SN 1987A was a supernova in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a nearby dwarf galaxy). It occurred approximately 51.4 kiloparsecs from Earth, approximately 168,000 light-years, close enough that it was visible to the naked eye. It could be seen from the Southern Hemisphere. It was the closest observed supernova since SN 1604, which occurred in the Milky Way itself. The light from the new supernova reached Earth on February 23, 1987. As it was the first supernova discovered in 1987, it was labeled “1987A”. Its brightness peaked in May with an apparent magnitude of about 3 and slowly declined in the following months. It was the first opportunity for modern astronomers to see a supernova up close and observations have provided much insight into core-collapse supernovae.
SN 1987A was discovered by Ian Shelton and Oscar Duhalde at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile on February 24, 1987, and within the same 24 hours independently by Albert Jones in New Zealand. On March 4–12, 1987, it was observed from space by Astron, the largest ultraviolet space telescope of that time.
Four days after the event was recorded, the progenitor star was tentatively identified as Sanduleak -69° 202, a blue supergiant. This was an unexpected identification, because at the time a blue supergiant was not considered a possibility for a supernova event in existing models of high mass stellar evolution. Many models of the progenitor have attributed the color to its chemical composition, particularly the low levels of heavy elements, among other factors. There has been some speculation that the star may have merged with a companion star prior to the supernova. However, it is now widely understood that blue supergiants are natural progenitors of supernovae, although there is still speculation that the evolution of such stars requires mass loss involving a binary companion. It is of note that the supernova of the blue giant Sanduleak -69° 202 was about one-tenth as luminous as the average observed type II supernova, which is associated with the denser makeup of the star. Because blue supergiant supernovae are not as bright as those generated by red supergiants, we cannot see them in as large a volume. We would thus not expect to see as many of them, and so they might not be as rare or unusual as previously thought.
Approximately two to three hours before the visible light from SN 1987A reached Earth, a burst of neutrinos was observed at three separate neutrino observatories. This is likely due to neutrino emission, which occurs simultaneously with core collapse, but preceding the emission of visible light. Transmission of visible light is a slower process that occurs only after the shock wave reaches the stellar surface. At 07:35 UT, Kamiokande II detected 11 antineutrinos; IMB, 8 antineutrinos; and Baksan, 5 antineutrinos; in a burst lasting less than 13 seconds. Approximately three hours earlier, the Mont Blanc liquid scintillator detected a five-neutrino burst, but this is generally not believed to be associated with SN 1987A.
Although the actual neutrino count was only 24, it was a significant rise from the previously observed background level. This was the first time neutrinos known to be emitted from a supernova had been observed directly, which marked the beginning of neutrino astronomy. The observations were consistent with theoretical supernova models in which 99% of the energy of the collapse is radiated away in the form of neutrinos. The observations are also consistent with the models' estimates of a total neutrino count of 1058 with a total energy of 1046 joules.
The neutrino measurements allowed upper bounds on neutrino mass and charge, as well as the number of flavors of neutrinos and other properties. For example, the data show that within 5% confidence, the rest mass of the electron neutrino is at most 16 eV, 30-millionths the mass of an electron. The data suggest that the total number of neutrino flavors is at most 8 but other observations and experiments give tighter estimates. Many of these results have since been confirmed or tightened by other neutrino experiments such as more careful analysis of solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos as well as experiments with artificial neutrino sources.
Missing neutron star
SN 1987A appears to be a core-collapse supernova, which should result in a neutron star given the size of the original star. The neutrino data indicate that a compact object did form at the star's core. However, since the supernova first became visible, astronomers have been searching for the collapsed core but have not detected it. The Hubble Space Telescope has taken images of the supernova regularly since August 1990, but, so far, the images have shown no evidence of a neutron star. A number of possibilities for the 'missing' neutron star are being considered, although none are clearly favored. The first is that the neutron star is enshrouded in dense dust clouds so that it cannot be seen. Another is that a pulsar was formed, but with either an unusually large or small magnetic field. It is also possible that large amounts of material fell back on the neutron star, so that it further collapsed into a black hole. Neutron stars and black holes often give off light when material falls onto them. If there is a compact object in the supernova remnant, but no material to fall onto it, it would be very dim and could therefore avoid detection. Other scenarios have also been considered, such as if the collapsed core became a quark star.
