Mark William Hofmann
December 7, 1954
|Status||Incarcerated at Central Utah Correctional Facility, Utah Department of Corrections number 41235|
|Spouse(s)||Doralee "Dorie" Olds (1979–1987; divorced)|
|Motive||Covering up forgeries|
|Conviction(s)||Murder, theft by deception, fraud (pleaded guilty January 7, 1987)|
|Criminal penalty||Life imprisonment|
|Date||October 15, 1985|
|Injured||2 (including himself)|
Mark William Hofmann (born December 7, 1954) is an American counterfeiter, forger, and convicted murderer. Widely regarded as one of the most accomplished forgers in history, Hofmann is especially noted for his creation of documents related to the history of the Latter Day Saint movement. When his schemes began to unravel, he constructed bombs to murder two people in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Mark Hofmann was born in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was raised in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) by two devoutly religious parents.[a](p41) He was a below-average high school student, but had many hobbies including magic, electronics, chemistry, and stamp and coin collecting.(p55) Hofmann and his friends were said to have made bombs for fun on the outskirts of Murray, Utah.[b](p55) According to Hofmann, while still a teenage coin collector, he forged a rare mint mark on a dime and was told by an organization of coin collectors that it was genuine.[c](p370)
Like many young men in the LDS Church, Hofmann volunteered to spend two years as an LDS missionary, and in 1973 the church sent him to the England Southwest Mission, where he was based in Bristol. Hofmann told his parents that he had baptized several converts; he did not tell them that he had also perused Fawn M. Brodie's biography of Joseph Smith, No Man Knows My History. While in England, Hofmann enjoyed investigating bookshops and buying early Mormon material, as well as books critiquing Mormonism.(p56) He later told prosecutors that he had lost his faith in the LDS Church when he was about fourteen.(pp205–206, 316) He'd learned that his maternal grandparents had continued to secretly practice polygamy for more than a decade after the church publicly ended the practice (it was not fully renounced until 1904).(pp77–78) A former girlfriend believed he performed his mission only because of social pressure and the desire not to disappoint his parents.(p243)
After Hofmann returned from his mission, he enrolled as a pre-med major at Utah State University. In 1979, he married Doralee "Dorie" Olds, and the couple eventually had four children.[d](p58) Dorie Olds Hofmann filed for divorce in 1987, two years after his crimes came to light, and became co-founder of a holistic medicine company. She was a true believing Mormon throughout her marriage to Hofmann
Anthon Transcript forgery
In 1980, Hofmann claimed that he had found a 17th-century King James Bible with a folded paper gummed inside.(pp 65–66) The document seemed to be the transcript that Smith's scribe Martin Harris had presented to Charles Anthon, a Columbia classics professor, in 1828. According to the Mormon scripture Joseph Smith–History, the transcript and its unusual reformed Egyptian characters were copied by Smith from the golden plates from which he translated the Book of Mormon.
Hofmann constructed his version to fit Anthon's description of the document, and its discovery made Hofmann's reputation. Dean Jessee, an editor of Smith's papers and the best-known expert on handwriting and old documents in the Historical Department of the LDS Church, concluded that the document was a Smith holograph. The LDS Church announced the discovery of the Anthon Transcript in April and purchased it from Hofmann for more than $20,000.(pp 68–69) Appraised by the LDS Church for $25,000, it was purchased on October 13 in exchange for several artifacts the church owned in duplicate, including a $5 gold Mormon coin, Deseret banknotes, and a first edition of the Book of Mormon. Assuming the document to be genuine, prominent Mormon academic Hugh Nibley predicted that the discovery promised "as good a test as we'll ever get of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon" because he thought the paper might be translated.(pp 66–69) Zoology professor Barry Fell soon after claimed to have decoded the text.(pp 70–71)
Hofmann promptly dropped out of school and went into business as a dealer in rare books. He soon fabricated other historically significant documents and became noted among LDS Church history buffs for his "discoveries" of previously unknown materials pertaining to the Latter Day Saint movement. These deceived not only members of the First Presidency – notably Gordon B. Hinckley, then the de facto president of the church due to the poor health of more senior leaders[e] – but also document experts and distinguished historians.[f][g] According to Richard and Joan Ostling, Hofmann was by this time a "closet apostate" motivated not only by greed but also by "the desire to embarrass the church by undermining church history."(p 253)(p 104)
Joseph Smith III blessing
During the early 1980s, a significant number of new Mormon documents came into the marketplace. Sometimes the church received these as donations, and others it purchased. According to the Ostlings, "The church publicized some of the acquisitions; it orchestrated public relations for some that were known to be sensitive; others it acquired secretly and suppressed."[h]
In 1981, Hofmann presented the LDS Church with a document which supposedly provided evidence that Smith had designated his son Joseph Smith III, rather than Brigham Young, as his successor. In a forged cover letter, purportedly written by Thomas Bullock and dated January 27, 1865, Bullock chastises Young for having all copies of the blessing destroyed. Bullock writes that although he believes Young to be the legitimate leader of the LDS Church, he would keep his copy of the blessing. Such a letter, if true, would portray Young and, by extension, the LDS Church, in an unfavorable light.
