Method acting

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In the dramatic arts, method acting is a group of techniques actors use to create in themselves the thoughts and feelings of their characters, so as to develop lifelike performances. Though not all method actors use the same approach, the "method" (sometimes capitalized as Method) refers to the methods used by actors, which are based on the teachings and concepts of Constantin Stanislavski. Stanislavski's ideas were adapted by teachers such as Stella Adler, Robert Lewis, Sanford Meisner and Lee Strasberg for American actors. Strasberg's teaching emphasized the practice of connecting to a character by drawing on personal emotions and memories, aided by a set of exercises and practices including sense memory and affective memory. Stanislavski's system of acting was the foundation of Strasberg's technique. Rigorous adherents of Strasberg's technique are now commonly referred to as "method actors".

Method acting has been described as having "revolutionized American theater". While classical acting instruction "had focused on developing external talents", the method was "the first systematized training that also developed internal abilities (sensory, psychological, emotional)".[1]

Origins[edit]

Main article: Stanislavski's system

It was derived from the "system" created by Constantin Stanislavski, who pioneered similar ideas in his quest for "theatrical truth". This was done through his friendships with Russia's leading actors, his collaborations with playwright Anton Chekhov, and his own teaching, writing, and acting at the Moscow Art Theatre (founded in 1897).

Strasberg's students included many of the best known American actors of the latter half of the 20th century, including Paul Newman, Al Pacino, George Peppard, Dustin Hoffman, Marilyn Monroe, Jane Fonda, Jack Nicholson, Mickey Rourke, and many others.[2] Using the method, the actor also recalls emotions or reactions from their own life and uses them to identify with their character.[3]

Technique[edit]

"The method" refers to the teachings of Lee Strasberg, to Group Theatre colleagues, including Stella Adler, Robert Lewis, and Sanford Meisner, and to other schools of acting influenced by Stanislavski's system, each of which takes a slightly different approach.

Generally, method acting combines the actor's careful consideration of the character's psychological motives and personal identification with the character, possibly including a reproduction of the character's emotional state by recalling emotions or sensations from the actor's own life. It is often contrasted with acting in which thoughts and emotions are indicated, or presented in a clichéd, unrealistic way. Among the concepts and techniques of method acting are substitution, "as if", sense memory, affective memory, animal work, and archetype work. Strasberg uses the question, "What would motivate me, the actor, to behave in the way the character does?" Strasberg asks the actor to replace the play's circumstances with his or her own, the substitution.[4]

Sanford Meisner, another Group Theatre pioneer, championed a closely related version of the method, which came to be called the Meisner technique. Meisner broke from Strasberg on sense memory and affective memory—basic techniques espoused by Strasberg through which actors access their own personal experiences to identify with and portray the emotional lives of their characters. Meisner believed this approach made actors focus on themselves and not fully tell the story. He advocated actors fully immersing themselves "in the moment" and concentrating on their partner. Meisner taught actors to achieve spontaneity by understanding the given circumstances of the scene (as did Strasberg). He designed interpersonal exercises to help actors invest emotionally in the scene, freeing them to react "honestly" as the character. Meisner described acting as "...living truthfully under imaginary circumstances".[5]

Robert Lewis also broke with Strasberg. In his books Method—or Madness? and the more autobiographical Slings and Arrows, Lewis disagreed with the idea that vocal training should be separated from pure emotional training.[6] Lewis felt that more emphasis should be placed on formal voice and body training, such as teaching actors how to speak verse and enunciate clearly, rather than on pure raw emotion, which he felt was the focus of method training.[6]

Stella Adler, an actress and acting teacher whose students include Marlon Brando, Warren Beatty, and Robert De Niro, also broke with Strasberg after she studied with Stanislavski himself, by which time he had modified many of his early ideas. Her version of the method is based on the idea that actors should conjure up emotion not by using their own personal memories, but by using the scene's given circumstances. Like Strasberg's, Adler's technique relies on carrying through tasks, wants, needs, and objectives. It also seeks to stimulate the actor's imagination through the use of "as ifs". Adler often taught that "drawing on personal experience alone was too limited". Therefore, she urged performers to draw on their imaginations and utilize "emotional memory" to the fullest.[7]

Contemporary method actors sometimes seek help from psychologists.[8][9]

Teachers[edit]

Constantin Stanislavski described his acting system in a trilogy of books set in a fictional acting school: An Actor Prepares, Building a Character, and Creating a Role. He also wrote an autobiography, My Life in Art. Acting teachers inspired by Stanislavski include:

Practitioners[edit]

