Maneuver Combat Vehicle
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|Type 16 Maneuver Combat Vehicle|
|Type||8x8 Wheeled AFV/Tank Destroyer|
|Place of origin||Japan|
|Designer||TRDI (Technical Research & Development Institute)[a]|
|Designed||2007 onwards (though the origins of the program can be traced back to 2004)|
|Manufacturer||Mitsubishi Heavy Industries|
|Unit cost||¥7.1 billion yen|
|Produced||To start in 2015 (planned)|
|No. built||200-300 (original requirement)|
|Variants||Mitsubishi Armored Vehicle - A derived wheeled 'heavy' APC intended to be the baseline for a new family of vehicles including a armored field ambulance and a command & communications vehicle. Still at the concept stage, with a model displayed at the 2014 Eurosatory show.|
|Length||8.45 m (27 ft 9 in)|
|Width||2.98 m (9 ft 9 in)|
|Height||2.87 m (9 ft 5 in)|
|Crew||4 (some prototypes equipped with an autoloader had a crew of three)|
|105 mm gun (produced under license by Japan Steel Works)|
|12.7mm NATO M2 Browning heavy machine gun, coaxial Sumitomo Type 74 7.62mm NATO medium machine gun|
|Suspension||Wheeled 8 x 8|
|Speed||100 km/h (62 mph)|
The Type 16 Maneuver Combat Vehicle (MCV) will equip designated combat units. Due to its light weight and small size, it is designed for easy deployment (by aircraft if needed) allowing rapid movement on narrow roads and in built-up areas in response to various contingencies. Despite its small size and light armor, it can successfully attack much larger armored fighting vehicles as well as personnel, using its large caliber gun.
For FY2016, the MOD has requested funding for 36 examples of the MCV, to enter service with elements of the 8th Division at Kumamoto, and the 14th Brigade at Zentsūji. Both formations are currently planned for conversion to rapid reaction forces (though these plans, as with the original plans for the MCV [see History], are presently (mid-2015) under review and subject to possible major revision). The intention is for the MCV to act as both as a rapid reaction asset against conventional incursions on the outer islands and as a counter-insurgency vehicle against asymmetrical attacks in urban areas of Japan by enemy special forces, intelligence operatives, or their proxies.
While the MCV is projected to be highly capable, there are doubts about its performance. Weighing 26 tons, it may be too heavy for the rapid air transport it is designed for. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force has a requirement for 60 new Kawasaki C-2 transport planes, which can travel 3,023 nmi (3,479 mi; 5,599 km) with a 30-ton payload. One C-2 might struggle to carry one MCV with the maintenance crew and ammunition, with a single squadron of 12 MCVs may needing as many as 20 or more C-2 sorties for transport to a remote island. Even so, advance warning of a combat deployment would have MCVs moved (in theory) with commercially chartered aircraft and high-speed ferries because the potential operating area is fairly close,[b] and driving once landing would take less time to get to the area (again in theory).
Although the vehicle uses modular armor, it has a relatively delicate undercarriage and drive system that may be vulnerable to improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other underbody blasts (such as from anti-tank mines). Fortunately, since the MCV is designed only for defending against enemy invasion of the home islands, it is unlikely to find itself fighting a lengthy counter-insurgency campaign in a foreign nation, or finding itself forced to drive through enemy minefields while spearheading an invasion of an enemy power.[c]
Another point mentioned is that the main gun is manually loaded as a cost-saving measure, requiring a loader that has to work in a vehicle that doesn't have air conditioning. Some critics have expressed doubts about its effectiveness due to this strain on the crew in hot conditions, although in terms of comparable vehicles the Maneuver Combat Vehicle is arguably far from unique in this respect. Concerns have also been expressed by some about what they perceive as a shortfall in the MCV's off-road capability.
In 2009 resistance testing of the shielding against HEAT rounds was conducted using the Carl Gustav M2; and against regular kinetic ammunition the frontal shield was developed to resist shots from 20mm to 30mm autocannons while the side armor was deemed sufficient to resist 12.7mm heavy machine gun fire.
The Technical Research & Development Institute of Japan's Ministry of Defense had made several prototype vehicles since 2008. They unveiled their fourth of what was initially called Mobile Combat Vehicle (MCV) prototypes on 9 October 2013. Service tests were scheduled to begin in 2014 or 2015, with initial operational deployment by the JGSDF planned for 2016. 99 MCVs were originally planned to be introduced by the end of FY 2018. The name of the vehicle was changed to Maneuver Combat Vehicle during the second half of 2011.
The Maneuver Combat Vehicle was part of a new armored vehicle strategy that prioritized light air-transportable firepower. Originally the number of main battle tanks was to be reduced from 760 to 390, with most remaining tanks to be concentrated on the islands of Hokkaido and Kyushu. Some 200-300 MCVs were to be procured and airlifted to islands when and where they were needed. The idea was that the smaller, lighter, and faster MCV could be redeployed quicker than tanks to better defend the outlying islands. This represented a shift in Japanese armored vehicle structure from one designed to repel a Soviet invasion from the north to a more mobile force aimed at possibly defending against a Chinese invasion of the southern island chain. The Maneuver Combat Vehicle was intended to help re-equip existing divisions & brigades reorganised into mobile (rapid reaction) divisions/brigades, as well as equip new dedicated rapid reaction regiments alongside (eventually[d]) the Light-weight Combat Vehicle (LCV), which was also designed with the outer island defense mission in mind.
However, as of 2015, with both growing tensions with Russia over the disputed Northern territories, and concerns that the MCV on its own would be insufficient against potential adversary amphibious and airborne armor systems, plans to reduce the numbers of existing main battle tanks (including procurement of the new Type 10 tank) in favor of buying MCVs and their support infrastructure are currently being reviewed.
- Became the Acquisition Technology and Logistics Agency in 2015.
- A high-speed vessel could get MCVs to Nansei Shoto in 24–48 hours, depending on factors such as location, sealift preparation, and weather conditions. This depends on an enemy not being in a position to interdict sea and air lanes, however.
- Though of course scatterable mines (artillery delivered or otherwise) deployed by an invading force to protect their beachheads & screen their line of advance are a concern. Infantry emplaced AT mines, including off-route / stand off systems such as the TM-83 are yet another potential threat.
- The LCV is much further behind the MCV in development.
- "Japanese Defense Company Mitsubishi presents new concept of 8x8 armoured vehicle at Eurosatory". armyrecognition.com. Army Recognition (online magazine specialising in global defense). 27 July 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- TRDI 2011 Pamphlet pp.8 Department of Ground Systems Development
- "Record defense budget request shifts focus to islands closest to China". The Asahi Shimbun. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- Japan To Emphasize Military Mobility With MCV - Defensenews.com, 12 October 2014
- Army of Japan unveils its new MCV 8x8 High Mobility Combat Vehicle - Armyrecognition.com, 11 October 2013
- Japanese MCV Combat Vehicle Design Unveiled - Armedforces-Int.com, 11 October 2013
- Japan going light on tanks in new defense plan - Asia.nikkei.com, 22 November 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to JGSDF Type 16 Maneuver Combat Vehicle.|
- TRDI Official Image of MCV #1
- JGSDF - 105mm 8X8 Maneuver Combat Vehicle (MCV) Testing A short YouTube video from 2013