Interstate 540 and North Carolina Highway 540
|Raleigh Outer Loop|
I-540 highlighted in red; open section of NC 540 in purple
|Maintained by NCDOT|
|Length||42.2 mi (67.9 km)|
I-540: 25.8 miles (41.5 km)
NC 540: 16.4 miles (26.4 km)
|Beltway around Raleigh|
Interstate 540 (I-540) and North Carolina Highway 540 (NC 540) are part of a partially completed beltway around the city of Raleigh in the U.S. state of North Carolina forming the Raleigh Outer Loop. When complete, the route will completely encircle the city, meeting its parent route of Interstate 40 in one location.
The initial phase of construction is designated Interstate 540, and was completed in January 2007. It runs from Interstate 40 near the RDU Airport to I-87/US 64/US 264 south of Knightdale. The original plan was for the entire route to be designated as part of the Interstate Highway System, possibly renumbering the route to I-640 when the beltway was complete. When it became financially unfeasible to construct the entire route with public funds, it was decided that the remaining portion of the route (approximately 2/3 of the total completed mileage) would be constructed as a toll road and designated as a NC State Route rather than an Interstate Route. The first section of NC 540 was opened in July 2007 extending westward from the western terminus of I-540. Further extensions have carried NC 540 around the western side of Wake County to its current southwestern terminus south of Apex. Future projects are planned to complete the southern leg from Apex to Garner and eastern leg, from Garner to Knightdale, under the same toll system. In particular, the portion south of Garner has been held up due to conflicting interests in choosing a path for the route. No clear timetable exists for completion of these two legs.
When completed, the beltway will total 70 miles (110 km) in length, surrounding the city of Raleigh and the towns of Apex, Cary, Garner, and Morrisville. The designation from I-540 and NC 540 happens at I-40, in Durham County, where I-540 goes east and NC 540 goes west.
The beltway is further broken down into four segments:
|Northern Wake Freeway||I-540||NC 55 to I-87/US 64/US 264||29.0|
|Western Wake Freeway||NC 540||NC 55 in Cary to NC 55 South of Apex||12.4|
|Southern Wake Freeway (not yet built)||NC 540||NC 55 to I-40 near Garner||16.5|
|Eastern Wake Freeway (not yet built)||NC 540||I-40 to I-87/US 64/US 264||12.9|
I-540 is the designation for the northern part of the perimeter loop around Raleigh (not to be confused with the I-440 Beltline). Interstate 540 begins at Interstate 40 near the Raleigh-Durham International Airport. Interstate 540 continues northeast until it reaches Aviation Parkway. Interstate 540 has an interchange with Aviation Parkway and continues along the south side of the Brier Creek neighborhood. About a mile after Aviation Parkway I-540 has an interchange with Lumley Road before having another interchange with US 70. After the US 70 interchange the freeway turns a more easterly direction. Interstate 540 has another interchange with Leesville Road, about 3 miles from the US 70 interchange and then continues toward North Raleigh. As Interstate 540 curves around to its northernmost point it starts to parallel Strickland Road, which is further to the south. The road heads north of Wildwood Green Golf Course and then has interchange with NC 50. Further east I-540 has an interchange with Six Forks Road and then Falls of Neuse Road. After Falls of Neuse Road I-540 starts to turn a more southeastern direction. As it approaches US 1 (Capital Boulevard) I-540 crosses a railroad track owned by CSX  on an elevated bridge. Interstate 540 has a somewhat combined interchange between US 1 (exit 16) and Triangle Town Boulevard (exit 17). As I-540 continues east it has an interchange with US 401 (Louisburg Road). Interstate 540 continues just south of the Wake Tech campus. I-540 crosses the Neuse River and then turns south towards Knightdale. I-540 immediately has an interchange with Buffaloe Road (exit 20). I-540 continues south paralleling both the Neuse River and Forestville Road. As I-540 enters Knightdale it has an interchange with US 64 Business. About 2 miles (3.2 km) after the US 64 Business interchange Interstate 540 has its western terminus at Interstate 87/US 64/US 264.