The following actors have been noted as practitioners of Method acting.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flint, Peter B. (1992-12-22). "Stella Adler, 91, an Actress And Teacher of the Method". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Lee Strasberg of Actors Studio Dead". Nytimes.com. 1982-02-18. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  3. ^ Brody, Richard. "Is Method Acting Destroying Actors?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  4. ^ Carnicke, Sharon. Stanislavsky in Focus: An Acting Master for the Twenty-First Century. Routledge Theatre Classics, 2008, p. 221
  5. ^ Meisner, Sanford. Sanford Meisner on Acting, Vintage, 1987
  6. ^ a b Robert Lewis (2003), Slings and Arrows: Theater in My Life, Hal Leonard Corporation, ISBN 1-55783-244-7, p.193.
  7. ^ "Stella Adler". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. 27 October 2011.
  8. ^ Larina Kase (2011), Clients, Clients, and More Clients!: Create an Endless Stream of New Business with the Power of Psychology, McGraw–Hill, ISBN 0-07-177100-X, p.125.
  9. ^ S. Loraine Hull (1985), Strasberg's method as taught by Lorrie Hull: A practical guide for actors, teachers, and directors, Oxbow Books, ISBN 0-918024-38-2, p.10.
  10. ^ Skolnik, Fred; Berenbaum, Michael (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 1. Granite Hill Publishers. pp. 408–. ISBN 9780028659299. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  11. ^ Strasberg, John. Accidentally on Purpose: Reflections on Life, Acting, and the Nine Natural Laws of Creativity. Hal Leonard Corporation (1999) page 65. ISBN 9781557833587 [1]
  12. ^ Jones, Jerene (1983-11-07). "For Baby Doll Carroll Baker, Life Has Been No Nursery Rhyme". People 20 (19). 
  13. ^ Niemi, Robert James (2013-10-17). Inspired by True Events: An Illustrated Guide to More Than 500 History-Based Films: An Illustrated Guide to More Than 500 History-Based Films, Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. pp. 270–. ISBN 9781610691987. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  14. ^ Cross, Mary (2013). One Hundred People who Changed 20th-century America. ABC-CLIO. pp. 392–. ISBN 9781610690850. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  15. ^ Richardson, Niall; Locks, Adam (2014-07-25). Body Studies The Basics. Routledge. pp. 74–. ISBN 9781317692621. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  16. ^ [2] Archived December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Michael Caine 'uses painful secret to cry on set'". London: Telegraph. 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  18. ^ Gallagher, Danny (2013-12-13). "Method Actors". Cracked.com. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  19. ^ "The Method Madness of Daniel Day-Lewis". London: Telegraph.co.uk. 2014-02-08. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  20. ^ Graham, Caroline. “I Am Crow... Johnny Depp reveals the inspiration behind his teetotal Tonto character”. Daily Mail. 19 May 2012. [3]
  21. ^ "Co-Stars Who Hated Each Other: Ryan Gosling and Rachel McAdams in 'The Notebook' and More". Daily Beast. 2014-07-04. Retrieved 2014-07-04. 
  22. ^ l "TY ME UP, TY ME DOWN Tyrese tells us how to spot a cheat and what he likes in a woman". Elle. 2007-06-20. Retrieved 2014-07-04. 
  23. ^ [4] Archived June 7, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Walton Goggins 'Justified' Q&A: "I can't believe that this is my life". Digital Spy. 2013-03-11. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  25. ^ "Anne Hathaway: Going Method To Create Amelia Brand". Deadline. 2014-12-21. Retrieved 2015-05-31. 
  26. ^ Monaco, Paul (2010-05-05). A History of American Movies: A Film-by-Film Look at the Art, Craft, and Business of Cinema. Scarecrow Press. pp. 136–. ISBN 9780810874398. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  27. ^ Kuhnke, Elizabeth E. (2015-05-13). Body Language For Dummies. Wiley. pp. 249–. ISBN 9781119076445. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  28. ^ {{cite Brendan Frye (20 April 2010). "Michael Ironside talks Splinter Cell". Comic Gaming Magazine. Retrieved 23 July 2014.}}
  29. ^ "The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2013-1.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  30. ^ Long, Paul; Wall, Tim (2014-07-10). Media Studies: Texts, Production, Context. Routledge. pp. 135–. ISBN 9781317860785. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  31. ^ "Jared Leto took method acting to the extreme with 'Dallas Buyers Club'". Toronto Sun. 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2014-07-04. 
  32. ^ a b http://www.biography.com/people/judd-nelson-224924.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. ^ "Jack Nicholson Interview - Quotes about the Joker, Movies, and Richard Nixon". Esquire. 2003-12-31. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  34. ^ Gates, Anita (January 21, 2008). "Suzanne Pleshette, 70, Newhart Actress, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-01-03. Because she was a method actress, 'Hitch didn’t know what to do with me,' Ms. Pleshette said in a 1999 Film Quarterly interview with other Hitchcock heroines. 
  35. ^ "Shelley Winters Outspoken Oscar-winning actress who had a string of famous lovers". Herald Scotland. 2006-01-16. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  36. ^ "Reese's base-ic instinct". Daily Mirror. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  37. ^ Sheridan, Emily (15 April 2009). "Batter up: Reese Witherspoon gets to grip with her ball skills as she practises for softball film role". Daily Mail. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  38. ^ [5]
  39. ^ "The wolf is back". The Telegraph. 21 May 2006. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  40. ^ "Brad Pitt’s Concern Over Shia LaBeouf’s “Method” Odors May Mean the Actor Is Too Extreme for Hollywood". "Vanity Fair". 7 January 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Articles[edit]

Major books on Method acting[edit]