In February 1981, Hofmann tried to sell the letter to the chief archivist of the LDS Church.(p42) He expected the church to "buy the blessing on the spot and bury it."(p75) When the archivist balked at the price, Hofmann offered it to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS Church; now known as the Community of Christ), which had always claimed that the line of succession had been bestowed on Smith's descendants but had never had written proof. A scramble to acquire the document occurred, and Hofmann, posing as a faithful Mormon, presented it to his church in exchange for items worth more than $20,000.[i](pp80–81) Nevertheless, he also ensured that the document would be made public. The next day, a New York Times headline read, "Mormon Document Raises Doubts on Succession of Church's Leaders," and the LDS Church was forced to confirm the discovery and publicly present the document to the RLDS Church.(pp80–81)
During the race by the Utah and Missouri churches to acquire the blessing document, Hofmann discovered "a lever to exercise enormous power over his church," a power to "menace and manipulate its leaders with nothing more sinister than a sheet of paper."(p298) Salt Lake County District Attorney's investigator Michael George believed that, after Hofmann had successfully forged the blessing, his ultimate goal was to create the lost 116 pages of the Book of Mormon, which he could have filled with inconsistencies and errors, sell them "to the church to be hidden away" and then – as he had done often with embarrassing documents – "make sure its contents were made public."[j]
Perhaps the most notorious of Hofmann's Mormon forgeries, the Salamander letter, appeared in 1984. Supposedly written by Harris to W. W. Phelps, the letter presented a version of the recovery of the gold plates that contrasted markedly with the church-sanctioned version of events. Not only did the forgery intimate that Smith had been practicing "money digging" through magical practices, but it also replaced the angel that Smith said had appeared to him with a white salamander.(pp118–119)
After the letter had been purchased for the church and became public knowledge, LDS Church apostle Dallin H. Oaks asserted to Mormon educators that the words "white salamander" could be reconciled with Smith's Angel Moroni because, in the 1820s, the word salamander might also refer to a mythical being thought to be able to live in fire, and a "being that is able to live in fire is a good approximation of the description Joseph Smith gave of the Angel Moroni."
In 1984, Jerald and Sandra Tanner, critics of the LDS Church, became the first to declare the letter a forgery, despite the fact that it, as well as others of Hofmann's "discoveries", would have strengthened the Tanners' arguments against the veracity of official Mormon history.[k] Document expert Kenneth W. Rendell later said that while there was "the absence of any indication of forgery in the letter itself, there was also no evidence that it was genuine."(p130)
Other Mormon forgeries
No one is certain how many forged documents Hofmann created during the early 1980s, but they included a letter from Smith's mother, Lucy Mack Smith, describing the origin of the Book of Mormon;[l] letters from Martin Harris and David Whitmer, two of the Three Witnesses, each giving a personal account of their visions;(pp95, 97) a contract between Smith and Egbert Bratt Grandin for the printing of the first edition of the Book of Mormon; and two pages of the original Book of Mormon manuscript taken in dictation from Smith to Oliver Cowdery.
In 1983, Hofmann bypassed the LDS Church's historical department and sold to Gordon B. Hinckley, a member of the First Presidency of the church, an 1825 Smith holograph purporting to confirm that Smith had been treasure hunting and practicing black magic five years after his First Vision. Hofmann had the signature authenticated by Charles Hamilton, the contemporary "dean of American autograph dealers," sold the letter to the church for $15,000, and gave his word that no one else had a copy.(pp100–106) Hofmann then leaked its existence to the press, after which the church was virtually forced to release the letter to scholars for study, despite previously denying it had it in its possession.
