and political influence.
- "We will witness and take part in the transformation of the global and regional security and development architectures adapted to new realities of the 21st century, when stability and prosperity are becoming inseparable notions."
On 16 June 2009, at the Yekaterinburg Summit, China announced plans to provide a US$10 billion loan to SCO member states to shore up the struggling economies of its members amid the global financial crisis. The summit was held together with the first BRIC summit, and the China-Russia joint statement said that they want a bigger quota in the International Monetary Fund.
Cultural cooperation also occurs in the SCO framework. Culture ministers of the SCO met for the first time in Beijing on April 12, 2002, signing a joint statement for continued cooperation. The third meeting of the Culture Ministers took place in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on 27–28 April 2006.
According to the Charter of the SCO, summits of the Council of Heads of State shall be held annually at alternating venues. The locations of these summits follow the alphabetical order of the member state's name in Russian. The charter also dictates that the Council of Heads of Government (that is, the Prime Ministers) shall meet annually in a place decided upon by the council members. The Council of Foreign Ministers is supposed to hold a summit one month before the annual summit of Heads of State. Extraordinary meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers can be called by any two member states.
List of summits
|Heads of State|
|14 June 2001||China||Shanghai|
|7 June 2002||Russia||Saint Petersburg|
|29 May 2003||Russia||Moscow|
|17 June 2004||Uzbekistan||Tashkent|
|5 July 2005||Kazakhstan||Astana|
|15 June 2006||China||Shanghai|
|16 August 2007||Kyrgyzstan||Bishkek|
|28 August 2008||Tajikistan||Dushanbe|
|15–16 June 2009||Russia||Yekaterinburg|
|10–11 June 2010||Uzbekistan||Tashkent|
|14–15 June 2011||Kazakhstan||Astana|
|6–7 June 2012||China||Beijing|
|13 September 2013||Kyrgyzstan||Bishkek|
|11–12 September 2014||Tajikistan||Dushanbe|
|9–10 July 2015||Russia||Ufa|
|23–24 June 2016||Uzbekistan||Tashkent|
|7–8 June 2017||Kazakhstan||Astana|
|Heads of Government|
|23 September 2003||China||Beijing|
|23 September 2004||Kyrgyzstan||Bishkek|
|26 October 2005||Russia||Moscow|
|15 September 2006||Tajikistan||Dushanbe|
|2 November 2007||Uzbekistan||Tashkent|
|30 October 2008||Kazakhstan||Astana|
|14 October 2009||China||Beijing|
|25 November 2010||Tajikistan||Dushanbe|
|7 November 2011||Russia||Saint Petersburg|
|5 December 2012||Kyrgyzstan||Bishkek|
|29 November 2013||Uzbekistan||Tashkent|
|14–15 December 2014||Kazakhstan||Astana|
|14–15 December 2015||China||Zhengzhou|
Future membership possibilities
In June 2010, the SCO approved the procedure of admitting new members, though new members have yet to be admitted. Several states, however, participate as observers, some of whom have expressed interest in becoming full members in the future. The implications of Iran joining the organization has been given much thought academically. In early September 2013 Armenian Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan said during his meeting with his Chinese counterpart that Armenia would like to obtain an observer status in the SCO.
Except for Afghanistan, the observers are moving towards being accorded full member status. Meanwhile, in 2012 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Nepal and Sri Lanka applied for observer status within the organization. Egypt and Syria have also submitted applications for observer status, while Egypt, Israel, Maldives and Ukraine have applied for dialogue partner status.
- Afghanistan received observer status at the 2012 SCO summit in Beijing, China on June 6, 2012.
- Belarus was granted dialogue partner status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) in 2009, and later gained observer status in 2015. In 2008, Belarus applied for partner status in the organisation and was promised Kazakhstan's support towards that goal. However, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov voiced doubt on the probability of Belarus' membership, saying that Belarus was a purely European country. Despite this, Belarus was accepted as a Dialogue Partner at the 2009 SCO Summit in Yekaterinburg, and after applying in 2012, was granted observer status in 2015.
- India Russia has encouraged India to join the organisation as a full-time member, because they see it as a crucial future strategic partner. China has also welcomed India's accession to the SCO. India applied for membership in September 2014, and was approved for membership by the SCO in July 2015. It signed a memorandum of obligations on 24 June 2016 at Tashkent to join SCO to join as a full fledged member. It is expected to formally accede to the organization by 2017.
