|This article does not cite any references (sources). (June 2008)|
Nagravision (or Nagra Kudelski or simply Nagra) is a company of the Kudelski Group that develops conditional access systems for digital cable and satellite television. The name is also used for their main products, the Nagravision encryption systems.
Four versions of Nagravision are in common use for digital satellite television, known as Nagravision, Nagravision Cardmagedon, Nagravision Aladin and Nagravision Merlin. Nagravision Cardmagedon and Aladin are often confused with each other and used under the term "Nagravision 2" which technically does not exist. Nagravision Cardmagedon is, however, a complicated combination of Nagravision Aladin and Mediaguard SECA 2 encryption. Nagravision Merlin is also known as Nagravision 3.
Nagravision has been adopted all over the world as a conditional access system, with providers:
- Bell TV (Canada) (Nagravision 3)
- BIG TV (India)
- Cabovisão (Portugal) (Being adopted gradually across the network - Nagravision 3 and SECA Mediaguard)
- CanalSat (Germany-France) (Nagravision Media Access *NEW TYPE* [Basically Updated Nagra 3 "Merlin"])
- Claro TV (Central America, Dominican Republic) (Nagravision 1 (outdated) with MPEG-4 encoding support custom added)
- Claro TV (Brazil) (Nagravision 3)
- Cyfrowy Polsat (Poland) (Nagravision 3)
- Digi TV (Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Serbia, Slovakia) (Nagravision 3)
- Digital+ (Spain) (Nagravision 3)
- Dish Network (USA) (Transition to Nagravision 3 was completed on 6/18/09)
- Dream Satellite TV (Philippines) (Nagravision 3)
- First Media | Cable (Indonesia) (Nagravision 3)
- HD+ (Germany) (Nagravision 3)
- Look Communications (Canada)
- Movistar (Before Telefonica) (Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Perú, Bolivia, Ecuador) (Nagravision 3)
- Vivo TV DTH (Bofore Telefonica) (Brazil, Nagravision 3)
- Numericable (Belgium, France, Luxembourg) (Nagravision 3 "Merlin")
- Sky Deutschland (Germany) (Nagravision 3)
- StarHub TV (Singapore) (Nagravision 3)
- Telenet (Belgium) (Belgium) (Nagravision 2)
- Tivù Sat, Mediaset Premium and Pangea platform (Nagravision 3 "Tiger")
- NOS Comunicacoes (Portugal) (Nagravision 3)
- UPC (on satellite) (Nagravision 3)
- Virgin Media (United Kingdom) (Nagravision 3 "Merlin", swapped from Nagravision 1 during 2009/10)
- Top Up TV (United Kingdom) (NagraVision 3 "Merlin" swapped from SECA2 in 2008)
- ER-Telecom (Russia)
- RCS&RDS ( Romania). Both cable and satellite platforms.
An older Nagravision system (Syster) for scrambling analog satellite television programs was used in the 1990s. In this line-shuffling system, 32 lines of the PAL TV signal are temporarily stored in both the encoder and decoder, and read out in permuted order under the control of a pseudorandom number generator. A smartcard security microcontroller (in a key-shaped package) decrypts data that is transmitted during the blanking intervals of the TV signal and extracts the random seed value needed for controlling the random number generation. The system also permitted the audio signal to be scrambled by inverting its spectrum at 12.5 kHz using a frequency mixer.
- Markus Kuhn: Analysis of the Nagravision video scrambling method, 1998 – explains an attack against the old Nagravision system for analog television