List of domesticated fungi and microorganisms

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Many fungi and microorganisms have been domesticated by humans for use in food production, medicine, and research. The following is a list of domesticated fungi and microorganisms:


Organism Use
Agaricus bisporus Eaten; "Button mushroom" or "portabello mushroom".[1]
Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation of traditional Japanese foods and beverages.[2]
bacteria (for cheese, yogurt, kephir, buttermilk, sour cream, kombucha tea)
Lactic acid bacteria Fermentation of dairy, plants, and meats.[3]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii Production of yogurt (Bulgaria).[3]
Lactococcus casei Production of cheese (with a fruity flavor).[3]
Lactococcus helveticus Production of cheese, including swiss cheese.[3]
Lactococcus lactis Production of cheese.[3]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides Fermentation of sauerkraut.[3]
Moulds (for making cheese, tempeh, Quorn, Pu-erh and some sausages)
Mushrooms Food
Oenococcus oeni Involved in wine fermentation.[3]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation of beer and wine; leavening of bread.[4]
Streptococcus thermophilus Production of yogurt (France, United Kingdom).[3]
Yeasts Baking, winemaking, brewing

Research and medicine[edit]

Organism Use
viruses (for vaccines and research)
bacteria (for making drugs)
molds (for making antibiotics)


Organism Use
bacteria Chemical production

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Agaricus bisporus:The Button Mushroom". Retrieved 27 June 2016. 
  2. ^ Machida, Masayuki; Asai, Kiyoshi; Sano, Motoaki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Toshitaka; et al. (2005). "Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae". Nature. 438 (7071): 1157. doi:10.1038/nature04300. PMID 16372010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Douglas, Grace L.; Klaenhammer, Todd R. (2010). "Genomic Evolution of Domesticated Microorganisms". Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 1: 397–414. doi:10.1146/ PMID 22129342. 
  4. ^ Legras, Jean-LUC; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis (2007). "Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history". Molecular Ecology. 16 (10): 2091. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03266.x. PMID 17498234.