Lineal championship

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In professional boxing, kickboxing and in mixed martial arts (MMA),[1][2][3][4][5] the lineal championship of a weight class is a world championship title that exists only in theory, but represents an attempt at crowning one "true" champion. A lineal championship begins at a moment in time at which a boxer/kickboxer/MMA fighter can be universally acclaimed as the best in the class. Another competitor can win the lineal championship only by defeating the reigning lineal champion in the ring or the cage. This fact distinguishes it from a conventional world title, which can also be stripped from the champion for business, contractual and/or promotional reasons. The lineal champion has been described as "the man who beat the man".[6][7] There is no single canonical list of lineal champions at any weight class, because there is no agreed upon method of determining the starting point for each lineage and conflicting opinions on what to do when the current champion retires or moves to a different weight class.


The concept of a lineal champion was developed by boxing fans dissatisfied by the tendency of each of the various sanctioning bodies (WBC, WBA, IBF, etc.) to recognize different champions, and in particular to strip a champion of his title for refusing to fight its top-ranked contender. Prior to the 1970s, this rarely happened; the National Boxing Association (NBA) and the New York State Athletic Commission (NYSAC) sometimes recognized different champions, but there was usually only a short interval before one champion defeated the other. In this era, a title vacancy was generally filled by having a single-elimination tournament box-off between two or more top-ranked contenders.

The lineal championship is intended as a return to that era. Several top boxers have specified holding the lineal championship as a personal accomplishment (e.g. Lennox Lewis[8]) or goal (e.g., Nate Campbell[6]).

In mixed martial arts the lineal championship is of particular relevance due to the fact that up until the mid 2000s, the top ranked fighters were spread out amongst a number of Mixed Martial Arts promotions across the globe. This included Japanese promotions such as Pride Fighting Championships, Pancrase, and Dream as well as US based promotions such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), World Extreme Cage Fighting (WEC) and Strikeforce.

The UFC eventually purchased most of the major promotions[9] and, as a result, all of the lineal champions are currently signed with the promotion. In addition, all of the lineal titles have been unified with the UFC titles with the exception of lightweight (155 lbs). UFC fighter Donald Cerrone holds this lineal title after beating the former Bellator MMA lightweight champion Eddie Alvarez in 2014.[10] Cerrone has been promised the next title shot against current UFC champion Rafael dos Anjos.[11] Barring a draw or No Contest, this fight will result in the unification of the lineal title with the UFC title.


An issue in the implementation of a lineal championship is what to do if the lineal champion retires, dies, or moves to a different weight class. Different ways of resolving this vacancy mean the lineal championship may itself be subject to dispute. Since the modern lineal championship is merely a notional title tracked by fans, there is no money or organization to arrange a box-off to fill a vacant title, and there may not be consensus on who the top contenders are, this is both true for boxing and MMA.[7] One example given by Cliff Rold of BoxingScene is the light heavyweight title, considered vacant from the time Michael Spinks went up to heavyweight in 1985 until some time in the 1990s. While Rold considers Virgil Hill's defeat of Henry Maske as the beginning of the next line of succession, as does Cyber Boxing Zone,[12] Ring magazine and HBO controversially trace the title through Roy Jones.[13]

In Oriental Style/K-1 Rules kickboxing the lineal championships have been determined in such a way to avoid the issue of crowning a new champion when the recognized title holder retires.[14] This method involves tracing the lineage from the world titles of every major kickboxing promotion (K-1, Glory World Series, It's Showtime, SUPERKOMBAT Fighting Championship etc.), and then crowning a lineal champion based on the number of lineal titles held at one time. Using this aggregated approach, active lineal champions have been crowned despite the retirement of previous lineal heavyweight champion Remy Bonjasky, and lineal 70 kg champion Masato.[15][16][17][18][19]

