List of video game console palettes

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This is a list of the full color palettes for notable video game console hardware.

For each unique palette, an image color test chart and sample image (Truecolor original follows) rendered with that palette (without dithering) are given. The test chart shows the full 8-bits, 256 levels of the red, green and blue (RGB) primary colors and cyan, magenta and yellow complementary colors, along with a full 8-bits, 256 levels grayscale. Gradients of RGB intermediate colors (orange, lime green, sea green, sky blue, violet and fuchsia), and a full hue's spectrum are also present. Color charts are not gamma corrected.

RGB 24bits palette sample image.jpg RGB 24bits palette color test chart.png

Atari[edit]

Atari 2600[edit]

The Atari 2600 used different YIQ color palettes dependent on the television signal format used.[1]

NTSC[edit]

With the NTSC format, a 128-color palette was available, built based on eight luminance values and 15 combinations of Pb and Pr chroma signals (plus Pb = Pr = 0 for a pure grayscale):

Atari2600 NTSC palette sample image.png Atari2600 NTSC palette color test chart.png Atari2600 NTSC palette.png
luminance/hue 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

The above image assumes there is no limit on the number of colors per scanline. With the system's actual color restrictions, the same image would look very different:

Atari2600 NTSC simulation.png

PAL[edit]

With the PAL format, a 104-color palette was available. 128-color entries were still selectable, but due to changes in color encoding schemes, 32 color entries results in the same eight shades of gray:

Atari2600 PAL palette sample image.png Atari2600 PAL palette color test chart.png Atari2600 PAL palette.png
hue / luminance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

The above image assumes there is no limit on the number of colors per scanline. With the system's actual color restrictions, the same image would look very different:

Atari2600 PAL simulation.png

SECAM[edit]

RGB 3bits palette sample image.png RGB 3bits palette color test chart.png

The SECAM palette was reduced to a simple 3-bit RGB, containing only 8 colors (black, blue, red, magenta, green, cyan, yellow and white) by mapping the luminance to color and ignoring the hue:

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Nintendo[edit]

NES[edit]

The Picture Processing Unit (PPU) was used in the Nintendo Entertainment System and used the YIQ color space to create a 64-color palette, of which nine are duplicates and one is out of NTSC's gamut, giving a total of 54 useful colors. The palette is built based on four luminance values and twelve combinations of Pb and Pr chroma signals (plus two series of Pb = Pr = 0 for eight pure grays). Two of the shades of gray are identical, one has negative brightness, and one is within 2% of another, so sometimes the palette has been reported to have 53 to 55 colors.

In addition to this, it had 3 color emphasis bits which can be used to tint the entire palette any combination of red, green and blue. This extends the total available colors to 432, but inconveniently divided into 8 variations of the base 54. Because it affects the whole palette at once it may be considered more of a filter effect applied to the image, rather than an increased palette range.

