List of domesticated plants

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This map shows the sites of domestication for a number of crops. Places where crops were initially domesticated are called centres of origin

This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans.

The list includes species or larger formal and informal botanical categories that include at least some domesticated individuals.

To be considered domesticated, a population of plants must have their behavior, life cycle, or appearance significantly altered as a result of being under humans control for multiple generations. (Please see the main article on domestication for more information.)

Plants in this list are organized by the original or primary purpose for which they were domesticated. When a plant has more than one significant human use, it has been listed in more than one category.

Food and cooking[edit]

Fruit trees[edit]


Citrus fruits[edit]

Nut trees[edit]



  • Barley
  • Finger millet
  • Fonio
  • Foxtail millet
  • Little barley (Hordeum pusillum, central US pre-Columbian)
  • Maize (called corn in the U.S.). Old domesticated plant, found in countless variations throughout the Americas.
  • Maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana, central US pre-Columbian)
  • Pearl millet (predominantly in African cultures and India, also for beer brewing)
  • Proso millet
  • Oats
  • Rice The chief crop in eastern Asia, and an important foodstuff around the world.
  • Rye (used in Eastern Europe Countries, and for alcoholic beverages)
  • Sorghum
  • Spelt
  • Teff -- Ethiopia (also tef)
  • Triticale (Secalotriticum spp.) Hybrids between wheat and rye.
  • Wheat (called corn in the UK, esp. England). Has a very long history of domestication and is thought to be one of the first plants used for farming.



Sweet small-plant fruits[edit]

Aggregated drupelet "berries"[edit]

True berries[edit]



Non-sweet small-plant fruits[edit]

Root vegetables[edit]

Herbs and spices[edit]

Oil producing plants[edit]


Ornamental plants[edit]


  • Heiser, C. B. (1990). Seed to civilization: the story of food. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Simpson, B.B.; Conner-Ogorzaly, M. (2000). Economic botany: plants in our world. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Vaughan, J. G.; C. A. Geissler (1997). The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

See also[edit]