- Iran has observer status in the organisation, and applied for full membership on 24 March 2008. However, because it was under sanctions levied by the United Nations at the time, it was blocked from admission as a new member. The SCO stated that any country under U.N. sanctions could not be admitted. After the UN sanctions were lifted, Chinese president Xi Jinping announced its support for Iran's full membership in SCO during a state visit to Iran in January 2016.
- Mongolia became the first country to receive observer status at the 2004 Tashkent Summit. Pakistan, India and Iran received observer status at the 2005 SCO summit in Astana, Kazakhstan on 5 July 2005.
- Pakistan Pakistan applied for full membership in 2006. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf argued in favour of its qualifications to join the organisation during a joint summit with China in 2006. Russia publicly endorsed Pakistan's bid in 2011. At the SCO Summit in 2014, China also expressed support for Pakistan's application for full membership. Pakistan's membership was approved by the SCO in July 2015. It signed a memorandum of obligations on 24 June 2016 at Tashkent to join SCO to join as a full fledged member. It is expected to formally accede to the organization by 2017.
The position of Dialogue Partner was created in 2008 in accordance with Article 14 of the SCO Charter of 7 June 2002. This article regards Dialogue Partner as a state or an organisation who shares the goals and principles of the SCO and wishes to establish relations of equal mutually beneficial partnership with the Organisation.
- Sri Lanka was granted dialogue partner status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) at the group's 2009 summit in Yekaterinburg.
- Turkey, a member of NATO, was granted dialogue partner status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) at the group's 2012 summit in Beijing. Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has stated that he has discussed the possibility of abandoning Turkey's European Union membership candidacy in return for full membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.
Relations with the West
Western media observers believe that one of the original purposes of the SCO was to serve as a counterbalance to NATO and in particular to avoid conflicts that would allow the United States to intervene in areas bordering both Russia and China. And although not a member state, the President of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad used his speeches at the SCO to make verbal attacks against the United States.
The United States applied for observer status in the SCO, but was rejected in 2005.
At the Astana summit in July 2005, with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq foreshadowing an indefinite presence of U.S. forces in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, the SCO urged the U.S. to set a timetable for withdrawing its troops from SCO member states. Shortly afterwards, Uzbekistan asked the U.S. to leave the K2 air base.
The SCO has made no direct comments against the U.S. or its military presence in the region; however, some indirect statements at the past summits have been viewed by the western media as "thinly veiled swipes at Washington".
Geopolitical aspects of the SCO
There have been many discussions and commentaries about the geopolitical nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Matthew Brummer, in the Journal of International Affairs, tracks the implications of SCO expansion into the Persian Gulf.
Iranian writer Hamid Golpira had this to say on the topic: "According to Zbigniew Brzezinski's theory, control of the Eurasian landmass is the key to global domination and control of Central Asia is the key to control of the Eurasian landmass....Russia and China have been paying attention to Brzezinski's theory, since they formed the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation in 2001, ostensibly to curb extremism in the region and enhance border security, but most probably with the real objective of counterbalancing the activities of the United States and NATO in Central Asia".
At a 2005 summit in Kazakhstan the SCO issued a Declaration of Heads of Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation which addressed their "concerns" and contained an elaboration of the organisation's principles. It included: "The heads of the member states point out that, against the backdrop of a contradictory process of globalisation, multilateral cooperation, which is based on the principles of equal right and mutual respect, non-intervention in internal affairs of sovereign states, non-confrontational way of thinking and consecutive movement towards democratisation of international relations, contributes to overall peace and security, and call upon the international community, irrespective of its differences in ideology and social structure, to form a new concept of security based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and interaction."
In November 2005 Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov reiterated that the "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is working to establish a rational and just world order" and that "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation provides us with a unique opportunity to take part in the process of forming a fundamentally new model of geopolitical integration".
A Chinese daily expressed the matter in these terms: "The Declaration points out that the SCO member countries have the ability and responsibility to safeguard the security of the Central Asian region, and calls on Western countries to leave Central Asia. That is the most noticeable signal given by the Summit to the world".
A 2010 analysis in American Legion Magazine said that 'Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao... has concluded that the United States is maneuvering "to preserve its status as the world's sole superpower and will not allow any country the chance to pose a challenge to it."'
