Mae Nak Phra Khanong
Mae Nak shrine offerings in the inner sanctum:
Portraits of the spirit and folded dresses.
|Mythology||Thai folk mythology|
|Other name(s)||Mae Nak, Nang Nak|
|Habitat||Phra Khanong area, Bangkok|
Mae Nak Phra Khanong (Thai: แม่นากพระโขนง, meaning "Lady Nak of Phra Khanong"), or simply Mae Nak (Thai: แม่นาก, "Lady Nak") or Nang Nak (Thai: นางนาก, "Miss Nak"), is a well-known Thai female ghost. According to local folklore the story is based on events that took place during the reign of King Rama IV.
The story is about a beautiful young woman named Nak, who lived on the banks of the Phra Khanong Canal, and her undying love for her husband, Mak.
With Nak pregnant, Mak is conscripted and sent to war (in some versions of the story the war is against the Shan tribe, while others are not specific), where he is seriously wounded. While he is being nursed back to health in central Bangkok, Nak and their child both die during a difficult childbirth. When Mak returns home, however, he finds his loving wife and child waiting for him. Neighbors who try to warn him that he is living with a ghost are all killed.
One day, as Nak is preparing nam phrik, she drops a lime off the porch. In her haste to retrieve it, she stretches her arm to pick it up from the ground below. Mak sees it and at last realizes his wife is a ghost. Terrified, he tries to find a way to flee without alarming her.
That night, Mak says he has to go downstairs to urinate. He then runs away into the night.
Discovering her husband has fled, Nak pursues him. Mak sees her and conceals himself behind a Blumea balsamifera (Thai: หนาด; pronounced Nat) bush. According to folklore, ghosts are afraid of the sticky Blumea leaves. Mak then runs to Wat Mahabut temple, which a ghost cannot enter, as it is holy ground.
In her grief, Nak terrorizes the people of Phra Khanong, furious at them for causing Mak to leave her. However, Nak's ghost is captured by a powerful exorcist. Confining her in an earthen jar, he throws it into the canal.
There are differing versions of the rest of the story. In one, an old couple new to Phra Khanong finds the jar while fishing; in another two fishermen dredge up the jar. Nak is freed when they opened it.
Nak is conquered again by the venerable monk Somdet Phra Phutthachan (To Phrommarangsi). The learned monk confines her spirit in the bone of her forehead and binds it in his waistband. Legend says the waistband is currently in the possession of the royal family. Admiral Aphakonkiattiwong, the Prince of Chumphon, also claimed to have had the relic. In alternative version, the monk assured Nak that in a future life she would be reunited with her beloved husband, and thus she voluntarily departed for the afterlife.
A shrine dedicated to Mae Nak is at Wat Mahabut. In 1997, the shrine relocated to nearby Suan Luang District of modern Bangkok.
An alternative account
Anek Nawikamul, a Thai historian, researched the story and found an article in Siam Praphet newspaper written by K.S.R. Kularb, dated March 10, 1899. Kularb claimed the story of Mae Nak was based on the life of Amdaeng Nak (อำแดงนาก, "Mrs. Nak"), daughter of a Tambon Phra Khanong leader named Khun Si. Amdaeng Nak died while she was pregnant. Her son, worried that his father might remarry and his inheritance have to be shared with a step-mother, invented the ghost story. He dressed in women's clothing and threw rocks at passing boats to make people think Nak's ghost had done it. Kularb also suggested that Nak's husband was named "Chum", not Mak. No one knows how true this is, or even it was the same Nak, since it does not agree with the traditional tale. 
The Shrine of Mae Nak
The shrine of Mae Nak stands next to Klong Phra Khanong, at Wat Mahabut, a large temple down Soi 77 off Sukhumvit Road (On Nut Road). The shrine is a low building under large trees with a roof that encompasses the tree trunks. The main shrine has several minor shrines around it. 
A statue of Mae Nak and her infant form the centerpiece of the shrine. Devotees often make offerings, accompanied by a request for help, generally by women seeking easy childbirth or for their husband to be exempt from military conscription include love. These are usually lengths of colored cloth, wrapped around the trunk of the Bo tree. Other offerings include fruit, lotuses, and incense sticks left in different locations.
Toys for her child and portraits of the ghost are displayed in the shrine's inner sanctum. A collection of fine dresses offered to her are displayed behind her statue.
Offerings are also made at Phra Khanong canal, where fish purchased live at markets are brought in buckets to the edge of the canal and freed. Stalls at the shrine sell toys, fish, lotus buds, incense sticks and garlands for those who wish to make an offering.   
In popular culture
Mae Nak's story has enjoyed sustained popularity because her undying devotion to her husband inspires people of all ages. Prince Damrong, a son of King Mongkut, revealed that when he was a child, he kept asking Wat Phra Kaeo visitors who was the most popular person in their opinions, and most of the inquired people answered "Mae Nak".
