||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (September 2011)|
|85,00,000 ( 85 Lakhs as per 2001 census)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Telugu people, Dravidian peoples|
Mala or Malla (different from the family/last name Malla from Andhra) is a social group or caste mostly from the south Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Mala is derived from the Sanskrit malla, which means wrestler. They are one of the dominant Dalit castes in Andhra Pradesh, the other being Madigas.[clarification needed]
According to Government of India census data from 2001, Malas constitute a total of 41.6 percent (5,139,305) of the scheduled caste population of the state. They are largely concentrated in the Coastal Andhra region. During the Adi-Andhra movement of the 1930s, several Mala caste people, including few Madigas, especially from coastal Andhra called themselves as 'Adi-Andhra' and were recorded in the census with the 'Adi-Andhra' caste name akin to Adi Dravida of Tamil Nadu. (Adi-Andhra is synonym word instead of using MALA or MADIGA . In the ancient times, Malas were mostly village watchmen,domestic laborers etc., They were skilled workers too and were also recruited by the British Army because of their martial skills. Presently they don't have a specific caste profession and can be seen in many professions.It is directly the skill set which was identified by the upper caste people and segregation thereof. As such, Malas do not have any caste profession where the entire Indian castes were based on profession they have chosen to be associated with. Like kamma community who originally are farm workers, soldiers who are very much known for their bravery 'Padma saali' caste are the only people who are weavers. Malas have chosen to take up the profession of other castes which was at their reach.
The Mahars in neighbouring Maharashtra are akin to the Malas and the two dominant dalit castes in Tamil Nadu, Paraiyar and Pallar, tend to claim the inter-relation with the Malas, Mahars, Holeyas or Chalawadis of Karnataka and Pulayas.
Mala military exploits form an important part of Kakatiya history, culture and tradition. Mala’s played a vital role in expansion of Kakatiyan kingdom. In Kakatiya military Malas are used to be called as Mohari (Telugu: mohari), the street which they lived is known as “Mohariwada”. The warrior Yugandarudu who was the army chief of Prataparudra is a Mala.
The anthropological evidence shows that the Mahars or Malas seemed to have hailed primarily from the drier upland areas like the Deccan plateau. According to researchers like Ambedkar, the Mahars and similar communities like Malas were actually warriors of some defeated kingdom, they were pushed down in social status,they were disarmed but retained as village servants.
Mala caste has got prominence during the period of Palanati Bramha Naidu (Prime Minister to Nalagam King of Macherla) (1170 to 1180 AD). The Mala Warrior Mala Kannamadasu was the first Senapathi in the history along with Kammas, Velamas and Reddies in those days. He was given high regard by Palanati Bramha Naidu, since then Macherla Chennakesava swamy became Kuladaivam to Malas in the Palnadu area. Sanskrit roots
Like all castes in India, today they generally believe in prestigious origins (see Sanskritisation). Mala(Tel) is derived from the word ‘maila'( Dirt)gives the meaning (Noun)Periah,Vile,base etc., an outcaste,chandaludu,(adj.,) chandala. (See C.P.Brown Telugu-English Dictionary 2nd edition.,p. 985 see under Mala). One such theory speculates that Mala or Malla (not the same as the family name Malla) is derived from Sanskrit word Malla for wrestler which can be loosely translated as soldier or even associated with an ancient ruling dynasty in North India and Nepal( See Malla-yuddha to know more). It should be noted that the word Mala in Proto-Dravidian means a mountain.
According to the story by Gurram Malla; Mala’s are the descendants of Mala Chennappa, the son of Lord Shiva.
As a community they believe at some point they were independent people not subject to any caste restrictions and resent the present condition as unfair. Thus, unlike many other Dalit communities, they are not resigned to their fate which is a requirement for caste control along with social violence. There is a strong ethnic, cultural and linguistic relation with Mahar in neighboring Maharastra state and with Pallan -similar to MADIGA]] & Paraiyan -similar to MALA community of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Karnataka states as well.
Malas, who were considerable in number, were mostly agricultural workers like Holeyas in Karnataka. And it has been pointed earlier, some of them were employed village messengers (Maskoori or Elodu) and some as watchmen of the village chavadi by the middle of Twentieth century. Malas were also employed to dig graves. Malas employed to see the irrigation in villages called Neerati, Neeradu. Mala women were skilled in basket making.
