List of DNA-tested mummies

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This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies, that may have been DNA tested. Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been assigned. Also provided is a brief description of when and where they lived.[according to whom?] Entries lacking a citation should be viewed with skepticism; in particular, cases with no sequence or haplogroup links, with citation, have no evidentiary basis for appearing.

mtDNA tests[edit]

The following mummies have undergone an mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) test, of remains with the indicated name, from the indicated locations:[citation needed]

Name Original Location
of Remains
Date Lived
(years ago)
Mitochondrial DNA sequence mtDNA Haplogroup Y-DNA Haplogroup
Paglicci 23 Italy 28,000[1] CRS [2] H[citation needed]
Paglicci 25 Italy 23,000[3] 7,025 AluI, 00073A, 11719G, 12308A [4] HV[4]|
Cheddar Man England >9,000[citation needed] 16192T,[citation needed] 16270T[citation needed] U5b1[5]
Ötzi the Iceman Austria/Italy 5,300 [6] K.[7][8] G2a2b[9]
Nakht-Ankh Egypt 4,000[10] Haplogroup M1a1 (mtDNA)|M1a1.[11]
Khnum-Nakht Egypt 4,000[12] Haplogroup M1a1 (mtDNA)|M1a1.[13]
Tel Shadud Canaanite Nobelman Israel 3,300[14] Haplogroup R1b[15]
Tel Shadud speciman L126 Israel 3,300[16] Haplogroup I5a1[17] Haplogroup J[18]
Ramesses III Egypt 3,200[19] E1b1a[20]
Pentawer Egypt 3,200[19] E1b1a[20]
The Norwich Anglo-Saxon England 1,000[citation needed] 16189A,[citation needed] 16223T,[citation needed] 16271C,[citation needed] 16278T[citation needed] X[citation needed]
Juanita the Ice Maiden Peru 500[citation needed] 16111T, 16223T, 16290T, 16319A[21] A[citation needed]
Young Man of Byrsa Tunisia late 6th century BCE U5b2c1[22]
500-year-old Inca child Argentina 500[23] C1b[23]

DNA tests[edit]

The following mummies have undergone DNA tests, of remains with the indicated name, from the indicated locations:[citation needed]

Name Original Location
of Remains
Date Lived
(years ago)
DNA sequence Y-DNA Haplogroup
Thuya Egypt 3,390 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Yuya Egypt 3,390 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Tiye (Elder Lady KV35) Egypt 3,370 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Amenhotep III Egypt 3,370 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV55 mummy Egypt 3,350 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV35 Younger Lady Egypt 3,390 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

Tutankhamun Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV21 Mummy A Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV21 Mummy B Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D2S1338,

D16S539, CSF1PO [24]

KV62 Fetus 1 Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

KV62 Fetus 2 Egypt 3,340 D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11,

D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA [24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kambiz Kamrani (2006). "The 28,000 Year Old Paglicci 23 Cro-Magnon mtDNA Ain't Neandertal — It Is More Modern Than Anything Else". Anthropology.net. Archived from the original on January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  2. ^ Caramelli, David; Vai, Stefania (July 2008). "A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences". PLoS ONE. 3 (7): e2700. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2700C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002700. PMC 2444030. PMID 18628960.
  3. ^ Mallegni, F; Bertoldi, F; Manolis, S.K. (1999). "The Gravettian female human skeleton from Grotta Paglicci, south Italy". HOMO: Journal of Comparative Human Biology. 50 (2): 127–148.
  4. ^ a b Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; et al. (May 27, 2003). "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans". PNAS. 100 (11): 6593–6597. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.6593C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1130343100. PMC 164492. PMID 12743370.
  5. ^ Brace, Selina; et al. (18 February 2018). "Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain". bioRxiv 267443.
  6. ^ Bonani, Georges; Ivy, Susan D.; et al. (1994). "AMS 14
    C
    Age Determination of Tissue, Bone and Grass Samples from the Ötzal Ice Man"
    (PDF). Radiocarbon. 36 (2): 247–250. doi:10.1017/s0033822200040534. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  7. ^ Ermini, Luca; Olivieri, Cristina; et al. (November 11, 2008). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman". Current Biology. 18 (21): 1687–93. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.09.028. PMID 18976917.
  8. ^ Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J; et al. (2009). "Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: The singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman". BMC Genetics. 10: 29. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-29. PMC 2717998. PMID 19545382.
  9. ^ Keller, Andreas; Graefen, Angela; et al. (February 28, 2012). "New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing". Nature Communications. 3: 698. Bibcode:2012NatCo...3E.698K. doi:10.1038/ncomms1701. PMID 22426219.
  10. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  11. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  12. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  13. ^ Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery
  14. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  15. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  16. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  17. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  18. ^ The Canaanite Nobelman of Tel Shadud - Levantine R1b?
  19. ^ a b "Study reveals that Pharaoh's throat was cut during royal coup" (Press release). BMJ. 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  20. ^ a b Hawass, Zahi; Ismail, Somaia; Selim, Ashraf; Saleem, Sahar N.; Fathalla, Dina; Wasef, Sally; Gad, Ahmed Z.; Saad, Rama; Fares, Suzan; Amer, Hany; Gostner, Paul; Gad, Yehia Z.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Zink, Albert R. (December 17, 2012). "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study". BMJ. 345: e8268. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8268. PMID 23247979. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  21. ^ "Ancient DNA". www.isogg.org. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. 14 May 2005. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  22. ^ Matisoo-Smith EA, Gosling AL, Boocock J, Kardailsky O, Kurumilian Y, Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. (May 25, 2016). "A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa". PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155046. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1155046M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155046. PMC 4880306. PMID 27224451.
  23. ^ a b Gómez-Carballa A, Catelli L, Pardo-Seco J, et al. (November 12, 2015). "The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy". Sci Rep. 5: 16462. Bibcode:2015NatSR...516462G. doi:10.1038/srep16462. PMC 4642457. PMID 26561991.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hawass, Zahi; Gad, Y. Z.; Ismail, S.; Khairat, R.; Fathalla, D.; Hasan, N.; Ahmed, A.; Elleithy, H.; Ball, M.; Gaballah, F.; Wasef, S.; Fateen, M.; Amer, H.; Gostner, P.; Selim, A.; Zink, A.; Pusch, C. M. (2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". JAMA. 303 (7): 638–47. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]