Smart motorway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A control room for the M25 J5-7 Smart Motorways scheme, 2014.

A smart motorway (formerly managed motorway) is a section of motorway in Great Britain that uses active traffic management (ATM) techniques to increase capacity by use of variable speed limits and hard shoulder running at busy times. Benefits include smoother traffic flow, more reliable journey times, fewer road traffic collisions, and reduced noise and harmful vehicle emissions.[1][2] The term controlled motorway is sometimes used for schemes that use variable speed limits without hard-shoulder running (for example, the M25 motorway from J27 to J30).

History[edit]

The traffic management technique, including hard shoulder running, was first used in its full specification in the UK on the M42 motorway in the West Midlands in 2006.[3][4] A higher speed limit of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) was trialled on the southbound carriageway between junctions 4 and 3A from 2008 (a 10 miles per hour (16 km/h) increase on the previous maximum permissible speed).[5]

In 2007 plans were announced by the then secretary of state for transport, Ruth Kelly, to extend the scheme to two sections of the M6 motorway near Birmingham (4-5 and 8a-10) by 2011 at a cost of £150 million.[6][7] The emergency refuges were to be extended to every 800 metres (0.50 mi) on the roll out.[8] A study into the use of ATM on the M1, M4, M20 and M25 motorways was also announced,[6] however the Department for Transport had decided to proceed with a scheme to widen sections of the M25.[9]

From 2013 the current term smart motorway was used by the Highways Agency (now Highways England) to promote the technology to road users.[10]

Contracts[edit]

A £2 billion contract was announced to extend the scheme to sections of the M1, M4, M5, M6, M60 and M62 in February 2010[11] with a further announcement by the new government in October 2010.[12] The contract was awarded to four delivery partners Balfour Beatty, Carillion and joint ventures BAM Nuttall/Morgan Sindall Group and Costain Group/Serco.[13] In January 2012, Carillion won the contract for M6 junctions 5 - 8 near Birmingham for £126 million.[13]

In early 2018, the contracts previously awarded to Carillion were taken on by Kier, following the collapse of the former.[14]

Operation and variants[edit]

Highways England, the South Wales Trunk Road Agent (there are no motorways in North Wales), Transport NI (Northern Ireland) and Transport Scotland are responsible for the construction and maintenance of smart motorways in their respective countries.

Controlled motorway[edit]

A section of controlled motorway on the M25 in Hertfordshire.

Variable speed limits with the hard shoulder operating as it would on a conventional motorway. They have most often been installed where a motorway has previously been widened but with a discontinuous hard shoulder to incorporate existing bridges, therefore using the hard shoulder as a running lane is ruled out. Existing gantries are upgraded to support signals capable of displaying a mandatory speed limit and speed cameras.

Locations[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ 1: A bus lane is in operation on the southbound hard-shoulder between J1a and J2a and on the approach to the southbound M9. The hard shoulders on the Queensferry Crossing are opened to buses when the Forth Road Bridge is closed.

Dynamic hard shoulder[edit]

A section of motorway with hard shoulder running on the M42 in the West Midlands.

Variable speed limits with the hard shoulder selectively opened as a running lane during periods when there is a lower speed limit in force.

Locations[edit]

All lane running[edit]

A section of motorway in the all lane running configuration on the M25 in Hertfordshire.

Variable speed limits with the hard-shoulder removed and converted to a permanent running lane.

Locations[edit]

Through-junction running[edit]

Isolated stretches on a smart motorway where the hard shoulder becomes a permanent running lane through a junction and immediately surrounding the slip roads.

Locations[edit]

Under construction[edit]

The following schemes are under construction:

Planned[edit]

To begin construction before 2020 (RIS1)[edit]

In development for RIS2 (2020-2025)[edit]

Timeline of introduction[edit]

1995[edit]

M25: J10-J15 (first mandatory variable speed limits used on the British motorway network)

2001[edit]

M25: J15-J16

2005[edit]

M42: J3a-J7 (first hard shoulder selectively opened to traffic, the scheme was known as active traffic management)

2009[edit]

  • M6: J4-J5
  • M40: J16-M42 J3a northbound
  • M42: J3a (eastbound approach) and J7-J9

2010[edit]

2011[edit]

  • M4: J24-J28 (only variable speed limits on a motorway in Wales)
  • M1: J6a-J10 and J25-J28

2012[edit]

  • M25: J2-J3 and J7-J10
  • M1: J10-J13
  • M62: J25-J30

2013[edit]

  • M90: J1-J2
  • M90: J2-J3 (southbound)


Statutory instruments[edit]

Map[edit]

A map of the UK's smart motorway system built from publicly available data of constructed and planned smart motorway systems.

