List of domesticated plants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This map shows the sites of domestication for a number of crop plants. Places, where crops were initially domesticated, are called centers of origin.

This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans. The list includes individual plant species identified by their common names as well as larger formal and informal botanical categories which include at least some domesticated individuals. Plants in this list are grouped by the original or primary purpose for which they were domesticated, and subsequently by botanical or culinary categories. Plants with more than one significant human use may be listed in multiple categories.

Plants are considered domesticated when their life cycle, behavior, or appearance has been significantly altered as a result of being under artificial selection by humans for multiple generations (see the main article on domestication for more information). Thousands of distinct plant species have been domesticated throughout human history. Not all modern domesticated plant varieties can be found growing in the wild; many are actually hybrids of two or more naturally occurring species and therefore have no wild counterpart.

Food and cooking[edit]

Fruit trees[edit]

Pomes[edit]

Citrus fruits[edit]

Nut trees[edit]

Other[edit]

Numerous other trees have been domesticated for their fruits. There are more than 100 known domesticated plant species native to the Amazon alone.

Cereals[edit]

Pseudocereals[edit]

Legumes[edit]

Sweet small-plant fruits[edit]

Aggregated drupelet "berries"[edit]

True berries[edit]

Other[edit]

Vegetables[edit]

Selective breeding enlarged desired traits of the wild mustard plant (Brassica oleracea) over hundreds of years, resulting in dozens of today's agricultural crops. Cabbage, kale, broccoli, and cauliflower were all products of this selective breeding, making them all the same plant.

Non-sweet small-plant fruits[edit]

Root vegetables[edit]

Herbs and spices[edit]

Oil-producing plants[edit]

  • Olive (also eaten directly in many parts of the world)

Legumes grown principally for oil production:

  • Peanut (also eaten directly in the United States)
  • Soybean (also a major livestock feed and export crop, and sometimes eaten directly as a snack food)

Commodities[edit]

Plants grown principally as animal fodder or for soil enrichment:

Oil-producing plants (for fuel or lubrication):

Utility plants:

Psychoactive plants (for drugs or medicines):

Fiber plants (for textiles):

Ornamental plants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Heiser, C. B. (1990). Seed to civilization: the story of food. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Simpson, B.B.; Conner-Ogorzaly, M. (2000). Economic botany: plants in our world. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Vaughan, J. G.; C. A. Geissler (1997). The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

See also[edit]