Ocimum

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Ocimum
BasilikumGenovesergroßblättriger.jpg
Ocimum basilicum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Nepetoideae
Tribe: Ocimeae
Genus: Ocimum
L.[1]
Synonyms[2]
  • Becium Lindl.
  • Erythrochlamys Gürke
  • Hyperaspis Briq.
  • Nautochilus Bremek.

Ocimum /ˈɒsɪməm/ is a genus of aromatic annual and perennial herbs and shrubs in the family Lamiaceae, native to the tropical and warm temperate regions of all 6 inhabited continents, with the greatest number of species in Africa.[2] It is the genus of basil and the name is from the Ancient Greek word for basil, ὤκιμον (ṓkimon).[citation needed] Its best known species are the cooking herb great basil, O. basilicum, and the medicinal herb tulsi (holy basil), O. tenuiflorum.

Ecology[edit]

Ocimum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita malabaricus.[citation needed]

Taxonomy[edit]

Species[edit]

Known Ocimum species include:[2]

  1. Ocimum americanum L. (tropical Africa), Indian Subcontinent, China, Southeast Asia; naturalized in Queensland, Christmas Island, and parts of tropical America
  2. Ocimum amicorum A.J.Paton - Tanzania
  3. Ocimum angustifolium Benth. - southeastern Africa from Kenya to Tranasvaal
  4. Ocimum basilicum L. – Basil, Sweet basil - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia; naturalized in Russia, Ukraine, Africa, Mexico, Central America, South America, and various oceanic islands
  5. Ocimum burchellianum Benth. - Cape Province of South Africa
  6. Ocimum campechianum Mill. – Amazonian basil - widespread across Florida, Mexico, West Indies, Central and South America
  7. Ocimum canescens A.J.Paton - Tanzania
  8. Ocimum carnosum (Spreng.) Link & Otto ex Benth. - Mexico, South America
  9. Ocimum centraliafricanum R.E.Fr - Zaïre, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  10. Ocimum circinatum A.J.Paton - Ethiopia, Somalia
  11. Ocimum coddii (S.D.Williams & K.Balkwill) A.J.Paton - Northern Province of South Africa
  12. Ocimum cufodontii (Lanza) A.J.Paton - Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya
  13. Ocimum dambicola A.J.Paton - Tanzania, Zambia
  14. Ocimum decumbens Gürke - from Zaïre to South Africa
  15. Ocimum dhofarense (Sebald) A.J.Paton - Oman
  16. Ocimum dolomiticola A.J.Paton - Northern Province of South Africa
  17. Ocimum ellenbeckii Gürke - Ethiopia, Zaïre
  18. Ocimum empetroides (P.A.Duvign.) ined. - Zaïre
  19. Ocimum ericoides (P.A.Duvign. & Plancke) A.J.Paton - Zaïre
  20. Ocimum filamentosum Forssk. - eastern + southern Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar
  21. Ocimum fimbriatum Briq. - central Africa
  22. Ocimum fischeri Gürke - Kenya, Tanzania
  23. Ocimum formosum Gürke - Bale Province of Ethiopia
  24. Ocimum forskolei Benth. - eastern Africa from Egypt to Kenya, Angola, Arabian Peninsula
  25. Ocimum fruticosum (Ryding) A.J.Paton - Somalia
  26. Ocimum grandiflorum Lam. - Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia
  27. Ocimum gratissimum L. – African basil - Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, Bismarck Archipelago; naturalized in Polynesia, Mexico, Panama, West Indies, Brazil, Bolivia
  28. Ocimum hirsutissimum (P.A.Duvign.) A.J.Paton - Zaïre
  29. Ocimum irvinei J.K.Morton - West Africa
  30. Ocimum jamesii Sebald - Ethiopia, Somalia
  31. Ocimum kenyense Ayob. ex A.J.Paton - Kenya, Tanzania
  32. Ocimum kilimandscharicum Baker ex Gürke – Camphor basil - Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia; naturalized in Angola, India, Myanmar, Thailand
  33. Ocimum labiatum (N.E.Br.) A.J.Paton - Mozambique, South Africa, Eswatini