An article in The Washington Post in early 2008 reported that President Vladimir Putin stated that Russia could aim nuclear missiles at Ukraine if Russia's neighbor and former fraternal republic in the Soviet Union joins the NATO alliance and hosts elements of a U.S. missile defence system. "It is horrible to say and even horrible to think that, in response to the deployment of such facilities in Ukrainian territory, which cannot theoretically be ruled out, Russia could target its missile systems at Ukraine", Putin said at a joint news conference with Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, who was visiting the Kremlin. "Imagine this just for a second".
- CSTO (ODKB)
- Sino-Russian relations since 1991
- Asia–Europe Meeting
- Asia Cooperation Dialogue
- Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia
- "India, Pakistan edge closer to joining SCO security bloc". The Express Tribune. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
- "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization". Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
- "SCO accepts Afghanistan as observer, Turkey dialogue partner". Xinhua. June 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
- "Belarus gets observer status in Shanghai Cooperation Organization". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2015-07-10. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
- Ambrosio (October 2008). "Catching the ‘Shanghai Spirit’: How the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Promotes Authoritarian Norms in Central Asia". Europe-Asia Studies 60 (8).
- Al-Qahtani, Mutlaq (2006). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Law of International Organizations" (PDF). Chinese Journal of International Law (Oxford University Press) 5 (1): 130. ISSN 1540-1650.
- Gill. "Shanghai Five: An Attempt to Counter U.S. Influence in Asia?". Brookings. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Kazinform, July 5, 2005.
- "Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers from Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation" (Press release). Kuala Lumpur: Embassy of the Russian Federation in Malaysia. 9 July 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012.
- "Secretary-General". The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Information on Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008.
- Zaidi, Mujtaba Haider (20 August 2013). "The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation and US Supremacy". African Herald Express.
- Luan Shanglin (22 April 2006). "SCO to intensify fight against cross-border drug crimes". News (Xinhuanet) (Beijing: Xinhua News Agency). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "SCO gets ready for joint military exercise". World Student Press Agency. 20 August 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008.
- "Security alliances led by Russia, China link up". Daily Times. 6 October 2007.[dead link]
- McDermott, Roger (12 December 2007). "Kazakhstan Notes Afghanistan's Emerging Security Agenda". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 18 February 2008.
- Gjelten, Tom (September 23, 2010). "Seeing The Internet As An 'Information Weapon'". National Public Radio. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Hutzler, Charles (26 April 2006). "China, Russia, Others to Hold Joint Drills". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 June 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (. ))
- Yu, Bin (17 October 2007). "Common exercise, different goals". New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Boland, Julie (29 October 2010), Learning From The Shanghai Cooperation Organization's 'Peace Mission-2010' Exercise", The Brookings Institution
- Kyodo News (23 September 2003). "LEAD: Central Asian powers agree to pursue free-trade zone.". Beijing: Kyodo News International, Inc. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "China Intensifies Regional Trade Talks". Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
- China Foreign Ministry (23 September 2004). "Joint Communique of the Council of the Governmental Heads (Prime Ministers) of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Member States" (Press release). Archived from the original on 30 March 2009.
- Blagov, Sergei (31 October 2005). "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Eyes Economic, Security Cooperation". Eurasia Daily Monitor (The Jamestown Foundation). Archived from the original on 1 November 2007.
- "SCO Ministers of Foreign Economic Activity and Trade to meet in Tashkent". National Bank of Uzbekistan. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011.
- "Russia's Foreign Ministry develops concept of SCO Energy Club". Kazakhstan Today (Almaty, Kazakhstan: Gazeta.kz Internet Agency). 1 December 2006.
- Blagov, Sergei (6 November 2007). "Russia Urges Formation of Central Asian Energy Club". Eurasianet (The Open Society Institute). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Chronicle of Main Events of "Shanghai Five" and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008.[not in citation given]
- Mehr News Agency, October 31, 2008.
- Russia Today, October 30, 2008
- Deng Shasha (16 June 2009). "China to provide 10-billion-dollar loan to SCO members". News (Xinhuanet). Yekaterinburg, Russia: Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Yan (18 June 2009). "China, Russia sign five-point joint statement". News (Xinhuanet) (Xinhua News Agency). Retrieved 23 June 2009.
They also said that a new round of the IMF quota formula review and the reform schemes of the World Bank should be completed on time and that the emerging markets and developing countries should have a bigger say and broader representation in the international financial institutions.
- "Culture Ministers of SCO Member States Meet in Beijing". People's Daily (People's Daily Online). 13 April 2002. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "SCO Culture Ministers to Meet in Tashkent". Kazakhstan Today (Almaty, Kazakhstan: Gazeta.kz Internet Agency). 17 April 2006. Archived from [hthttp://eng.gazeta.kz/art.asp?aid=74059 the original] on 18 April 2009.