There were kin-communities of Malas such as Baindla,Jangam, Poturaju, Mala Mashtin, Relli mala, Mala Rajanna, Mala dasari / Mala Dasu / Mithaalayyalavalu, Dandems, Nethakani or Mala sale, Mala Jangama. Mala Dasari/Mala Dasu has been a tradition of Tamil Nadu, which spread over to Andhra Pradesh between 9th and 10th century.
Jangams were traveling priests begging from Malas and at night they were to keep vigilance at the graveyards. Poturajus were another group of priests serving the village spirits both benevolent and malevolent. They also assist the priestess when the sacrifices were offered. Mashtis were traveling acrobats performing their heroics at the outskirts of the villages where caste villagers turn up to watch them. Mala dasoos were another set of priests who reside with Mala settlements. Dandems were agricultural laborers either hired or bought by landlords.
A section of the Malas also turned to Christianity but after noticing the similar caste politics in the Telugu Catholic church, shifted to Protestantism instead. They are prominent in the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church (AELC), Church of South India (CSI). They have made very good use of the Christian educational programs, considerably elevating their social position and now form part of the upper middle class. These Christian Malas are commonly called Merugumala people, who came from Godavari Krishna basin. They are not considered Scheduled Castes by the Government of India but fall under the "BC-C" category (Backward castes C-category) with 1% Reservation at state level and at national level they come under Other Backward Class (OBC, List of OBC's; Andhra Pradesh list, Entry No.in the Central List-60 (Scheduled castes converts to Christianity and their progeny) ). They have been demanding central Government to accord them SC status on par with Dalit Buddhists, Dalit Sikhs and not to discriminate them on religious grounds for being Dalit Christians. The case is pending with the Supreme Court since 2005 when it was filed on behalf of Dalit Christians and Dalit Muslims (Pasmanda Muslim Mahaz).
Genetics of Caste
Entire population of India are the result of two founder groups one Ancestral South Indians who are not genetically similar to any other population outside India that is ASI are Native to India and the other group Ancestral North Indians are genetically similar to the people of Middle East, Central Asia and Europe (West Eurasians). Genmi (genetic mixing) of ASI and ANI in a major way is estimated to have happened around 2000 BCE that is 4000 years ago whereas ASI are in India since 60000 years. The estimated % ANI content (ASI content is 100-ANI approximately) in various castes is: The ANI genetic content (shown in brackets) in various castes of India: Mala (38.8), Madiga (40.6), Chenchu (40.7), Bhil (42.9), Satnami (43.0),Kurumba (43.2), Kamsali (44.5), Vysya (46.2), Lodi (49.9),Naidu (50.1), Tharu (51.0), Velama (54.7), Srivastava (56.4), Meghwal (60.3), Vaish (62.6), Kashmir Pandit (70.6), Sindhi (73.7), Pathan (76.9). It is interesting to note that Madiga, Mala, Chenchu and Bhils genetically cluster into one founder group that parented all Indians along with West Eurasians since 2000BCE a period that coincides with the collapse of Indus Valley Civilization and the arrival of Indo European languages into India.
 Reich, D. et al., Nature 461, 489-494, 2009.
 Priya Moorjani et al., The American Journal of Human Genetics, 2013. See: http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reich/Reich_Lab/Welcome_files/2013_AJHG_Priya_India_Date.pdf
 Elie Dolgin, Indian Ancestry Revealed, http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reich/Reich_Lab/Welcome_files/2013_AJHG_Priya_India_Date.pdf
 Indus Valley Civilization, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization  Bouckaert, R., Lemey, P., Dunn, M., Greenhill, S. J., Alekseyenko, A. V., Drummond, A. J., Gray, R. D., Suchard, M. A., & Atkinson, Q. D.*, Mapping the origins and expansion of the Indo-European language family. Science, 337:957–960. http://language.cs.auckland.ac.nz/ , 2012.
- "Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Caste Data Highlights 2001 Census" (PDF).
- "THE CONSTITUTION (SCHEDULED CASTES) ORDER, 1950".
- "Tables on Individual Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST),2001" (PDF).
- "A brief note on the MALA community of Andhra Pradesh".
- "Liberative Motifs in the Dalit Religion".
- List of OBC's, Andhra Pradesh State. "Central list of other backward classes" (PDF).
- The Imperial Gazetteer of India, by Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, 1840–1900; Cotton, James Sutherland, 1847-1918 ed.; Burn, Richard, Sir, 1871-1947 joint ed. and Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922. joint ed.