Another criticism of the lineal championship is that a fighter may defend it against inferior opponents. For example, George Foreman was considered lineal champion from 1994 until 1997, when Shannon Briggs beat him. After the WBA and IBF stripped him of their titles in 1995, Foreman fought only two, low-ranked opponents before Briggs. The lineal champion is not necessarily the boxer viewed as the best.[6] Cyber Boxing Zone and BoxingScene considered Zsolt Erdei the lineal light-heavyweight champion from his 2004 defeat of Julio César González until 2009, when he vacated his title and moved up to cruiserweight; as he had not fought the highest-ranked opponents in the interim, Cliff Rold conceded, "while the concept of a champion needing to lose a title in the ring is solid, the practice is sometimes highly flawed".[20]

In mixed martial arts, most controversy centers on the proper method for determining the first lineal MMA champion within each weight class. Early fights did not follow the currently agreed upon weight classes determined by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, a rule set that was not finalized until the year 2000. For example; Some consider Mark Coleman's victory in 1997, when he became the first UFC Heavyweight champion, to be the beginning of the Heavyweight lineage. Others argue that Royce Gracie's victory at UFC 1 in 1993 is the true heavyweight starting point due to the Open-weight nature of the tournament. In this case, however, the lineal titles converge and unify with the current UFC Heavyweight title, so the champion remains the same regardless of which lineage you choose to follow.[10][21]


The boxing magazine The Ring has its own lineal championship. The original sequence was from its first publication in the 1920s until its hiatus in 1989, continuing as late as 1992 in some divisions. When it started awarding titles again in 2001, it did not calculate retrospective lineages to fill in the gap years, instead nominating a new champion.[22] CBZ commented in 2004, "The Ring has forfeited its credibility by pulling names out of its ass to name fighters as champions".[23] In 2007, The Ring was acquired by the owners of fight promoter Golden Boy Promotions,[24] which has publicized The Ring's world championship when this is at stake in fights it promotes (such as Joe Calzaghe vs. Roy Jones, Jr. in 2008).[25] Since 2012, to reduce the number of vacant titles, The Ring allows fights between a #1 or #2 contender and a #3, #4, or #5 contender to fill a vacant title. This has prompted further doubts about its credibility.[26][27][28] Sports Illustrated used The Ring lineages for galleries of lineal heavyweight and middleweight champions.[29][30]

