List of political entities in the 4th century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia c. 3700 BC, in Egypt c. 3300 BC, in the Indus Valley c. 2500 BC, India c. 1700 BC, and in China c. 1600 BC. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. According to Professor Gil Stein of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy.For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations. This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 400 BC and 301 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of Earth in 400 BC
Sovereign state Years
Achaemenid Empire 550 - 330 BC
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Albania 4th century BC - 8th century AD
Ammon c.10th century - 332 BC
Athens 510 - 322 BC
Atropatene 320s BC - 3rd century AD
Carthaginian Empire 650 - 146 BC
Chavín culture 900 - 200 BC
Chera Kingdom 5th century BC - AD 1102
Chorrera 1800 - 300 BC
Chu 1030 - 223 BC
Dʿmt c.980 - c.400 BC
Dardanian Kingdom c.448 BC – 28 BC
Gojoseon 2333 - 108 BC
Han 403 - 230 BC
Iberia 302 BC - 580 AD
Japan 660 BC - present
Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Lu 856 - 256 BC
Lycaonia 8th century - 200 BC
Macedonia 8th century - 146 BC
Maya civilization
Nanda Empire 424 - 321 BC
Olmec 1400 - 400 BC
Paracas culture 600 - 175 BC
Ptolemaic Kingdom 305 - 30 BC
Qi 1046 - 241 BC
Qin 845 - 221 BC
Roman Republic 509 - 27 BC
Scythia 8th century BC - 2nd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312 - 63 BC
Sparta 11th century - 195 BC
Văn Lang 2879 - 258 BC
Wei 403 - 225 BC
Yan 865 - 222 BC
Yue 334 - 334 BC
Zheng 806 - 375 BC
Zhoa 403 - 222 BC
Zhou 1045 - 256 BC

See also[edit]

List of political entities in the 4th century BC
Preceded by
5th century BC
Sovereign states of
the 4th century BC
Succeeded by
3rd century BC


  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.