NA61/SHINE (standing for "SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment") is a particle physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The experiment studies the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons and beryllium, argon, and xenon nuclei) with a variety of fixed nuclear targets at the SPS energies.
About 135 physicists from 14 countries and 35 institutions work in NA61/SHINE, led by Marek Gazdzicki. NA61/SHINE is the second largest fixed target experiment at CERN.
- In nucleus–nucleus (heavy ion) collisions, in particular the measurement of fluctuations and long range correlations, with the aim to identify the properties of the onset of deconfinement and find evidence for the critical point of strongly interacting matter.
- In proton–proton and proton–nucleus interactions needed as reference data for better understanding of nucleus–nucleus reactions; in particular with regards to correlations, fluctuations and high transverse momenta.
- In hadron–nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray experiments (Pierre Auger Observatory and KASCADE).
The NA61/SHINE experiment uses a large acceptance hadron spectrometer located on the H2 beam line in the North Area of CERN. It consist of components used by the heavy ion NA49 experiment as well as those designed and constructed for NA61/SHINE.
The main tracking devices are four large volume time projection chambers (TPCs), which are capable of detecting up to 70% of all charged particles created in the studied reactions. Two of them are located in the magnetic field of two super-conducting dipole magnets with maximum bending powers of 9 Tesla meters. Two others are positioned downstream of the magnets symmetrically with respect to the beam line. The setup is supplemented by time of flight detector walls, which extend particle identification to low momenta ( < p ). Furthermore, the Projectile Spectator Detector (a 1 GeV/ccalorimeter) is positioned downstream of the time of flight detectors to measure energy of projectile fragments.
- proton-carbon and proton-(T2K replica target) interactions at in 2007, 2009 and 2010, 31 GeV/c
- pion-carbon interactions at and 158 GeV/c in 2009, 350 GeV/c
- proton-proton interactions at 13, 20, 31, 40, 80 and in 2009, 2010 and 2011, 158 GeV/c
- beryllium-beryllium interactions at 13A, 19A, 30A 40A, 75A and 150A GeV/c in 2011,2012 and 2013,
- argon-scandium interactions at 13A, 19A, 30A 40A, 75A and 150A GeV/c in 2015.
- Antoniou, N.; et al. (NA61 Collaboration) (2006). "Study of hadron production in hadron–nucleus and nucleus–nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS". SPSC-P-330, CERN-SPSC-2006-034.
- Abgrall, N.; et al. (NA61 Collaboration) (2014). "NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS: beams and detector system". Journal of Instrumentation. 9 (2–3): P06005. arXiv: . Bibcode:2014JInst...9P6005A. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/06/P06005.