List of Hittite kings

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Tudḫaliya IV of the New Kingdom, r. c. 1245–1215 BC.[1]

The dating and sequence of the Hittite kings is compiled from fragmentary records, supplemented by the recent find in Hattusa of a cache of more than 3500 seal impressions giving names and titles and genealogy of Hittite kings. All dates given here are approximate, relying on synchronisms with known chronologies for neighbouring countries and Egypt.

All reign lengths are approximate. The list uses the middle chronology, the most generally accepted chronology of the Ancient Near East and the chronology that accords best with Hittite evidence.[2]

Old Kingdom (c. 1650–1500 BC)[edit]

Ruler Reign (MC)[1] Lineage and notes
Labarna I (?) 1680(?)–1650 BC[3] Traditional founder of the royal line; existence disputed.[1]
Ḫattušili I[a] 1650–1620 BC Nephew of the wife of Labarna I.[4]
Muršili I 1620–1590 BC Grandson of Ḫattušili I.[4] Sacked Babylon in c. 1595.[1][5]
Hantili I 1590–1560 BC Brother-in-law of Mursili I.[4]
Zidanta I 1560–1550 BC Son-in-law of Hantili I.[4]
Ammuna 1550–1530 BC Son of Zidanta I.[4]
Huzziya I 1530–1525 BC Son of Ammuna (?).[4]
Telipinu 1525–1500 BC Brother-in-law of Huzziya I.[4]

Middle Kingdom (c. 1500–1420 BC)[edit]

Ruler Reign (MC)[1] Lineage and notes
Tahurwaili 1500–? BC Cousin of Telipinu.[6]
Alluwamna Uncertain Son-in-law of Telipinu.[4]
Hantili II Uncertain Son of Alluwamna.[4]
Zidanta II[b] Uncertain Nephew of Hantili II (?).[4]
Huzziya II Uncertain Unclear lineage.[4]
Muwatalli I ?–1420 BC Unclear lineage.[4]

New Kingdom (c. 1420–1190 BC)[edit]

Ruler Reign (MC)[1] Lineage and notes
Ḫattušili II (?) 1420–1400 BC (?) Unclear lineage; existence disputed.[7]
Tudḫaliya I 1400–1390 BC Grandson of Huzziya II (?).[4]
Arnuwanda I 1390–1380 BC Son-in-law of Tudḫaliya I.[4]
Tudḫaliya II[c] 1380–1370 BC Son of Arnuwanda I.[4]
Tudḫaliya III (?) 1370 BC Son of Tudḫaliya II. Also known as "Tudḫaliya the Younger"; rule disputed.
Šuppiluliuma I 1370–1330 BC Son or son-in-law of Tudḫaliya II.[4] Expanded the empire. Mentioned in the Amarna letters.[8]
Arnuwanda II 1330 BC Son of Šuppiluliuma I.[4]
Muršili II 1330–1295 BC Son of Šuppiluliuma I.[4]
'Muwatalli II'[d] 1295–1282 BC Son of Muršili II.[4] Fought at the Battle of Kadesh.
Muršili III[e] 1282–1275 BC Son of Muwatalli II.[4]
Ḫattušili III 1275–1245 BC Son of Muršili II.[4] Signatory of the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty.
Tudḫaliya IV[f] 1245–1215 BC Son of Ḫattušili III.[4] Fought at the Battle of Nihriya.
Arnuwanda III 1215–1210 BC Son of Tudḫaliya IV.[4]
Šuppiluliuma II[g] 1210–1190 BC[1][9] Son of Tudḫaliya IV.[4] Last known king before the Late Bronze Age collapse and end of the kingdom.

See also[edit]

  • List of Neo-Hittite kings, for the rulers of the Neo-Hittite states, some of whom were direct descendants of the Hittite kings
    • The rulers of Carchemish in particular presented themselves as successors of the Hittite kings and ruled in northern Syria until defeated by the Assyrians in 717 BC.
  • History of the Hittites
  • Tawananna, for Hittite queens

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Also known as Labarna II.[4]
  2. ^ Also known as Zidanza.[4]
  3. ^ Also known as Tašmišarri.[4]
  4. ^ Also known as Šarri-Teššub.[4]
  5. ^ Also known as Urhi-Teššub.[4]
  6. ^ Also known as Tašmi-Šarruma.[4]
  7. ^ Also known as Šuppiluliama.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Kuhrt, Amélie (2020). The Ancient Near East: c.3000–330 BC, Volume One. Routledge. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-136-75548-4.
  2. ^ Steadman, Sharon R.; McMahon, Gregory (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. Oxford University Press. p. 598. ISBN 978-0-19-970447-7.
  3. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin, (2020). "The Authorship of the Old Hittite Palace Chronicle (CTH 8): A Case for Anitta", in Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 72 (2020): "...Recently, Forlanini proposed that the text’s author was not Muršili I but rather Ḫattušili I, who tells about the times of his predecessor Labarna I (ca. 1680(?)–1650 BCE)..."
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Bilgin, Tayfun (2018). Officials and Administration in the Hittite World. Walter de Gruyter. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-5015-0977-3.
  5. ^ Kuhrt, A. (1997). Ancient Near East c. 3000–330 BC. London: Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-415-16763-5.
  6. ^ Birgit Brandau, Hartmut Schickert: Hethiter Die unbekannte Weltmacht
  7. ^ Bryce, Trevor; Bryce, Trevor Robert (2012-03-15). "Appendix III: The Kings of Late Bronze Age Hatti". The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-921872-1.
  8. ^ Cohen, Raymond; Westbrook, Raymond (2002). Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. JHU Press. pp. xv. ISBN 978-0-8018-7103-0.
  9. ^ Drews, Robert (1994). The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East. Princeton University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-691-02951-1.