North Carolina Highway 540
NC 540 is the designation given to the Western Wake Freeway and future Southern and Eastern Wake Freeways. As of January 2013, the North Carolina state route traverses east–west from I-40, in Durham County to NC 55, in Holly Springs. Initially intended to be signed as an extension of the I-540 loop, the first section of the route bears mile markers and exit numbers for the complete Interstate loop, going from 66 to 69. In Mid-2012, this section of the beltway became part of the Triangle Expressway.
No portion of I-540 is tolled. All of NC 540 is tolled except the short segment between I-40 and NC 54. Tolls are implemented by electronic toll collection (ETC) and are enforced by video cameras. Several gantries are located along the route and entrance/exit ramps, where they collect toll via the NC Quick Pass or other interoperable ETC systems. Those that do not participate in the ETC program will receive a bill in the mail and will have 30 days from date on bill before additional fees and civil penalties are applied.
Planning for the highway originally started in the early 1970s; by 1976, the "Northern Wake Expressway" was added to the planning map. In the mid-1980s, realizing that the growth in western Wake County may require more roads than planned, highway planners decided to expand the project as a new beltway around Raleigh. In 1992, construction began on the first 3-mile (4.8 km) section of the Northern Wake Expressway, connecting I-40 with US 70. On January 21, 1997, the freeway opened as Interstate 540.
In the following ten years, the now known Northern Wake Freeway (so not to be confused with the Triangle Expressway) made several extensions:
- December 11, 1999: From US 70/Glenwood Avenue (exit 4) to Leesville Road (exit 7).
- December 21, 2000: From Leesville Road (exit 7) to NC 50/Creedmoor Road (exit 9).
- June 29, 2001: From NC 50/Creedmoor Road (exit 9) to Falls of Neuse Road (exit 14).
- August 12, 2002: From Falls of Neuse Road (exit 14) to US 1/Capital Boulevard/Triangle Town Boulevard (exit 16).
- January 16, 2007: From Triangle Town Boulevard (exit 17) to US 64/US 264/Knightdale Bypass (exit 26).
From 1999 to 2002, each additional section of the freeway was designated as Future 540, until it connected with US 1.
On July 14, 2007, a section of the loop from I-40 west to NC 54 and NC 55 was opened. However, the route is signed not as I-540 but as NC 540. Officials decided to change the designation in early July at the urging of the North Carolina Turnpike Authority (NCTA). Work on the western and southern portions of the beltway, if paid for by state funds, would possibly not open until 2030. At the request of several Wake County mayors, the NCTA in 2006 began studying the use of tolls to complete these portions of the Outer Loop.
The Authority concluded in early 2007 that it would be financially feasible to build the western section (along with an extended Durham Freeway, which combined would be called the "Triangle Expressway") using toll funds. The NCTA apparently never wanted an interstate designation for the Western Wake Parkway. To lessen motorist confusion about where I-540 ended, the route was truncated to the I-40 interchange. All I-540 signs that were put up along the unopened stretch between I-40 and NC 55 were taken down in early July 2007; the new section is now signed as NC 540. (In addition, I-540 as a completed loop would violate the Interstate numbering convention regarding three-digit routes, as spurs begin with an odd number and loops with an even number, and at one point, I-640 — the last remaining available number within the state, as I-240, I-440 and I-840 are already taken — was proposed for the loop.)
Work to build the Western Wake Freeway, which would be renamed the "Western Wake Parkway" under the toll proposal, began August 12, 2009, with the Triangle Parkway portion opening in December 2011, and Western Wake portion scheduled to open in two phases in 2012.