To make this sudden flood of important Mormon documents seem plausible, Hofmann explained that he relied on a network of tipsters, had methodically tracked down modern descendants of early Mormons, and had mined collections of 19th-century letters that had been saved by collectors for their postmarks rather than for their contents. Hoffman also traded in many legitimate historical documents acquired from rare book sellers and collectors. The forgeries were thus intermingled with many legitimate historical documents, which bolstered Hofmann's credibility. (pp95, 98)
Various forged Americana
In addition to documents from Mormon history, Hofmann also forged and sold signatures of many famous non-Mormons, including George Washington, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Daniel Boone, John Brown, Andrew Jackson, Mark Twain, Nathan Hale, John Hancock, Francis Scott Key, Abraham Lincoln, John Milton, Paul Revere, Myles Standish, and Button Gwinnett, whose signature was the rarest, and therefore the most valuable, of any signer of the Declaration of Independence.(pp377)
But his grandest scheme was to forge what was perhaps the most famous missing document in American colonial history, the Oath of a Freeman. The one-page Oath had been printed in 1639, the first document to be printed in Britain's American colonies; but only about fifty copies had been made, and none of these were extant. A genuine example was probably worth over one million dollars in 1985, and Hofmann's agents began to negotiate a sale to the Library of Congress.(pp132–134)
Despite the considerable amounts of money Hofmann had made from document sales, he was deeply in debt, in part because of his increasingly lavish lifestyle and his purchases of genuine first-edition books.[n] In an effort to clear his debts, he attempted to broker a sale of the "McLellin collection" – a supposedly extensive group of documents written by William E. McLellin, an early Mormon apostle who eventually broke with the LDS Church. Hofmann hinted that the McLellin collection would provide revelations unfavorable to the LDS Church. But Hofmann had no idea where the McLellin collection was, nor did he have the time to forge a suitably large group of documents.[o] Those to whom Hofmann had promised documents or repayments of debts began to hound him, and the sale of the Oath of a Freeman was delayed by questions about its authenticity.[p](pp249–254)
In an effort to buy more time, Hofmann began constructing bombs. On October 15, 1985, he first killed document collector Steven Christensen (as well as injuring a secretary in the leg with shrapnel).[q] Later the same day, a second bomb killed Kathy Sheets, the wife of Christensen's former employer.[r] As Hofmann had intended, police initially suspected that the bombings were related to the impending collapse of an investment business of which Sheets's husband, J. Gary Sheets, was the principal and Christensen his protégé.(pp179–182)
The following day, Hofmann himself was severely injured when a bomb exploded in his car. Although police quickly focused on Hofmann as the suspect in the bombings, some of Hofmann's business associates went into hiding, fearing they might also become victims.(p21)
Trial and sentencing
During the bombing investigation, police discovered evidence of the forgeries in Hofmann's basement. They also found the engraving plant where he had had the forged plate for the Oath of a Freeman made.
Document examiner George Throckmorton analyzed several Hofmann documents that had previously been deemed authentic and determined they were forgeries. Three letters purportedly written from an Illinois prison by Smith used different ink, paper, and writing instruments. (Because the letters had been authenticated by different experts, the inconsistencies had earlier escaped detection.) Throckmorton also discovered that some documents, supposedly written by different people, had similar writing styles and that they had been written with homemade iron gall ink that looked cracked like alligator skin under a microscope, although authentic period ink did not.(pp260, 270–271, 274–275) Investigators also found that a poem used to authenticate the handwriting in the Salamander Letter had been forged by Hofmann and inserted in a Book of Common Prayer once owned by Martin Harris.(pp288–291)
Hofmann was arrested in January 1986 and charged on four indictments totaling 27 counts, including first-degree murder, delivering a bomb, constructing or possessing a bomb, theft by deception, and communication fraud. A fifth indictment, containing an additional five counts of theft by deception, was added later in January. Hofmann initially maintained his innocence. However, at a preliminary hearing, prosecutors produced voluminous evidence of his forgeries and debts, as well as evidence linking him to the bombs.