Much of the "light curve," or graph of luminosity as a function of time, after the explosion of a Type II Supernova such as SN 1987A is dominated by radioactive decay processes. The radioactive decay of 56Ni through 56Co to 56Fe produces high-energy photons that dominate the energy output of the ejecta at intermediate (several weeks) to late times (several months). The peak of the light curve was caused by the decay of 56Ni to 56Co (half life 6 days) while the later light curve of SN 1987A in particular fit very closely with the 77.3 day half-life of 56Co decaying to 56Fe.
Because the 56Co has now completely decayed, the luminosity of the SN 1987A ejecta is currently powered by the radioactive decay of 44Ti with a half life of about 60 years. Observations by the INTEGRAL mission showed that the total mass of radioactive 44Ti synthesized during the explosion was 3.1 ± 0.8×10−4 M☉.
Observations of these radioactive decays in the 1987A light curve have measured accurate total masses of the 56Ni, 57Ni, and 44Ti created in the explosion, which provides constraints on the supernova model.
Interaction with circumstellar material
The three bright rings around SN 1987A are material from the stellar wind of the progenitor. These rings were ionized by the ultraviolet flash from the supernova explosion, and consequently began emitting in various emission lines. These rings did not "turn on" until several months after the supernova; the turn-on process can be very accurately studied through spectroscopy. The rings are large enough that their angular size can be measured accurately: the inner ring is 0.808 arcseconds in radius. Using the distance light must have traveled to light up the inner ring as the base of a right angle triangle and the angular size as seen from the Earth for the local angle, one can use basic trigonometry to calculate the distance to SN1987A, which is about 168,000 light-years. The material from the explosion is catching up with the material expelled during both its red and blue supergiant phases and heating it, so we observe ring structures about the star.
Around 2001, the expanding (>7000 km/s) supernova ejecta collided with the inner ring. This caused its heating and the generation of x-rays — the x-ray flux from the ring increased by a factor of three between 2001 and 2009. A part of the x-ray radiation, which is absorbed by the dense ejecta close to the center, is responsible for a comparable increase in the optical flux from the supernova remnant in 2001–2009. This increase of the brightness of the remnant reversed the trend observed before 2001, when the optical flux was decreasing due to the decaying of 44Ti isotope.
A study reported in June 2015, using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope taken between 1994 and 2014, shows that the emissions from the clumps of matter making up the rings are fading as the clumps are destroyed by the shock wave. It is predicted the ring will fade away between 2020 and 2030. As the shock wave passes the circumstellar ring it will trace the history of mass loss of the supernova's progenitor and provide useful information for discriminating among various models for the progenitor of SN 1987A.
- List of supernovae
- History of supernova observation
- List of supernova remnants
- List of supernova candidates
- "ALMA Spots Supernova Dust Factory". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Lyman, J. D.; Bersier, D.; James, P. A. (2013). "Bolometric corrections for optical light curves of core-collapse supernovae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 437 (4): 3848. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt2187.
- "SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud". Hubble Heritage Project. Retrieved 2006-07-25.
- "IAUC4316: 1987A, N. Cen. 1986". 24 February 1987.
- Larsson, J.; Fransson, C.; Ostlin, G.; Gröningsson, P.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kozma, C.; Sollerman, J.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Chevalier, R. A.; Heng, K.; McCray, R.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Bouchet, P.; Crotts, A.; Danziger, J.; Dwek, E.; France, K.; Garnavich, P. M.; Lawrence, S. S.; Leibundgut, B.; Lundqvist, P.; Panagia, N.; Pun, C. S. J.; Smith, N.; Sonneborn, G.; Wang, L.; Wheeler, J. C. (2011). "X-ray illumination of the ejecta of supernova 1987A". Nature 474 (7352): 484–486. doi:10.1038/nature10090. PMID 21654749.
