List of rivers of Madhya Pradesh
||This article is incomplete. (September 2009)|
|This article does not cite any references (sources). (August 2015)|
Madhya Pradesh, a state in north-central India, is subtropical with substantial (1,400 mm (55.1 in)) monsoon rains that feed a large number of streams and rivers. The largest of these is the Narmada, followed by the Tapti.
The Narmada originates in Amarkantak, the highest peak of the Vindhya Range, it flows westward through Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat before finally ending its journey in the Gulf of Khambat. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Shakkar, the Karam, the Choral, the Barna, the Hiran, the Denwa and the Sonbhadra rivers. Its length is 1312 kilometers, out of which 1077 km in M.P.
Apart from the Narmada, the Tapti River (Tapi) is the only river that flows westward and falls into the Arabian Sea, in the Gulf of Khambat, to be precise. The 724km long Tapti is agriculturally very important as it drains an area of over 65,145sq km spread over Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. This river originates at a height of 762m in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh (to the south of the Satpura Range). The Tapti journeys almost parallel to the Narmada, though it is much shorter in length than the Narmada and has a smaller catchment area.
Originating in the Kumra village in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, the Betwa flows for 380km. After meandering through Madhya Pradesh, it enters the neighbouring state, Uttar Pradesh, and joins the river Yamuna in Hamirpur. The Betwa takes along with it the water of the eastern Malwa plateau. The tributaries of Betwa are Bina, Yamini, Dhasan and Ken. In ancient times, the Betwa was known as Vetrawati.
The Chambal originates from the Janapav Near Mhow Mountain in the Vindhya Range, and flows northeast through Ujjain, Ratlam and Mandsaur, before entering Rajasthan. It reenters Madhya Pradesh after meandering through parts of Rajasthan and touches Moraina and Bhind. Here are the infamous Chambal Ravines that have been and still are the safest refuge for dacoits.
Like many other seasonal Indian rivers, the Mahanadi too is a combination of many mountain streams and thus its precise source is impossible to pinpoint. However its farthest headwaters lie 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Pharsiya village 442 metres (1,450 ft) above sea level south of Nagri town in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh. The hills here are an extension of the Eastern Ghats and are a source of many other streams which then go on to join the Mahanadi. For the first 80 kilometres (50 mi) of its course, the Mahanadi flows in a northerly direction and drains the Raipur district and touches eastern portions of Raipur city. It is a rather narrow river at this stage and the total width of its valley does not exceed 500–600 metres. Mahanadi also passes through the states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha.
The Shipra starts her journey in the Vindhya Range from a hill called Kokri Tekdi situated at a distance of 11km from Ujjain. This river is 195km long, out of which 93km flow through Ujjain. It then touches Ratlam and Mandsaur, before joining the river Chambal. The main tributaries of Shipra are Khan and Gambhir. It then touches Ratlam and Mandsaur, before joining the river Chambal. The main tributaries of Shipra are Khan and Gambhir.