Hofmann not only faced the prospect of the death penalty in Utah, but was indicted on federal charges of possession of an unregistered machine gun. New York prosecutors also sought an indictment for the fraudulent sale of the Oath of a Freeman. In January 1987, Hofmann pleaded guilty to two counts of second-degree murder, one count of theft by deception for forging the Salamander Letter, and one count of fraud for the bogus sale of the McLellin collection. He agreed to confess his forgeries in open court, in return for which prosecutors in Utah and New York dropped additional charges against him. He was sentenced to five years to life, but the judge recommended that Hofmann never be released.(pp491, 521–523)
In 1988, before the Utah Board of Pardons, Hofmann said that he thought planting the bomb that killed Kathy Sheets was "almost a game ... at the time I made the bomb, my thoughts were that it didn't matter if it was Mrs. Sheets,[s] a child, a dog ... whoever" [was killed]. Within the hour the parole board, struck by Hofmann's "callous disregard for human life", decided that he would indeed serve his "natural life in prison".(pp373–374) Hofmann also told Investigator Michael George that he was bewildered by the attention paid to his murder victims: "I don't feel anything for them. My philosophy is that they're dead. They're not suffering. I think life is basically worthless. They could have died just as easily in a car accident. I don't believe in God. I don't believe in an afterlife. They don't know they're dead."(p378)
After Hofmann was imprisoned, he was excommunicated by the LDS Church and his wife filed for divorce. Hofmann attempted suicide in his cell by taking an overdose of antidepressants. He was revived but not before spending twelve hours lying on his right arm, blocking its circulation, and causing muscle atrophy. His forging hand was thereby permanently disabled.[t]
Hofmann, Utah Department of Corrections offender number 41235, was originally incarcerated at Utah State Prison in Draper. However, in 2016, he was transferred to Central Utah Correctional Facility in Gunnison.
As a master forger, Hofmann deceived a number of renowned document experts during his short career. Some of his forgeries were accepted by scholars for years, and an unknown number of them may still be in circulation.[u] But it is Hofmann's forgeries of Mormon documents that have had the greatest historical significance. In August 1987, the sensationalist aspects of the Hofmann case led apostle Dallin H. Oaks to believe that church members had witnessed "some of the most intense LDS Church-bashing since the turn of the [20th] century."
A student of Mormonism, Jan Shipps, agreed that press reports "contained an astonishing amount of innuendo associating Hofmann's plagiarism with Mormon beginnings. Myriad reports alleged secrecy and cover-up on the part of LDS general authorities, and not a few writers referred to the way in which a culture that rests on a found scripture is particularly vulnerable to the offerings of con-artists."
According to the Ostlings, the Hofmann forgeries could only have been perpetrated "in connection with the curious mixture of paranoia and obsessiveness with which Mormons approach church history."(p252) After Hofmann's exposure, the LDS Church tried to correct the record, but the "public relations damage as well as the forgery losses meant the church was also a Hofmann victim."(p254) Robert Lindsey has also suggested that Hofmann "stimulated a burst of historical inquiry regarding Joseph Smith's youthful enthusiasm for magic [that] did not wither after his conviction".[v]
- That his grandmother "was the product of a polygamous Mormon union sixteen years after the 1890 church manifesto abolishing polygamy ... was a secret that members of Mark's family seldom discussed."(p41)
- Hofmann graduated 573 in a class of 700.(p55)
- Hofmann decided that if experts said the coin was genuine, then it was genuine, and he was cheating no one to whom he sold it.(p370)
- Hofmann was a "hands-on father ... who pushed strollers, changed diapers, and attended local ward meetings with a baby on his arm."(p233)
- "At seventy-two, Hinckley had begun filling the role that would increasingly dominate his life: His role as de-facto president of the church."(p 101)
- Some LDS apologists dispute the fact that the church was deceived by Hofmann's forgeries. However, on October 18, 1995, after Hofmann's arrest, Hinckley said, "I frankly admit that Hofmann tricked us. ... We bought those documents only after the assurance that they were genuine. ... I am not ashamed to admit that we were victimized. It is not the first time the Church has found itself in such a position. Joseph Smith was victimized again and again. The Savior was victimized. I am sorry to say that sometimes it happens."(pp 435–437) Roger Launius writes, "Equally intriguing, why was the Mormon historical community so unwilling to accept the facts of the case and only reluctantly acknowledged that Hofmann was a murderer and that his documents were fakes? I suspect it has something to do with an unwillingness to admit that Hofmann had tricked them."