- "Kazakhstan Backs Promotion of SCO Cultural Ties". KazInform (KazInform International News Agency). Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- "Charter of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014.
- "Joint Communiqué of Meeting of the Council of the Heads of the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014.
- Tang Danlu (11 June 2010). "SCO vows to strengthen cooperation with its observers, dialogue partners". News (Xinhuanet) (Tashkent, Uzbekistan: Xinhua News Agency). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Song Miou (10 July 2015). "Uzbekistan to host 16th SCO summit in 2016". News (Xinhuanet) (Ufa, Russia: Xinhua News Agency). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Ho, Stephanie (14 October 2009). "Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit Concludes in Beijing". VOANews.com (Beijing: Voice of America). Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Xinhua (25 November 2010). "Wen arrives in Tajikistan for SCO meeting". China Daily (Dushanbe, Tajikistan). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "SCO Meeting Expected to Boost Cooperation Among Members". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). December 2, 2012.
- "Kyrgyzstan to host next SCO Prime Ministers' meeting in 2016". KazInform (Bishkek: KazInform International News Agency). 15 December 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Wu Jiao and Li Xiaokun (June 12, 2010). "SCO agrees deal to expand". China Daily. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
- Brummer, Matthew (2007). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Iran: A Power-full Union". Journal of International Affairs.[dead link]
- "Armenia seeking observer status at Shanghai organization". ArmeniaNow.com. ArmeniaNow.com. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "SCO To Admit New Members: Iran, India, Pakistan and Mongolia". MINA. Macedonian International News Agency. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "India's membership in Shanghai Cooperation Organisation initiated". The Economic Times. Dushanbe, Tajikistan: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- Moskovskij Komsomolets (15 September 2012). "Azerbaijan asks to join a new alliance of China and Russia". Azeri Daily.
- "Syria, Egypt may join Shanghai Cooperation Organization as observers". TASS. Moscow, Russia: Russian News Agency TASS. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "Syria applies for observer status at Shanghai security bloc — Russian Foreign Ministry". TASS. Moscow, Russia: Russian News Agency TASS. 13 February 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Syria, Israel, Egypt willing to join SCO's activity - president's special envoy". Interfax. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
- "Xi's Eurasian visit: Shanghai Spirit gives new leap to SCO". CCTV. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
- Sputnik (10 July 2015). "Kiev Request For SCO Partner Status Still in Force". Sputnik News. Ufa, Russa.
- "Egypt applies to become dialogue partner of Shanghai security bloc — Kremlin aide". TASS. Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
- "Azerbaijan intends to become SCO observer". Trend News Agency. Baku, Azerbaijan. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
- "Sri Lanka gains partnership in SCO members welcome end to terror in country". Ministry of Defence, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Lantratov, Konstantin; Orozaliev, Bek; Zygar, Mikhail; Safronov, Ivan (27 April 2006). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation acquires military character". Kommersant (Beijing and Dushanbe: Kommersant Publishing House).
- Ash Narain Roy (18 September 2007). "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation - Towards New Dynamism". Mainstream (Mainstream Weekly) XLV (39). Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Kashani, Sarwar (9 June 2011). "India has right to join SCO, not Pakistan: Russian envoy". newKerala.com. New Delhi, India: NKDC Media. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "China welcomes proposed accession of India in Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". The Times Of India. May 23, 2012.
- "India applies for full membership of SCO". Business Standard. 2014-09-12. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- "Pakistan, India join Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
- "Iran applies for membership". Press TV. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009.
- "China supports Iran's application for full membership of SCO". News (Xinhuanet) (Tehran, Iran: Xinhua News Agency). 23 January 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Syed, Baqir Sajjad (July 7, 2015). "SCO summit may begin process of Pakistan's entry". Dawn. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Associated Press of Pakistan (7 November 2011). "Russia endorses full SCO membership for Pakistan". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- APP (7 November 2011). "Russia endorses full SCO membership for Pakistan". Dawn News (Saint Petersburg, Russia).
- "President leads Pakistan delegation to the Thirteenth OIC Islamic Summit in Istanbul" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Regulations on the Status of Dialogue Partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2016.]
- Bedi, Rahul (June 2, 2007). "Sri Lanka turns to Pakistan, China for military needs". IANS (Urdustan.com Network). Retrieved June 2, 2007.
