Animal trypanosomiasis

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Steer with bovine trypanosomiasis
Cachectic dog infested with T. congolense after travel in West Africa

Animal trypanosomiasis, also known as nagana and nagana pest, or sleeping sickness, is a disease of vertebrates. The disease is caused by trypanosomes of several species in the genus Trypanosoma such as T. brucei. T. vivax causes nagana mainly in West Africa, although it has spread to South America.[1] The trypanosomes infect the blood of the vertebrate host, causing fever, weakness, and lethargy, which lead to weight loss and anemia; in some animals the disease is fatal unless treated. The trypanosomes are transmitted by tsetse flies.[2]

An interesting feature is the remarkable tolerance to nagana pathology shown by some breeds of cattle, notably the N'Dama – a West African Bos taurus breed. This contrasts with the susceptibility shown by East African B. indicus cattle such as the zebu.[3]

Transmission[edit]

Most trypanosomes develop in tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), its biological vector, in about one to a few weeks. When an infected tsetse fly bites an animal, the parasites are transmitted through its saliva. It can also be spread by fomites such as surgical instruments, needles, and syringes. The most important vectors are thought to be horseflies (Tabanidae spp.) and stable flies (Stomoxys spp.).

The immune response of animals may be unable to eliminate trypanosomes completely, and the host may become an inapparent carrier. These inapparent infections can be reactivated if the animal is stressed. Transplacental transmission can also occur.[4]

Transmission was successfully halted on Zanzibar by sterile insect technique (SIT) of the vector Glossina austeni.[5]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

The incubation period ranges from four days to approximately eight weeks. The infection leads to significant weight loss and anemia. Various symptoms are observed, including fever, oedema, adenitis, dermatitis and nervous disorders. The disease cannot be diagnosed with certainty except physically detecting parasites by blood microscopic examination or various serological reactions.[4][6]

Vectors[edit]

Disease Species affected Trypanosoma agents Distribution Glossina vectors
Nagana – acute form antelope

cattle camels horses

T. brucei brucei Africa G. morsitans

G. swynnertoni

G. pallidipes

G. palpalis

G. tachinoides

G. fuscipes

Nagana – chronic form cattle

camels horses

T. congolense Africa G. palpalis

G. morsitans

G. austeni

G. swynnertoni

G. pallidipes

G. longipalpis

G. tachinoides

G. brevipalpis

Nagana – acute form domestic pigs

cattle camels horses

T. simiae Africa G. palpalis

G. fuscipes

G. morsitans

G. tachinoides

G. longipalpis

G. fusca

G. tabaniformis

G. brevipalpis

G. vanhoofi

G. austeni

Nagana – acute form cattle

camels horses

T. vivax Africa G. morsitans

G. palpalis

G. tachinoides

G. swynnertoni

G. pallidipes

G. austeni

G. vanhoofi

G. longipalpis

Control measures[edit]

If the outbreak is detected early, the organism can be destroyed by quarantines, movement controls, and the euthanasia of infected animals. Tsetse fly populations can be reduced or eliminated by traps, insecticides, and by treating infected animals with antiparasitic drugs. The tsetse habitat can be destroyed by alteration of vegetation. Some drugs can prevent trypanosomiasis, and are called prophylactic drugs. These are very effective in protecting animals during the times they are exposed to diseases. Historically, these drugs were not used properly, leading to some resistance.[citation needed]

Waterbuck, among other animals, produces chemical odours that repel tsetse flies. This has led to the development of collars that store and gradually release these chemicals, reducing tsetse attack and thus trypanosomiasis incidence for cattle wearing these collars.[7]

Economic impact[edit]

Although the loss of direct livestock products (meat, milk, and blood) is problematic, the greatest impact of livestock trypanosomiasis is the loss of crop productivity due to loss of the animals' draught power in the field.[8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Batista, Jael S; Rodrigues, Carla MF; García, Herakles A; Bezerra, Francisco SB; Olinda, Robério G; Teixeira, Marta MG; Soto-Blanco, Benito (May 2011). "Association of Trypanosoma vivax in extracellular sites with central nervous system lesions and changes in cerebrospinal fluid in experimentally infected goats". Veterinary Research. 42 (1): 63. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-42-63. PMC 3105954. PMID 21569364.
  2. ^ "Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)". Fact sheet. World Health Organization (WHO). 10 January 2022.
  3. ^ Courtin D, Berthier D, Thevenon S, Dayo GK, Garcia A, Bucheton B (May 2008). "Host genetics in African trypanosomiasis". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 229–238. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.02.007. PMID 18394971.
  4. ^ a b Iowa State University; Institute for Cooperation in Animal Biologics; Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine; OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis of Animal Disease and Vaccine Evaluation in the Americas; OIE Collaborating Centre for Day-One Veterinary Competencies and Continuing Education; United States Department of Agriculture (October 2018). "African Animal Trypanosomiasis" (PDF).
  5. ^ Caragata, E.; Dong, S.; Dong, Y.; Simoes, M.; Tikhe, C.; Dimopoulos, G. (2020). "Prospects and Pitfalls: Next-Generation Tools to Control Mosquito-Transmitted Disease". Annual Review of Microbiology. Annual Reviews. 74 (1): 455–475. doi:10.1146/annurev-micro-011320-025557. ISSN 0066-4227. PMID 32905752. S2CID 221625690.
  6. ^ Finelle, P. "African animal trypanosomiasis". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  7. ^ Saini, Rajinder K.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Mbahin, Norber; Andoke, John A.; Muasa, Peter N.; Mbuvi, David M.; Muya, Caroline M.; Pickett, John A.; Borgemeister, Christian W. (2017-10-17). Solano, Philippe (ed.). "Protecting cows in small holder farms in East Africa from tsetse flies by mimicking the odor profile of a non-host bovid". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 11 (10): e0005977. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005977. ISSN 1935-2735. PMC 5659797. PMID 29040267.
  8. ^ Swallow, Brent M.; Animal Production and Health Division, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (2000). Impacts of trypanosomiasis on African agriculture. PAAT Technical and Scientific Series. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. vii+52. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.631.6490. ISBN 92-5-104413-9. ISSN 1020-7163. OCLC 45185699.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) AGRIS id XF2001396009. CABD 20003010139.
  9. ^ Giordani, Federica; Morrison, Liam J.; Rowan, Timothy G.; De Koning, Harry P.; Barrett, Michael P. (2016-10-10). "The animal trypanosomiases and their chemotherapy: a review". Parasitology. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 143 (14): 1862–1889. doi:10.1017/s0031182016001268. ISSN 0031-1820. PMC 5142301. PMID 27719692.

Further reading[edit]

"Reference Laboratories". OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health/WOAH). Retrieved 2023-02-03.