Werndl–Holub rifle

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M1867 Werndl–Holub
Werndl M1867.jpg
Type Service rifle
Place of origin Austria-Hungary
Service history
In service 1867–1918
Used by Austria-Hungary
Montenegro
Persia
Argentina (limited use)
Wars Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878
Battles for Plav and Gusinje
Herzegovina uprising (1882)
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
World War I (limited)[1]
Production history
Designer Josef Werndl and Karel Holub
Designed 1860s
Manufacturer Steyr
Produced 1867–1888
No. built 500,000 (approx.)
Variants M1873
M67/77
M73/77
Extra-Corps Carbine
Finance-Gewehr Carbine
Cavalry Carbine
Specifications
Weight 9.65 lb (4.4 kg)
Length 50.4 in (128.0 cm)
Barrel length 33.3 in (84.6 cm)

Cartridge 11.15×42mmR (M1867)
11×58mmR (1877 Upgrade)
Caliber 11.15 mm
Action Rotating drum bolt
Feed system Single-shot breech-loading
Sights Iron sights

The M1867 Werndl–Holub was a single-shot breechloading rifle that the Austro-Hungarian army adopted in 1867. It replaced the Wanzl breechloader conversion of the muzzle-loading Lorenz rifle. Josef Werndl (1831–1889) and Karel Holub (1830–1903) designed and patented their design; Werndl later bought out all the rights, but was involved in name only.

The unique breechloading system of the Werndl.
M1877 bayonet and scabbard.

ŒWG (Österreichische Waffenfabriksgesellschaft) produced the Werndl and chambered it for the 11mm scharfe Patrone M.67[1] (11.15×42R) cartridge. In 1877 the military rechambered the Werndl for the bottleneck 11mm scharfe Patrone M.77 (11.15×58mmR) cartridge.

In spite of the Werndl being long obsolete by World War I, the Austro-Hungarian forces issued Werndl rifles to rear-echelon units to free up more modern rifles for use by front-line troops.[1]

Comparison with contemporary rifles[edit]

Calibre System Country Velocity Height of trajectory Ammunition Source
Muzzle 500 yd (460 m) 1,000 yd (910 m) 1,500 yd (1,400 m) 2,000 yd (1,800 m) 500 yd (460 m) 1,000 yd (910 m) 1,500 yd (1,400 m) 2,000 yd (1,800 m) Propellant Bullet
.433 in (11.0 mm) Werndl Austria-Hungary 1,439 ft/s (439 m/s) 854 ft/s (260 m/s) 620 ft/s (190 m/s) 449 ft/s (137 m/s) 328 ft/s (100 m/s) 8.252 ft (2.515 m) 49.41 ft (15.06 m) 162.6 ft (49.6 m) 426.0 ft (129.8 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 370 gr (24 g) [2]
.45 in (11.43 mm) Martini–Henry United Kingdom 1,315 ft/s (401 m/s) 869 ft/s (265 m/s) 664 ft/s (202 m/s) 508 ft/s (155 m/s) 389 ft/s (119 m/s) 9.594 ft (2.924 m) 47.90 ft (14.60 m) 147.1 ft (44.8 m) 357.85 ft (109.07 m) 85 gr (5.5 g) 480 gr (31 g) [2]
.433 in (11.0 mm) Gras France 1,489 ft/s (454 m/s) 878 ft/s (268 m/s) 643 ft/s (196 m/s) 471 ft/s (144 m/s) 348 ft/s (106 m/s) 7.769 ft (2.368 m) 46.6 ft (14.2 m) 151.8 ft (46.3 m) 389.9 ft (118.8 m) 80 gr (5.2 g) 386 gr (25.0 g) [2]
.433 in (11.0 mm) Mauser Germany 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) 859 ft/s (262 m/s) 629 ft/s (192 m/s) 459 ft/s (140 m/s) 388 ft/s (118 m/s) 8.249 ft (2.514 m) 48.68 ft (14.84 m) 159.2 ft (48.5 m) 411.1 ft (125.3 m) 75 gr (4.9 g) 380 gr (25 g) [2]
.408 in (10.4 mm) Vetterli Italy 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) 835 ft/s (255 m/s) 595 ft/s (181 m/s) 422 ft/s (129 m/s) 304 ft/s (93 m/s) 8.527 ft (2.599 m) 52.17 ft (15.90 m) 176.3 ft (53.7 m) 469.9 ft (143.2 m) 62 gr (4.0 g) 310 gr (20 g) [2]
.397 in (10.08 mm) Jarmann Norway and Sweden 1,536 ft/s (468 m/s) 908 ft/s (277 m/s) 675 ft/s (206 m/s) 504 ft/s (154 m/s) 377 ft/s (115 m/s) 7.235 ft (2.205 m) 42.97 ft (13.10 m) 137.6 ft (41.9 m) 348.5 ft (106.2 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 337 gr (21.8 g) [2]
.42 in (10.67 mm) Berdan Russia 1,444 ft/s (440 m/s) 873 ft/s (266 m/s) 645 ft/s (197 m/s) 476 ft/s (145 m/s) 353 ft/s (108 m/s) 7.995 ft (2.437 m) 47.01 ft (14.33 m) 151.7 ft (46.2 m) 388.7 ft (118.5 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 370 gr (24 g) [2]
.45 in (11.43 mm) Springfield United States 1,301 ft/s (397 m/s) 875 ft/s (267 m/s) 676 ft/s (206 m/s) 523 ft/s (159 m/s) 404 ft/s (123 m/s) 8.574 ft (2.613 m) 46.88 ft (14.29 m) 142.3 ft (43.4 m) 343.0 ft (104.5 m) 70 gr (4.5 g) 500 gr (32 g) [2]
.40 in (10.16 mm) Enfield-Martini United Kingdom 1,570 ft/s (480 m/s) 947 ft/s (289 m/s) 719 ft/s (219 m/s) 553 ft/s (169 m/s) 424 ft/s (129 m/s) 6.704 ft (2.043 m) 39.00 ft (11.89 m) 122.0 ft (37.2 m) 298.47 ft (90.97 m) 85 gr (5.5 g) 384 gr (24.9 g) [2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Scarlata, Paul (1 August 2011). "Austro-Hungarian Rifles of World War 1 – Part One: Many Peoples – Many Rifles!". Shotgun News. 65 (21): 48. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The New Martini-Enfield Rifle" (PDF). The Engineer. 2 July 1886. p. 16. Retrieved 3 April 2017 – via Grace's Guide to British Industrial History.