NES palette sample image.png NES palette color test chart.png NES palette.png
Hex Value
Binary Equivalent
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
0x00
0000 0000
0x00
0000
HEX
7C7C7C
RGB
124, 124, 124
0x01
0001
HEX
0000FC
RGB
0, 0, 252
0x02
0010
HEX
0000BC
RGB
0, 0, 188
0x03
0011
HEX
4428BC
RGB
68, 40, 188
0x04
0100
HEX
940084
RGB
148, 0, 132
0x05
0101
HEX
A80020
RGB
168, 0, 32
0x06
0110
HEX
A81000
RGB
168, 16, 0
0x07
0111
HEX
881400
RGB
136, 20, 0
0x08
1000
HEX
503000
RGB
80, 48, 0
0x09
1001
HEX
007800
RGB
0, 120, 0
0x0A
1010
HEX
006800
RGB
0, 104, 0
0x0B
1011
HEX
005800
RGB
0, 88, 0
0x0C
1100
HEX
004058
RGB
0, 64, 88
0x0D
1101
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x0E
1110
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x0F
1111
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x10
0001 0000
0x10
0000
HEX
BCBCBC
RGB
188, 188, 188
0x11
0001
HEX
0078F8
RGB
0, 120, 248
0x12
0010
HEX
0058F8
RGB
0, 88, 248
0x13
0011
HEX
6844FC
RGB
104, 68, 252
0x14
0100
HEX
D800CC
RGB
216, 0, 204
0x15
0101
HEX
E40058
RGB
228, 0, 88
0x16
0110
HEX
F83800
RGB
248, 56, 0
0x17
0111
HEX
E45C10
RGB
228, 92, 16
0x18
1000
HEX
AC7C00
RGB
172, 124, 0
0x19
1001
HEX
00B800
RGB
0, 184, 0
0x1A
1010
HEX
00A800
RGB
0, 168, 0
0x1B
1011
HEX
00A844
RGB
0, 168, 68
0x1C
1100
HEX
008888
RGB
0, 136, 136
0x1D
1101
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x1E
1110
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x1F
1111
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x20
0010 0000
0x20
0000
HEX
F8F8F8
RGB
248, 248, 248
0x21
0001
HEX
3CBCFC
RGB
60, 188, 252
0x22
0010
HEX
6888FC
RGB
104, 136, 252
0x23
0011
HEX
9878F8
RGB
152, 120, 248
0x24
0100
HEX
F878F8
RGB
248, 120, 248
0x25
0101
HEX
F85898
RGB
248, 88, 152
0x26
0110
HEX
F87858
RGB
248, 120, 88
0x27
0111
HEX
FCA044
RGB
252, 160, 68
0x28
1000
HEX
F8B800
RGB
248, 184, 0
0x29
1001
HEX
B8F818
RGB
184, 248, 24
0x2A
1010
HEX
58D854
RGB
88, 216, 84
0x2B
1011
HEX
58F898
RGB
88, 248, 152
0x2C
1100
HEX
00E8D8
RGB
0, 232, 216
0x2D
1101
HEX
787878
RGB
120, 120, 120
0x2E
1110
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x2F
1111
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x30
0011 0000
0x30
0000
HEX
FCFCFC
RGB
252, 252, 252
0x31
0001
HEX
A4E4FC
RGB
164, 228, 252
0x32
0010
HEX
B8B8F8
RGB
184, 184, 248
0x33
0011
HEX
D8B8F8
RGB
216, 184, 248
0x34
0100
HEX
F8B8F8
RGB
248, 184, 248
0x35
0101
HEX
F8A4C0
RGB
248, 164, 192
0x36
0110
HEX
F0D0B0
RGB
240, 208, 176
0x37
0111
HEX
FCE0A8
RGB
252, 224, 168
0x38
1000
HEX
F8D878
RGB
248, 216, 120
0x39
1001
HEX
D8F878
RGB
216, 248, 120
0x3A
1010
HEX
B8F8B8
RGB
184, 248, 184
0x3B
1011
HEX
B8F8D8
RGB
184, 248, 216
0x3C
1100
HEX
00FCFC
RGB
0, 252, 252
0x3D
1101
HEX
D8D8D8
RGB
216, 216, 216
0x3E
1110
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0
0x3F
1111
HEX
000000
RGB
0, 0, 0

The NES could select 4 palettes each containing four of these colors (however, color 0 of each palette has to be the same, so technically, 13 different colors are available at a time) to be applied to the background. A background palette is applied to a 16x16 pixel area, however through a special video mode of the MMC5 mapper it is possible for every 8x8 pixel tile to have its individual palette. As for sprites, 4 different palettes can be used at a time (with color 0 being transparent in each) and every 8x8 or 8x16 pixels can have their own palette, allowing for a total of 12 different colors to use for sprites at any given time.

Because of the constraints mentioned above, converting a photograph often results in attribute clash. Conversions with and without dithering follow, using the hex palette 0F160608 0F162720 0F090010 0F0A1910:

Without dithering With dithering
Parrot NES no dithering.png Parrot NES with dithering.png

Game Boy[edit]

The original Game Boy uses a monochrome 4-shades palette. Due to the fact that the non-backlit LCD display background is greenish, this results in a greenscale graphic display, as it is shown in the simulated image (at Game Boy display resolution), below. The Game Boy Pocket uses a monochrome 4-shades palette using actual gray.

Original Game Boy Game Boy Pocket
Screen color test Gameboy.png Screen color test Gameboy Pocket.png
Original Game Boy Hex / Binary 0x0 00 0x1 01 0x2 10 0x3 11
Game Boy Pocket Hex / Binary 0x0 00 0x1 01 0x2 10 0x3 11

Super NES (SNES)[edit]

The Picture Processing Unit (PPU) used in the Super NES has a 15-bit RGB (32,768 color) palette, with up to 256 simultaneous colors at once.

However, while the hardware palette can only contain 256 entries, in most display modes the graphics are arranged into between 2 and 4 layers, and these layers can be combined using additive or subtractive color blending. Because these blended colors are calculated by the hardware itself, and do not have to be represented by any of the existing palette entries, the actual number of visible colors onscreen at any one time can be much higher.

The exact number depends on the number of layers, and the combination of colors used by these layers, as well as what blending mode and graphical effects are in use. In theory it can show the entire 32,768 colors, but in practice this is rarely the case for reasons such as memory use. Most games use 256-color mode, with 15-color palettes assigned to 8x8 pixel areas of the background.

Theoretical 32768-color Practical 256-color
RGB 15bits palette sample image.png Parrot 256 of 32768.png

Game Boy Color[edit]

The Game Boy Color systems use a 15-bit RGB (32,768 colors) palette.

The specific Game Boy Color (Type 3) game cartridges presents up to 56 colors without the use of special programming techniques from the full 32,768. From these, 32 are for a background palette, plus 8 hardware sprite palettes, with 3 colors plus transparent each. Typically sprite palettes share some colors (black, white or others), so the total colors displayed may be less than 56.