- Galip Dalay (May 14, 2013). "Turkey between Shanghai and Brussels". The New Turkey. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
- Tannock, Charles (February 18, 2008). "Backing Kazakhstan's 'great game'". London: Guardian Weekly.
- Fels, Enrico (2009), Assessing Eurasia's Powerhouse. An Inquiry into the Nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Winkler Verlag: Bochum, p. 23–27.
- "Ahmadinejad stresses need for a new world order". Press TV. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016.
- Hiro, Dilip (16 June 2006). "Shanghai surprise: The summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation reveals how power is shifting in the world". The Guardian.
- Varadarajan, Siddharth (8 July 2005). "Central Asia: China and Russia up the ante". The Hindu (Astana, Kazakhstan).
- Kucera, Joshua (19 August 2007). "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Summiteers Take Shots at US Presence in Central Asia". Eurasianet (The Open Society Institute). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Journal of International Affairs. 2007. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Iran: A Power-full Union. Matthew Brummer
- Golpira, Hamid (20 November 2008). "Smoke Screen". Tehran Times.[dead link]
- Rozoff, Rick (2009). The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Prospects For A Multipolar World. Canada: Center for Global Research.
- "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". July 13, 2005. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014.
- UzReport, November 28, 2005
- People's Daily Online (8 July 2008), "Opinion: SCO sends strong signals for West to leave Central Asia", People's Daily, retrieved 11 June 2016
- Dowd, Alan W. (1 March 2010). "Friend or Foe?". American Legion Magazine (The American Legion).
- Mirza, Maheen. "Shanghai Corporation Organisation (SCO): A New Platform". TRCB (The Red Carpet Broadcast). Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Peter Finn, "Putin Threatens Ukraine on NATO – Russian Raises Issues of U.S. Missile Shield", washingtonpost.com, February 13, 2008, archives 2010.
- Chabal, Pierre (2016), L'Organisation de Coopération de Shanghai et la construction de "la nouvelle Asie", Brussels: Peter Lang, 492 p.
- Chabal, Pierre (2015), Concurrences Interrégionales Europe-Asie au 21ème siècle, Brussels: Peter Lang, 388 p.
- Kalra, Prajakti and Saxena, Siddharth "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Prospects of Development in Eurasia Region" Turkish Policy Quarterly, Vol 6. No.2, 2007
- Sznajder, Ariel Pablo, "China's Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Strategy", University of California Press, May 2006
- Oresman, Matthew, PDF (4.74 MiB), National Defence University Press, August 2004
- Gill, Bates and Oresman, Matthew, China's New Journey to the West: Report on China's Emergence in Central Asia and Implications for U.S. Interests, CSIS Press, August 2003
- Fels, Enrico (2009), Assessing Eurasia's Powerhouse. An Inquiry into the Nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Winkler Verlag: Bochum. ISBN 978-3-89911-107-1
- Yom, Sean L. (2002). "Power Politics in Central Asia: The Future of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". Harvard Asia Quarterly 6 (4) 48–54.
- Stakelbeck, Frederick W., Jr. (August 8, 2005). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". FrontPageMagazine.com.
- Navrozov, Lev. (February 17, 2006). "The Sino-Russian 'Shanghai Cooperation Organisation'"[dead link]. NewsMax.com.
- Daly, John. (July 19, 2001). "'Shanghai Five' expands to combat Islamic radicals". Jane's Terrorism & Security Monitor.
- Colson, Charles. (August 5, 2003). "Central Asia: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Makes Military Debut". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (July 18, 2001). "The Russia-China Friendship and Cooperation Treaty: A Strategic Shift in Eurasia?". The Heritage Foundation.
- Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (October 24, 2005). "Competition over Eurasia: Are the U.S. and Russia on a Collision Course?". The Heritage Foundation.
- John Keefer Douglas, Matthew B. Nelson, and Kevin Schwartz; PDF (162 KiB), United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission, October 2006.
- Baris Adibelli. "The Eurasia Strategy of China" IQ Publishing House, İstanbul, 2007.
- Baris ADIBELLI, " The Great Game in Eurasian Geopolitics", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul, 2008.
- Baris Adibelli, "Turkey-China Relations since the Ottoman Period", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul,2007.
- Baris Adibelli, The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Dream of Turkey, Cumhuriyet Strateji,İstanbul, 2007.
- Baris ADIBELLI, "Greater Eurasia Project", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul,2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.|