- "Early in the investigation friends of Mark Hofmann and Steven Christensen repeatedly told the detectives that they had been present when Hofmann and Christensen received telephone calls from Gordon Hinckley. Toll records showed Hofmann placed several calls to Hinckley's office from his car telephone during the week before the bombings. ... But Hinckley spoke of Hofmann as if he barely recognized his name. Repeatedly when he was asked about the document, Hinckley answered: "I can't remember."(p 267) As Simon Worrall has written, Hofmann "had fooled the most powerful men in the Mormon Church. ... They were seers, endowed with the power of discernment, who, according to the Book of Mormon could 'translate all records that are of ancient date'. Yet when Gordon B. Hinckley and the president of the Church, Spencer W. Kimball, had looked at the Anthon Transcript, they had been no more able to translate Hofmann's forged hieroglyphics than if they had been in Swahili. As Hofmann remembered how tears had come to their eyes, he felt a surge of sadistic pleasure."(p 104)
- "Gordon B. Hinckley, the second counselor in the First Presidency, largely handled policy in these matters and directed the public relations responses of the church."(p252–253)
- In 2011, it was revealed that Hofmann had tape-recorded himself pitching the bogus document to the RLDS Church archives.
- "It was possible, George thought, that Hofmann could have destroyed Mormonism. Perhaps that is what he wanted to do – and to get rich at the same time."(p300)
- A visibly shaken Hofmann paid the Tanners a personal visit. "Why you of all people?" he asked.(p136)
- The LDS Church publicized this Hofmann creation through a press conference on August 23, 1982. The forgery was a letter complete with an 1828 Palmyra, New York, postmark. At the press conference, Dean Jessee asserted that a Hofmann forgery seemed authentic not only for Lucy Smith's handwriting but also for the period postmark and correct postage.(pp95–97)
- Simon Worrall (2002) has written a book about the forged poem, which was sold by Sotheby's in 1997, long after Hofmann had been committed to prison.
- For instance, Hofmann paid $22,500 for a first edition of The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes to add to a collection he was building for his wife.(pp147)
- There actually were two surviving collections of McLellin papers, neither of which Hofmann knew of. One was discovered by a Salt Lake City reporter shortly after Hofmann was injured by his own bomb. McLellin described Joseph Smith "as a corrupt, even murderous dictator who seduced young girls under the guise of divine revelation" – but the documents were not as spectacularly anti-Mormon as Hofmann had implied.(pp254–256) Church archives also held McLellin journals, which had been institutionally forgotten and were not revealed to exist until after Hofmann's trial. Hofmann obtained on consignment from document expert Kenneth W. Rendell, two pieces of a second-century BCE Egyptian Book of the Dead, written on papyrus, which he then cut up and passed off as material from the McLellin Papers.(p132)
- Hofmann had made two significant errors in his Oath, creating a version impossible to have been set in type.(pp134–137)
- Steven Christensen was the son of a locally prominent clothier, Mac Christensen, founder of the Utah-area Mr. Mac clothing stores.
- On the afternoon following the bombings, Hofmann met with LDS Church apostle Dallin H. Oaks about the McLellin collection, a meeting which fellow document collector Brent Metcalfe believed had religious significance to Hofmann. "He's just killed two people. And what does he do? He goes down to the church office building and meets with Dallin Oaks. I can't even imagine the rush, given Hofmann's frame of reference, that this would have given him. To be standing there in front of one of God's appointed apostles, after murdering two people, and this person doesn't hear any words from God, doesn't intuit a thing. For Hofmann that must have been an absolute rush. He had pulled off the ultimate spoof against God."(p232)
- In Sillitoe's first edition of Salamander (1988), Hofmann is quoted as referring to Mr. Sheets, not Mrs. Sheets.(p513)
- "The massive overdose of antidepressants he took soon after Dorie Olds filed for divorce [in 1987] left him lying unconscious for twelve hours on his prison cot with his right arm trapped under him. As a result of the blockage to his circulation, the muscles of his arm are atrophied. The forearm is withered almost to the bone."(p248)
- 'Mark Hofmann was unquestionably the most skilled forger this country has ever seen,' said Charles Hamilton, a New York document dealer who is widely regarded as the nation's pre-eminent detector of forged documents. He was the first to determine that the widely publicized Hitler Diaries of several years ago were fakes. Mr. Hamilton said Mr. Hofmann 'perpetrated by far the largest monetary frauds through forgery that this country has ever had,' adding, 'He fooled me – he fooled everybody.'
- Subsequently, the LDS Church raised higher barriers to scholars' access to church archives. According to Lindsey, the Hofmann affair emboldened many scholars to penetrate deeper into Mormon history that its most conservative leaders wanted left unexplored, and that church leaders were unlikely to be able to fully contain the fires of intellectual curiosity that Hofmann helped fan.(pp372–373) In contrast, apostle Dallin H. Oaks argued that LDS Church policies restricting access to its archives were similar to those of other large archives such as the Huntington Library.
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