Though there is a 56 color limit, this in of itself is a palette storage limit and not an actual hardware limitation. As such, the programmer can swap out the palettes on a per-scanline basis. Because of this ability to swap out the palettes each scanline, over ten thousand colors can actually appear on screen per frame when programmed on a per-scanline basis.

Simulated
Screen color test GameboyColor 32colors.png

When an older monochrome original Game Boy game cartridge (Type 1) is plugged-in, if certain combinations of the controls are held during startup (or if the game is recognized from a hard-coded list in the device's ROM), the games are colorized with one of the factory 12 false color palettes. In this mode, games can have from 4 to 10 colors, due 4 are for the background plane palette and there are two more hardware sprite planes palettes, with 3 colors plus transparent each.

The following shows these startup palettes (background plus both sprite planes) and the combination of controls used (the names are taken from the Game Boy user's manual; the colors are simulated):

Combo Up Down Left Right
Gbcpalette-up-highcon.png
Brown
Gbcpalette-dw-highcon.png
Pastel mix
Gbcpalette-lf-highcon.png
Blue
Gbcpalette-rg-highcon.png
Green
A Gbcpalette-up+a-highcon.png
Red
Gbcpalette-dw+a-highcon.png
Orange
Gbcpalette-lf+a-highcon.png
Dark blue
Gbcpalette-rg+a-highcon.png
Dark green
B Gbcpalette-up+b-highcon.png
Dark brown
Gbcpalette-dw+b-highcon.png
Yellow
Gbcpalette-lf+b-highcon.png
Grayscale
Gbcpalette-rg+b-highcon.png
Inverted

Color palette[edit]

Nintendo GameBoy color palette by keypad reference
Combination OBJ0 OBJ1 BG0 Palette reference Welcome-splash
Up $12
Up–A $B0
Up–B $79

Game Boy Advance[edit]

The Game Boy Advance/SP/Micro systems also uses a 15-bit RGB palette, and along with the original and Color modes, they have also a specific Highcolor 32,768 colors mode. The LCD displays of the Micro and some models of the SP are backlit, giving brighter images.

Compatible mode 32,768-color
Screen color test GameboyAdvance 32colors.png Screen color test GameboyAdvance 32Kcolors.png

DS[edit]

The DS has an 18-bit RGB color palette, making a total of 262,144 possible colors.

RGB 18bits palette sample image.png

Switch[edit]

Sega[edit]

Master System[edit]

The Master System had a 6-bit RGB palette (64 colors), with 31 colors on-screen at once. It is possible to display all 64 colors at once using raster effects (line interrupts).

There are only 512 different 8x8 tile patterns to cover the screen though, when 768 would be required for a complete 256x192 screen. This means that at least 1/3 of the tiles will have to be repeated. To help maximize tile reuse, they can be flipped either vertically or horizontally. The 64 sprites of 8x16 pixels can also be used to help to cover the screen (max 8 per scanline).

Because of the constraints mentioned above, there are no current correct simulated screen images available for the Sega Master System.

Screen color test SEGAMasterSystem.png
0x00 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x05 0x06 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x0D 0x0E 0x0F
0x10 0x11 0x12 0x13 0x14 0x15 0x16 0x17 0x18 0x19 0x1A 0x1B 0x1C 0x1D 0x1E 0x1F
0x20 0x21 0x22 0x23 0x24 0x25 0x26 0x27 0x28 0x29 0x2A 0x2B 0x2C 0x2D 0x2E 0x2F
0x30 0x31 0x32 0x33 0x34 0x35 0x36 0x37 0x38 0x39 0x3A 0x3B 0x3C 0x3D 0x3E 0x3F

Mega Drive/Genesis[edit]

The Mega Drive/Genesis used a 9-bit RGB palette (512 colors, 1536 including shadow and highlight mode) with up to 61 colors on-screen at once without raster effects (4 palette lines of 16 colors each, palette indices $x0 are definable but considered as transparent, and can only be used as the background color).

RGB 24bits palette sample image 9bpp MD.png

Game Gear[edit]

The Game Gear had a 12-bit RGB palette (4096 colors), with 32 colors on-screen at once.

Screen color test Amiga 32colors.png

32X[edit]

The Sega 32X had a 15-bit RGB palette (32768 colors), with all colors available for display.

NEC[edit]

TurboGrafx-16[edit]

The TurboGrafx-16 used a 9-bit RGB palette, like the Mega Drive/Genesis, consisting of 512 colors with 482 colors on-screen at once (16 background palettes of 16 colors each, with at least 1 common color among all background palettes, and 16 sprite palettes of 15 colors each, plus transparent which was visible as the overscan area).

RGB 24bits palette sample image 9bpp PCE.png

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Atari 2600 "TIA color chart". Archived February 12, 2011, at WebCite