The map to the right visually represents the operational and under construction elements of the UK's current smart motorway system.[60]

Effectiveness[edit]

In 2007 it was estimated that ATM could be introduced within two years at a cost of around £5-15 million per mile[61] as opposed to 10 years and £79 million per mile for widening.[62][63]

The M42 scheme was initially run as an experiment and a Highways Agency report into the first six months of the scheme showed a reduction in variability journey times of up to 27%.[6][8] The journey time statistics can be broken down to show that northbound journey times were reduced by 26%, equating to an average reduction of 4 minute as compared to the period when the variable speed limits were on but the hard shoulder was not being used and 9% southbound (equating to 1 minute) during the afternoon rush hour.[64] The report also indicated a fall in the number of accidents from over 5 a month to 1.5 per month on average.[6][8] The Agency did state that normally accident statistics should be compared over a 3-year period, so the initial results should be treated with caution. They also stated that no accidents had been caused by hard shoulder use as a normal lane.[64] The report also stated that there had been a 10% fall in pollution and 4% fall in fuel consumption.[6] The report also indicated a compliance rate of 98% to the indicated speed limits when using the hard shoulder.[64] For comparison before the introduction of mandatory speed limits at road works, the compliance rate was 10% as opposed to 89% afterwards, showing a similar effect.[65]

Criticisms[edit]

The Campaign for Better Transport argued that whilst it would reduce the need for widening schemes, it did nothing to reduce traffic and CO2 emissions. Friends of the Earth criticised the scheme as "widening on the cheap" and also pointed to a possible increase in vehicle emissions.[6] Highways England argue that ATM reduces the environmental impact in regards to widening as it is carried out within the existing boundaries of the motorway as well as a possible improvement in local air quality due to smoother traffic flow.[66]

The RAC cited a study in the Netherlands that showed drivers using the hard shoulder when they were not permitted, increasing the risk of a collision for vehicles stopped. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents also expressed concern that emergency services would take longer to reach an incident.[63] The Highways Agency rejected this concern based on the 5,000 miles of dual carriageway that does not have a hard shoulder.[67] Disability groups were concerned that some drivers would not be able to access the emergency phones or even exit their vehicles, leaving them at increased risk.[67] Ruth Kelly, former Secretary of State for Transport stated that these schemes were useful, but that motorway widening would still be considered where it was appropriate.[63]

The scheme has attracted criticism from motoring organisations such as the AA, who in 2018 reported that many members were concerned that speed limits were being imposed without good cause in situations where traffic was light. [68] In response, Highways England stated that they had "started a comprehensive review of how variable speed limits are set, including the amount of time they are visible to drivers"[68].

References[edit]