The story of Mae Nak Pra Kanong is also the subject of many films, television series, and printed media. Among these are:
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong, a 1959 Thai film
- Mae Nak Khuen Chip, 1960 Thai film
- Winyan Rak Mae Nak Phra Khanong, a 1962 Thai film
- Mae Nak Khanong Rak, 1968 Thai film
- Mae Nak Phra Nakhon, a 1970 Thai film
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong, 1973 Thai film
- Mae Nak Alawat, 1973 Thai film
- Mae Nak Amerika, 1975 Thai film
- Mae Nak Buk Tokiao, 1976 Thai film
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong, 1978 Thai film
- Sannya Chai Mae Nak Phra Khanong (RTGS: San-ya Chai Mae Nak Phra Khanong), 1992 Thai film
- Mae Nak Choe Phi Pop (Mae Nak meets Phi Pop), 1992 Thai TV series
- Nang Nak, a 1999 film by Thai director Nonzee Nimibutr
- Ghost of Mae Nak, a 2005 Thai film by British director Mark Duffield
- Mae Naak, (แม่นาก) an opera composed by Somtow Sucharitkul. It was premiered in 2003 and revived in 2005 by the Bangkok Opera, with soprano Nancy Yuen performing the title role and baritone Kyu Won Han as Maak in both productions. It was restaged again in 2011 in Bangkok and London.
- Nak (นาค), a Thai 2008 computer animated film.
- Maenak Prakanong the Musical, a 2009 musical directed by Takonkiet Viravan and starring Myria Benedetti and Anatpol Sirichumsang.
- Mae Nak Patha Pop Sam Tua, a 2011 comedy.
- Mae Nak 3D, a 2012 Thai film
- Pee Mak, (พี่มาก..พระโขนง), a 2013 comedy horror Thai film by GMM Tai Hub
- Make Me Shudder 2 (Shudder Me Mae Nak), a 2014 Thai film
- "ย้อนรอยปริศนาแม่นาคพระโขนง/ต่อพงษ์". Manager Online (in Thai). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
- Yongcharoenchai, Chaiyot (2016-01-16). "As cultures come together, it's all in bad spirits". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- หนาด (Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.) Archived 2012-07-14 at Archive.is (in Thai)
- เจนจบ ยิ่งสุมล. (ตุลาคม 2553). ๑๓๐ ปี ไม่มีวันตาย พลเรือเอกพระบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมหลวงชุมพรเขตอุดมศักดิ์. สำนักพิมพ์ DK พับลิชิ่ง. ISBN 978-616-7327-07-5. หน้า 45 (in Thai)
- "The Legend of Mae Nak Prakanong". Sarakadee. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- ประลองเชิง, กิเลน (2010-10-04). "ปลุกผีแม่นาค". Thairath (in Thai). Retrieved 2017-05-28.
- หนุ่มลูกทุ่ง (2015-10-30). "เที่ยวฮาโลวีนแบบไทยๆ ไปไหว้ขอพร "ย่านาค" วัดมหาบุศย์". Manager Online (in Thai). Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- รัก-ยม (2016-02-14). "ปาฏิหาริย์แห่งรัก.."แม่นาคพระโขนง" 14 กุมภาฯ "วันวาเลนไทน์"". Thairath. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- No. 2602542 (2012-10-13). "ผีแม่นาคพระโขนง กับการขอให้รอดจากการเกณฑ์ทหาร หลายคนบอกเลยว่าผีแม่นาคช่วยได้จนเป็นที่เล่าลือกันว่าถ้าไม่อยากเป็นทหารต้องไปขอกับผีแม่นาคพระโขนง". dek-d.com. ตำนานแม่นาคพระโขนง (in Thai). Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- hookman13 (2010-05-13). "ถามทางไปวัดแม่นาคหน่อยครับ". Pantip.com (in Thai). Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- "Pho Mak Thahan Ken?" พ่อมากทหารเกณฑ์ [Mister Mak Was a Recruit?] (in Thai). Bangkok: Matichon. 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
- Mae Nak movies and TV series
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1959) poster
- Mae Nak Kheun Chip movie poster
- Vinyan Rak Mae Nak Phra Khanong movie poster
- Mae Nak Khanong Rak movie poster
- Mae Nak Phra Nakhon poster
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1973) poster
- Mae Nak Alawat poster
- Mae Nak Amerika 1975 poster
- Mae Nak Buk To Kiao movie poster
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1978) poster
- Sannya Chai Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1992) poster
- Mae Nak Cheu Phi Pop poster
- 1990s decade
- Ghost of Mae Nak - Movie poster
- Nak movie
- Rachadalai.com, Maenak Prakanong the Musical official website
- Maenak Patha Pop Sam Tua[permanent dead link]
- Mae Nak comic
- Mae Nak comic image
- Mae Nak comic
- Nang Nak Kab 3 Puan
- Chutima Pragatwutisarn (ชุติมา ประกาศวุฒิสาร), Evil Woman in a Beautiful Body: Femininity and the Crisis of Modernity in Thai Society, Chulalongkorn University, 2010
- Matthew Hunt, "The Haunted Screen" (Encounter Thailand, June 2013)