The Cyber Boxing Zone (CBZ) website maintains lists of lineal champions, with input from Tracy Callis of the International Boxing Research Organization.[23][31][32] These were first published in 1994, and are retrospective to the introduction of Queensberry Rules in 1895.[32] The historical lists have sometimes been updated when new information about old fights comes to light.[33] If its lineal champion at one weight class moves to another class, CBZ does not automatically vacate his title.[34] disagrees with the lineages given by The Ring and by CBZ, especially in lower weight divisions with a higher rate of champions changing division.[13] BoxingScene has traced its own most recent lineages, generally back to the 1990s.[35][36][37][38]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fight Matrix | Lineal Championship Histories
  2. ^ MMA's Heavyweight Championship Lineage - ESPN
  3. ^ MMA: The Lineal World Heavyweight Title Runs Through the Strikeforce Grand Prix | Bleacher Report
  4. ^ UFC 156 results: With Overeem KO, Antonio Silva becomes the lineal champion - Bloody Elbow
  5. ^ Kickboxing Lineal Title History: 7 lineal titles on the line at Glory 18- Bloody Elbow
  6. ^ a b c Raskin, Eric (2008-03-24). "In an ideal world, Casamayor fights the 'Galaxxy Warrior' next". ESPN. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  7. ^ a b Castellano, Daniel J. (2005). "Critique of "Lineal" Boxing Championships". Repository of Arcane Knowledge. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  8. ^ Rafael, Dan (2004-02-08). "Lewis retires, saying he has nothing left to prove". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-11-20. The mission I set out on in the beginning — to become heavyweight champion of the world, undisputed, lineal champion — you could say that mission is complete. 
  9. ^ UFC purchases Strikeforce; UFC boss says organizations to operate independently - MMAjunkie
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^ UFC informs Donald Cerrone that he's next for a title shot, and he'll have to wait on Rafael dos Anjos - MMAFighting
  12. ^ The Cyber Boxing Zone
  13. ^ a b Rold, Cliff. "Boxing's Lineal Mathematics: Champion Versus Champion II". Wail!. CBZ. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  14. ^ Kickboxing Lineal Title History: 7 lineal titles on the line at Glory 18- Bloody Elbow
  15. ^ UFC on Fox Preview: The Lineal Kickboxing Titles of Alistair Overeem - Bloody Elbow
  16. ^ Kickboxing lineal title history: Lineal Heavyweight gold on the line at Glory 19 - Bloody Elbow
  17. ^ Glory 20 puts the spotlight on lineal kickboxing titles in lower weight classes - Bloody Elbow
  18. ^ Glory 21 preview: Lineal King Artem Levin puts 5 titles on the line - Bloody Elbow
  19. ^ Glory 22 preview: Verhoeven vs Adegbuyi and the quest for a new lineal HW king - Bloody Elbow
  20. ^ Rold, Cliff (2009-11-14). "Erdei Vacates: Ding-Dong, the Lineage Argument is Dead". BoxingScene. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  21. ^
  22. ^ Boxing News : The Disputed Light Heavyweight Champion of the World
  23. ^ a b DeLisa, Mike (August 2004). "What the CBZ Means When it Refers to "Lineal Championships"". The CBZ Journal. cyberboxingzone. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Golden Boy Enterprises' Subsidiary, Sports and Entertainment Publications, LLC, Acquires The Ring Magazine, KO, World Boxing and Pro Wrestling Illustrated". Golden Boy Promotions. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  25. ^ Kimball, George (2008-04-27). "Calzaghe claim far from undisputed". Boston Herald. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  26. ^ Chat: Chat with Dan Rafael - SportsNation - ESPN
  27. ^ The Horrible New Ring Magazine Championship Policy - Queensberry Rules
  28. ^ Ring Magazine's pretend rankings upgrade 'championship' policy –
  29. ^ "Lineal Heavyweight Champions - Photos". Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  30. ^ "Lineal Middleweight Champs Since 1941 - Photos". Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  31. ^ a b "The Cyber Boxing Zone Lineal World Champions". Cyber Boxing Zone. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  32. ^ a b "Lineal Boxing World Champions". Cyber Boxing Zone. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  33. ^ "New Lineal Bantamweight Championship Title Claimant!". CBZ Historical News. Cyber Boxing Zone. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  34. ^ Greisman, David P. (20 September 2010). ""Fighting Words" – Mosley vs Mora Debacle: Caveat Empty". Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  35. ^ Donovan, Jake (2009-02-16). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part I". BoxingScene. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  36. ^ Donovan, Jake (2009-02-17). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part II". BoxingScene. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  37. ^ Donovan, Jake (2009-02-19). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part III". BoxingScene. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  38. ^ Donovan, Jake (20 February 2009). "Crowning And Recognizing A Lineal Champion – Part IV". boxingscene. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  39. ^ Kickboxing lineal title history: Lineal Heavyweight gold on the line at Glory 19 - Bloody Elbow
  40. ^ "Lineal flyweight boxing champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia. Cyber Boxing Zone. 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  41. ^ a b c Rosenthal, Michael (2009-10-28). "Pacquiao seeking title in record seventh division". The Ring blog. Retrieved 2010-01-29. Pacquiao has won titles as a flyweight (1998), junior featherweight (2001), featherweight (2003, THE RING), junior lightweight (2008), lightweight (2008) and junior welterweight (2009, THE RING), which equals Oscar De La Hoya's six-division record. And boxing historian Cliff Rold pointed out that Pacquiao is the only fighter in history to win four lineal titles (112 pounds, 126, 130 and 140) 
  42. ^ Rafael, Dan (2009-05-01). "Pacquiao chases sixth title, history". ESPN. 
  43. ^ Graham, Bryan Armen (2009-05-04). "Beatdown of Hatton lifts Pacquiao into pantheon of all-time greats". Inside Boxing (CNN/SI). Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  44. ^ Kickboxing Lineal Title History: 7 lineal titles on the line at Glory 18- Bloody Elbow
  45. ^ A Lineal Title Supported Argument for the GOAT in MMA - Bloody Elbow