- "Astrometry of SN 1987A and Sanduleak-69 202". Bibcode:1987A&A...177L...1W.
- "Observations on Astron: Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud". Bibcode:1987PAZh...13..739B.
- "Hubble Revisits an Old Friend". Picture of the Week. ESA/Hubble. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Sonneborn, G. (1987). "The Progenitor of SN1987A". In Minas Kafatos; Andrew Michalitsianos. Supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35575-3.
- Arnett, W.D. et al. (1989). "Supernova 1987A". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 27: 629–700. Bibcode:1989ARA&A..27..629A. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.27.090189.003213.
- Podsiadlowski, P. (1992). "The progenitor of SN 1987 A". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 104: 717. Bibcode:1992PASP..104..717P. doi:10.1086/133043.
- Dwarkadas, V. V. (2011). "On luminous blue variables as the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, especially Type IIn supernovae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 412 (3): 1639–1649. arXiv:1011.3484. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.412.1639D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.18001.x.
- Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu (1987). "Supernova 1987A: Constraints on the Theoretical Model". In Minas Kafatos; Andrew Michalitsianos. Supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Cambridge University Press. section 3.2 Shock propagation time. ISBN 0-521-35575-3
- Pagliaroli, G.; Vissani, F.; Costantini, M. L.; Ianni, A. (2009). "Improved analysis of SN1987A antineutrino events". Astroparticle Physics 31 (3): 163. arXiv:0810.0466. Bibcode:2009APh....31..163P. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.12.010.
- Chan, T. C.; Cheng, K. S.; Harko, T.; Lau, H. K.; Lin, L. M.; Suen, W. M.; Tian, X. L. (2009). "Could the compact remnant of SN 1987A be a quark star?". The Astrophysical Journal 695: 732. arXiv:0902.0653. Bibcode:2009ApJ...695..732C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/732.
- Parsons, Paul (February 21, 2009). "Quark star may hold secret to early universe". New Scientist.
- Kasen, D.; Woosley, S. (2009). "Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships". The Astrophysical Journal 703 (2): 2205–2216. arXiv:0910.1590. Bibcode:2009ApJ...703.2205K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/703/2/2205.
- Grebenev, S. A.; Lutovinov, A. A.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Winkler, C. (2012). "Hard-X-ray emission lines from the decay of 44Ti in the remnant of supernova 1987A". Nature 490 (7420): 373–375. doi:10.1038/nature11473. PMID 23075986.
- C. Fransson; R. Gilmozzi; P. Groeningsson; R. Hanuschik; K. Kjaer; B. Leibundgut & J. Spyromilio (2007). "Twenty Years of Supernova 1987A". The Messenger 127: 44. Bibcode:2007Msngr.127...44F.
- Panagia, N. (1998). "New Distance Determination to the LMC". Memorie della Societa Astronomia Italiana 69: 225. Bibcode:1998MmSAI..69..225P.
- Kruesi, Liz. "Supernova prized by astronomers begins to fade from view". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- Fransson, Claes et al. "The Destruction of the Circumstellar Ring of SN 1987A". arXiv.org. Cornell University Library. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- Graves, G.J.M; Challis, Peter M.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Crotts, Arlin; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Lundqvist, Peter; McCray, Richard; Panagia, Nino; Phillips, Mark M.; Pun, Chun J. S.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Sonneborn, George; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J. Craig (2005). "Limits from the Hubble Space Telescope on a point source in SN 1987A". Astrophysical Journal 629 (2): 944–959. arXiv:astro-ph/0505066. Bibcode:2005ApJ...629..944G. doi:10.1086/431422.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to SN 1987A.|
- Picture of Supernova 1987A
- AAVSO: More information on the discovery of SN 1987A
- Rochester Astronomy discovery timeline
- Light echoes from Sn1987a, Movie with real images by the group EROS2
- Animation of light echoes from SN1987A
- Supernova 1987A, by Richard McCray (astrophysicist, University of Colorado at Boulder)
- SN 1987A at ESA/Hubble
- Supernova 1987A, WIKISKY.ORG
- More information at Phil Plait's Bad Astronomy site