  1. ^ "M20 Junctions 4 - 7 Controlled Motorways". Archived from the original on 10 August 2012.
  2. ^ "Highways England - Our Road Network".
  3. ^ "Managed Motorways". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Active Traffic Management". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  5. ^ "60mph speed limit on the M42 Active Traffic Management pilot". www.dft.gov.uk. Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "'Extra lane' plan to be extended". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  7. ^ "M42 Active Traffic Management Scheme, Birmingham". www.roadtraffic-technology.com. Verdict Media. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Meikle, James (26 October 2007). "Kelly extends experiment to let drivers use hard shoulder". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  9. ^ Milmo, Dan (2007-12-24). "Plan to open up hard shoulder on M25 to ease traffic shelved". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  10. ^ Marshall, Chris. "Smart Motorways". www.roads.org.uk. roads.org.uk. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  11. ^ "£2 Billion In Managed Motorway Schemes Starts On UK Highways". GovMonitor. 2010-02-18.
  12. ^ "Transport Secretary gives the go-ahead to 24 New Schemes and announces over £600M of further funding". Department for Transport. 26 October 2010. Archived from the original on 30 October 2010.
  13. ^ a b https://www.newcivilengineer.com/news/transport/carillion-scoops-126m-managed-motorways-scheme/8624364.article
  14. ^ Curry, Rihannon (22 January 2018). "Kier takes on Carillion staff for HS2 and motorways work". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  15. ^ "M1 Junctions 6A - 10 Controlled Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  16. ^ "M1 J25-28 Widening Scheme". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  17. ^ "M4 Variable Speed Limit". www.traffic-wales.com. Traffic Wales. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  18. ^ ". M4 Junctions 24 - 28 Variable Speed Limit Scheme - Your Questions Answered..." (PDF). www.traffic-wales.com. Traffic Wales. January 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  19. ^ a b "M6 Junction 10a to13: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  20. ^ a b c "Intelligent Transport System (ITS)". www.theforthbridges.org. Transport Scotland. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  21. ^ "M20 Junctions 4 - 7 Controlled Motorways". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  22. ^ "M25 Junction 1b - 3". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  23. ^ a b "M25 Junctions 5-7: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  24. ^ "M25 speed limit work in Surrey comes to end". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  25. ^ "M25 Controlled Motorway - January 2013 - Consultation Document - M25 Junction 16 to 23" (PDF). www.assets.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. January 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  26. ^ "M25 Jct 27 to 30 Widening". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  27. ^ "The M25 Motorway (Junctions 27 to 30) (Variable Speed Limits) Regulations 2013". www.legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  28. ^ a b c "The Birmingham Motorway 'Box'". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  29. ^ a b "M60 junction 8 to M62 junction 20". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  30. ^ a b "M60/M62 smart motorways - Public information exhibition" (PDF). www.assets.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  31. ^ a b c "M62 Junctions 25 to 30: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 22 December 2014.
  32. ^ "M1 Junction 10-13 Improvements: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  33. ^ a b "M4 Junction 19-20 and M5 Junction 15-17: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  34. ^ "M6 Birmingham Box Phase 3: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  35. ^ "M1 Junctions 19 to 16 All Lane Running". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  36. ^ "M1 Junctions 28-31: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  37. ^ "M1 J32 to J35a Managed Motorway". Highways Agency.
  38. ^ "M1 Junctions 39-42: Smart Motorway". Highways Agency. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  39. ^ "M3 J2-4a Managed Motorway". Highways Agency.
  40. ^ "M5 Junctions 4a to 6 Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  41. ^ "M25 Junctions 23-27: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015.
  42. ^ "M1 junction 13 to junction 16: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  43. ^ a b c d e "Major roads investment in the Midlands". www.gov.uk. HM Government. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Road Investment Strategy: Investment Plan - commitments" (PDF). www.assets.publishing.service.gov.uk. Department for Transport. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  45. ^ "M1 junctions 23a to 25: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  46. ^ "M4 junctions 3-12: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  47. ^ "M6 junction 2 to junction 4: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  48. ^ "M6 junction 13 to junction 15 smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  49. ^ "M6 Junctions 16-19: Smart Motorway". www.highways.gov.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  50. ^ "M23 junctions 8 to 10: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  51. ^ "Major roads investment in London and the south east". www.gov.uk. HM Government. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  52. ^ a b "M40/M42 Interchange: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  53. ^ "M56 junctions 6 to 8 smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  54. ^ "M62 junction 10 to junction 12: smart motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  55. ^ a b "Major roads investment in the north west". Gov.uk. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  56. ^ "M62 Junction 20 to Junction 25 Smart Motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  57. ^ a b "Major roads investment in the north east and Yorkshire". www.gov.uk. HM Government. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  58. ^ "A1(M) Junction 6 to Junction 8 Smart Motorway". www.highwaysengland.co.uk. Highways England. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  59. ^ "Major roads investment in the east of England". www.gov.uk. HM Government. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  60. ^ "Smart Motorways UK | Smart Motorway Map". Keith Michaels PLC. Retrieved 2017-07-03.
  61. ^ Cleland, Gary (2007-12-26). "No hard shoulder driving on M25". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph News and Media. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  62. ^ Webster, Ben (2007-10-25). "Hard-shoulder driving lies ahead for motorways in effort to reduce congestion". The Times. London: News International Limited. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  63. ^ a b c Strange, Hannah; Ben Webster (2007-10-25). "Hard shoulder scheme cut journey times on motorways". Times Online. London: News International Limited. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  64. ^ a b c Highways Agency (2007-10-25). "M42 Active Traffic Management Results –First Six Months" (PDF). Department for Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  65. ^ Murray, Louise (2005-10-26). "Smooth-flowing traffic is on the way". Society - The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  66. ^ "How does it affect the environment?". M42 Jct 3a - Jct 7 Active Traffic Management. Highways Agency. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  67. ^ a b Sturcke, James; Agencies (2006-08-31). "Motorway hard-shoulder use 'could cost lives'". Guardian Unlimited. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  68. ^ a b Rodger, James (2018-04-30). "Thousands of 'smart motorway' drivers on M6 may have been wrongly fined". Birmingham Mail. Birmingham: Reach Plc.

External links[edit]