In October 2008, the authority was unable to issue bonds to fund the Western Wake Turnpike project as planned due to market conditions affecting municipal bonds such as those. On July 29, 2009, the Authority closed on a revised $1.01 billion bond plan, consisting of $270 million in toll revenue bonds, $353 million in Build America Bonds, and a $387 million loan from the U.S. Department of Transportation under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act.
After work began on Western Wake Parkway in 2009, engineering and environmental studies began a year later for the Southern and Eastern Wake Freeways, also known as the Triangle Expressway Southeast Extension. Construction would begin on 2014 and be completed by 2019; however, it was delayed on March 2011 by the enactment of North Carolina Session Law 2011-7 (N.C. S.L. 2011-7), which forbid NCDOT to consider a few alternative routes.
In 2010, NCDOT made an interchange improvement at I-540/I-40; adding another auxiliary lane from I-540 south to I-40 west, at a cost of $4.8 million.
The completed Triangle Parkway, the first section of the Triangle Expressway, with its connection to NC 540, opened on December 8, 2011, reestablishing exit 67. Collection of tolls began on January 3, 2012. On August 1, 2012, the first phase of the Western Wake Freeway opened, connecting NC 55 in Morrisville (exit 66) to US 64 in Apex. The next day tolling began on the previously open section from NC 54 to NC 55. The final phase of the tolled section of NC 540, from US 64 to NC 55 north of Holly Springs opened on December 20, 2012. Tolling for this section began January 2, 2013. On April 3, 2017, the Veridea Parkway interchange (exit 55; formally known as Old Holly Springs Apex Road) was opened to traffic; at a cost of $20 million, it was constructed by Blythe Construction and Kimley-Horn.
A plan approved by the Raleigh city council in November 2013 includes asking for tolls for the existing highway in order to widen it to eight lanes by 2035 or 2040. This would require both state and federal approval. As a temporary solution to increased traffic on the northern section, NCDOT has installed ramp meters on some on-ramps, the first ones in the state.  
Triangle Expressway Southeast Extension
The Southern Wake Expressway would connect Holly Springs with Garner. The route for the southern leg known as the Orange Route, has been protected from development by NCDOT since the 1990s, but it would cross habitat for the endangered dwarf wedge mussel. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service asked for routes north of the Orange Route to be considered as a way to provide a shorter option, possibly minimizing impacts to natural resources. In September 2010, a new map showed several other routes, including the controversial Red Route, which many Garner-area residents protested in a December 2010 meeting; a total of 3,000 signatures on petitions opposed the route as well.
After two years, the General Assembly chose to permit studying the Red Corridor, which meant possible routes could once again be considered. Documents released September 9, 2013 changed the 30-mile project from two phases to a single project, with construction expected to begin in 2018 and be completed by 2022. Public meetings were scheduled in October 2013 for "Complete 540".
In April 2016, the NCDOT announced that Detailed Study Alternative 2 was selected as the preferred alternative for the project. The route goes from west to east and combines the proposed orange, green (southern portion), mint and green (northern portion) corridor segments.
|Durham||||0.0||0.0||1||I-40 – Raleigh, Durham, RTP||Signed as exits 1A (east) and 1B (west)|
|Wake||Raleigh||2.0||3.2||2||Aviation Parkway – RDU Airport||Signed as exits 2A (south) and 2B (north)|
|4.2||6.8||4||US 70 (Glenwood Avenue) – Raleigh, Durham||Signed as exits 4A (east) and 4B (west)|
|||9.2||14.8||9||NC 50 (Creedmoor Road) – Creedmoor, Raleigh|
|Raleigh||11.4||18.3||11||Six Forks Road|
|13.8||22.2||14||Falls of Neuse Road|
|16.8||27.0||16||US 1 (Capital Boulevard) – Raleigh, Wake Forest|
|17.0||27.4||17||Triangle Town Boulevard||To Triangle Town Center|
|18.4||29.6||18||US 401 (Louisburg Road) – Louisburg, Raleigh|
US 64 Bus. – Raleigh, Knightdale
|Signed eastbound as exits 24A (west) and 24B (east)|
|25.8||41.5||26||I-87 / US 64 / US 264 (Knightdale Bypass) – Raleigh, Wilson, Rocky Mount||Signed as exits 26A (west) and 26B (east). I-87 previously signed as I-495.|
|Route transition from I-540 to NC 540|
|Poole Road||Future interchanges (proposed Triangle Expressway SE Extension phase 2)|
|||Auburn Knightdale Road|
|||Rock Quarry Road|
US 70 Bus.
