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Egusi (also known by variations including agusi, agushi) is the name for the fat- and protein-rich seeds of certain cucurbitaceous plants (squash, melon, gourd), which after being dried and ground are used as a major ingredient in West African cuisine. Authorities disagree whether the word is used more properly for the seeds of the colocynth, those of a particular large-seeded variety of the watermelon, or generically for those of any cucurbitaceous plant. The characteristics and uses of all these seeds are broadly similar. Major egusi-growing nations include Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon.
Egusi soup is a kind of soup thickened with the ground seeds and popular in West Africa, with considerable local variation. Besides the seeds, water, and oil, egusi soup typically contains leaf vegetables, other vegetables, seasonings, and meat. Leaf vegetables typically used for egusi soup include bitterleaf, celosia and spinach. Typical other vegetables include tomatoes and okra. Typical seasonings include chili peppers, onions, and locust beans. Also commonly used are beef, goat, fish, shrimps, or crayfish.
In Nigeria, egusi is very popular among the Yoruba people of South west Nigeria, the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria, the Ibibio people and the Efik people (Calabar people) of southern Nigeria, the Hausa of northern Nigeria and the Edo people, Esan people, and Etsakọ people of the south-west of Nigeria. Yoruba people in general and quite notably the people of Ọṣun State – especially the Ijesha people – eat "Iyan and Egusi", a pounded yam and egusi soup.
- Rachel C. J. Massaquoi, "Groundnut, Egusi, Palm Oil, and Other Soups", in Foods of Sierra Leone and Other West African Countries: A Cookbook, AuthorHouse, 2011, p. 36.
- National Research Council (2006). "Egusi". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. National Academies Press (155–171). p. 158.
- National Research Council (2006). "Egusi". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. p. 169.
- Badiru, I. & Badiru, D. (2013). Isi Cookbook: Collection of Easy Nigerian Recipes. Bloomington: iUniverse. p. 36.
- "Iyan & Egusi Soup", The Vegan Nigerian, 19 May 2013.
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- Shittu, S. K. & Ndrika, V. I. O. (2012). "Development and performance tests of a melon (egusi) seed shelling machine". Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal.