A zebu (//, // or //; Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle, humped cattle or Brahman, is a species or sub-species of domestic cattle originating in South Asia. Zebu are characterised by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap and sometimes drooping ears. They are well adapted to withstanding high temperatures, and are farmed throughout the tropical countries, both as pure zebu and as hybrids with taurine cattle, the other main type of domestic cattle. Zebu are used as draught oxen, as dairy cattle and as beef cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure. In 1999, researchers at Texas A&M University successfully cloned a zebu.
Taxonomy and etymology
The scientific name of zebu cattle was originally Bos indicus, but they are now more commonly classified within the species Bos taurus as Bos taurus indicus, together with taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) and the ancestor of both of them, the extinct aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Taurine ("European") cattle are descended from the Eurasian subspecies, while zebu are descended from the Indian subspecies. "Zebu" may be either singular or plural, but "zebus" is also an acceptable plural form. The Spanish name, "cebu" or "cebú", is also present in a few English works.
Zebu cattle are thought to be derived from Asian aurochs, sometimes regarded as a subspecies, Bos primigenius namadicus Wild Asian aurochs disappeared during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization from its range in the Indus basin and other parts of the South Asia possibly due to inter-breeding with domestic zebu and resultant fragmentation of wild populations due to loss of habitat.
Archaeological evidence including pictures on pottery and rocks suggest that the species were present in Egypt around 2000BC and were thought to be imported from the near east or south. Bos indicus are believed to have first appeared in Sub-Sahara Africa between A.D. 700 and 1500, and were introduced to the Horn of African around A.D. 1000.
Breeds and hybrids
There are some 75 known breeds of zebu, split about evenly between African breeds and South Asian ones. The major zebu cattle breeds of the world include Gir, Guzerat, Kankrej, Indo-Brazilian, Brahman, Nelore, Ongole, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Butana, Kenana, Boran, Baggara, Tharparkar, Kangayam, Chinese Southern Yellow, Philippine native, Kedah - Kelantan, and local Indian Dairy (LID). Other breeds of zebu are quite local, like the Hariana of Haryana and eastern Punjab or the Rath of Alwar in eastern Rajasthan.
The African Sanga cattle breeds originated from hybridization of zebu with indigenous African humpless cattle; they include the Afrikaner, Red Fulani, Ankole-Watusi, and many other breeds of central and southern Africa. Sanga cattle can be distinguished from pure zebu by having smaller humps located farther forward on the animals.
Zebu were imported to Africa over many hundreds of years, and interbred with taurine cattle there. Genetic analysis of African cattle has found higher concentrations of zebu genes all along the east coast of Africa, with especially pure cattle on the island of Madagascar, either implying that the method of dispersal was cattle transported by ship or alternatively, the Zebu may have reached East Africa via the coastal route (Pakistan, Iran, Southern Arabian coast) much earlier and crossed over to Madagascar. Partial resistance to rinderpest led to another increase in the frequency of zebu in Africa.
Zebu were imported into Brazil in the early twentieth century and crossbred with Charolais cattle, a European taurine breed. The resulting breed, 63% Charolais and 37% Zebu, is called the Canchim. It has a better meat quality than the zebu as well as better heat resistance than Asian cattle. The zebu breeds used were primarily Indo-Brazilian with some Nelore and Guzerat.
Many breeds are complex mixtures of the zebu and various taurine types, and some also have yak, gaur or banteng genes. While zebu are the common cattle in much of Asia, the cattle of Japan, Korea and Mongolia are taurine (although possibly domesticated separately from the other taurine cattle originating from Europe and Africa). Other species of cattle domesticated in parts of Asia include yak, gaur, banteng and water buffalo.
Han-u is a traditional Korean taurine–zebu hybrid breed.
Zebu have humps on the shoulders, large dewlaps and droopy ears. They are adapted to the harsh environment of the tropics. Adaptations include resistance to disease and tolerance of intense heat, sun, and humidity.
Zebu generally mature enough to begin reproducing around 44 months old. This is based on the development of their bodies to withstand the strain of carrying and lactation. Early reproduction can place too much stress on the body and possibly shorten lifespans. Carrying time of the calf averages at 285 days depending on the age and nutrition of the mother. The sex of the calf may also affect the carrying time as male calves are carried for a shorter period than females. Location, breed, bodyweight, and season affect the overall health of the animal and in return may also affect the carrying period.
The quality of the meat is not highly regarded. In August 2007 the zebu was described as "notorious for its tough meat and poor eating quality" after imported steaks served in restaurants of two British public house chains tested positive for zebu genes.
The Bos indicus commonly have low production of milk. They do not produce milk until maturation later in their lives and do not produce much, giving it solely to their calves. When Bos idicus is crossed with Bos taurus, production generally increases.
- "Cloning gives second chance for bull". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 1999-09-03. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- "Mammal Species of the World: Information on taurus". Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- van Vuure, Cis (2005). Retracing the Aurochs: History, Morphology and Ecology of an Extinct Wild Ox. Sofia-Moscow: Pensoft Publishers. ISBN 954-642-235-5.
- Rangarajan, Mahesh (2001). India's Wildlife History. Delhi, India: Permanent Black. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7824-140-1.
- Marshall, Fiona (April 1989). "Rethinking the Role of Bos indicus in Sub-Sahara Africa". Current Anthropology Vol. 30, No. 2. Retrieved November 1, 2015. All the zebu breeds in India are certified as a2 milk producing breeds by the government authority NBAGR.
- "Hariana — India: Haryana, eastern Punjab" page 245 In Porter, Valerie (1991) Cattle: A Handbook to the Breeds of the World Helm, London, ISBN 0-8160-2640-8
- "Rath — India: Alwar and eastern Rajasthan" page 246 In Porter, Valerie (1991) Cattle: A Handbook to the Breeds of the World Helm, London, ISBN 0-8160-2640-8
- "Food Ark - Cattle Breeds - Pictures, More From National Geographic Magazine". Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Definition: Zebu". Online Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
- Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. (1989-01-01). A Review of a Reproductive Performance of Female Bos Indicus (zebu) Cattle. ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD). ISBN 9789290530992.
- Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. (1989). ILCA Monograph No. 6. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ILCA.
- Undercover Mothers, ITV, 2007-08-21
- "Wales farmers beef about tough steaks". News Wales. August 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "Zebu and chips, sir?". Daily Mail. August 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
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