|||White Oak Road|
|Johnston||||I-40 / US 70||Future interchanges (proposed Triangle Expressway SE Extension phase 1)|
|Wake||||NC 50 (Benson Road)|
|||Old Stage Road|
|||US 401 (Fayetteville Road)|
|||Bells Lake Road|
|Holly Springs||Holly Springs Road|
NC 55 Byp. – Apex, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina
|Signed as exits 54A (west) and 54B (east)|
|||55.6||89.5||56||US 1 – Raleigh, Sanford||To Harris Lake; signed as exits 56A (north) and 56B (south)|
|||56.6||91.1||57||South Salem Street|
|Apex||59.4||95.6||59||US 64 – Apex, Pittsboro||To Jordan Lake; signed as exits 59A (east) and 59B (west)|
|Cary||61.9||99.6||62||Green Level West Road – Cary|
|63.6||102.4||64||Morrisville Parkway||Future interchange (under construction, complete by late 2019)|
|66.4||106.9||66||NC 55 – Cary, Durham||To USA Baseball; signed as exits 66A (east) and 66B (west)|
NC 147 Toll north (Triangle Expressway) – Durham
|Was Davis Drive before June 1, 2010; reopened December 8, 2011 as Toll NC 147 north|
|69.2||111.4||69||NC 54 – Chapel Hill, Cary||End of NC 540 portion of Triangle Expressway. Road continues as I-540 (see exit 1 above)|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
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- Baysden, Chris (October 14, 2008). "North Carolina Turnpike Authority unable to sell bonds for toll road". Triangle Business Journal.
- "Triangle Expressway System Senior Lien Revenue Bonds" (PDF). North Carolina Turnpike Authority. July 2009.
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- "USDOT Approves $386 Million Loan to Build Triangle Expressway in North Carolina" (Press release). Federal Highway Administration. July 13, 2009.
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- Siceloff, Bruce (March 30, 2010). "Southern Wake loop's roadwork to start in 2014". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Siceloff, Bruce; Campbell, Colin (January 4, 2011). "Garner protest may kill one highway route". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
- "Triangle Expressway Southeast Extension". North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Triangle Expressway Southeast Extension Project Map (PDF) (Map). North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- "Northern Wake Freeway Interchange Improvements at I-540 & I-40". North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
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- "Toll road pits saving time versus spending money". Raleigh, NC: WRAL-TV. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Siceloff, Bruce. "Two new interchanges will bring more paying customers to Triangle Expressway". The News & Observer. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
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- Staff (April 3, 2017). "New Triangle Expressway Interchange Now Open to Traffic" (Press release). Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Veridea Parkway Interchange". North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
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- Siceloff, Bruce (September 9, 2013). "Road Worrier: NCDOT vows to complete 540 across south and east Wake". News & Observer.
- NCDOT. "Complete 540". NCDOT. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
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- "Project R-2829". North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Project R-2721". North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
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- "Western Wake Freeway". North Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Siceloff, Bruce (July 10, 2012). "Road Worrier: Commuters eager for toll-road alternative to the daily slog on NC 55". Raleigh, NC: The News & Observer. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Media related to Interstate 540 (North Carolina) at Wikimedia Commons
- Media related to North Carolina Highway 540 at Wikimedia Commons
- I-540 on Wake County Roads
- NCRoads.com: I-540
- NCRoads.com: N.C. 540