  34. Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth - eastern + central Africa
  35. Ocimum masaiense Ayob. ex A.J.Paton - Ngong Hills in Kenya
  36. Ocimum mearnsii (Ayob. ex Sebald) A.J.Paton - Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
  37. Ocimum metallorum (P.A.Duvign.) A.J.Paton - Zaïre
  38. Ocimum minimum L. - India, Sri Lanka
  39. Ocimum minutiflorum (Sebald) A.J.Paton - eastern + central Africa
  40. Ocimum mitwabense (Ayob.) A.J.Paton - Zaïre
  41. Ocimum monocotyloides (Plancke ex Ayob.) A.J.Paton - Zaïre
  42. Ocimum motjaneanum McCallum & K.Balkwill - Eswatini
  43. Ocimum natalense Ayob. ex A.J.Paton - Mozambique, KwaZulu-Natal
  44. Ocimum nudicaule Benth. - Brazil, Paraguay, Misiones Province of Argentina
  45. Ocimum nummularia (S.Moore) A.J.Paton - Somalia
  46. Ocimum obovatum E.Mey. ex Benth. - tropical Africa, Madagascar
  47. Ocimum ovatum Benth. - Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
  48. Ocimum pseudoserratum (M.R.Ashby) A.J.Paton - Northern Province of South Africa
  49. Ocimum pyramidatum (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton - Tanzania
  50. Ocimum reclinatum (S.D.Williams & M.Balkwill) A.J.Paton - Mozambique, KwaZulu-Natal
  51. Ocimum serpyllifolium Forssk. - Somalia, Yemen, Saudi Arabia
  52. Ocimum serratum (Schltr.) A.J.Paton - South Africa, Eswatini
  53. Ocimum somaliense Briq. - Ethiopia
  54. Ocimum spectabile (Gürke) A.J.Paton - Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia
  55. Ocimum spicatum Deflers - Ethiopia, Yemen, Kenya, Somalia
  56. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. – Holy basil, tulsi - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Queensland; naturalized in Kenya, Fiji, French Polynesia, West Indies, Venezuela
  57. Ocimum transamazonicum C.Pereira - Brazil
  58. Ocimum tubiforme (R.D.Good) A.J.Paton - Northern Province of South Africa
  59. Ocimum urundense Robyns & Lebrun - Burundi, Tanzania
  60. Ocimum vandenbrandei (P.A.Duvign. & Plancke ex Ayob.) A.J.Paton - Marungu Province in Zaïre
  61. Ocimum vanderystii (De Wild.) A.W.Hill. - Zaïre, Congo-Brazzaville, Angola, Zambia
  62. Ocimum viphyense A.J.Paton - Malawi, Zambia
  63. Ocimum waterbergense (S.D.Williams & K.Balkwill) A.J.Paton - Northern Province of South Africa

Hybrids[edit]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Most culinary and ornamental basils are cultivars of Ocimum basilicum and there are many hybrids between species. Thai basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora) is a common ingredient in Thai cuisine, with a strong flavour similar to aniseed, used to flavour Thai curries and stir-fries.[citation needed] Lemon basil (Ocimum × citriodorum) is a hybrid between O. americanum and O. basilicum. It is noted for its lemon flavour and used in cooking.[citation needed]

Holy basil or tulsi (O. tenuiflorum) is a sacred herb revered as dear to Vishnu in some sects of Vaishnavism.[citation needed] Tulsi is used in teas, healing remedies, and cosmetics in India, and it is also used in Thai cooking.[citation needed] Amazonian basil (O. campechianum) is a South American species often utilized in ayahuasca rituals for its smell which is said to help avoid bad visions.[3] O. centraliafricanum is valued as an indicator species for the presence of copper deposits.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Ocimum L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-09-10. Archived from the original on 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Steele, John J. (2006). "Perfumeros and the Sacred Use of Fragrance in Amazonian Shamanism". In Jim Drobnick (ed.). The Smell Culture Reader. Berg Publishers. p. 230.