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Lemon

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Lemon
P1030323.JPG
A fruiting lemon tree. A blossom is also visible.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. limon
Binomial name
Citrus limon
(L.) Osbeck
Synonyms[1]

The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses.[2] The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.

History

Lemon external surface and cross-section

The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam (a region in northeast India), northern Burma or China.[2] A study of the genetic origin of the lemon reported it to be hybrid between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron.[3][4]

Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no later than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome.[2] However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD.[2] The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.[2] It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150.[2]

The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century. The lemon was later introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds. It was mainly used as an ornamental plant and for medicine.[2] In the 19th century, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida and California.[2]

In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known.[2][5]

The origin of the word "lemon" may be Middle Eastern.[2] The word draws from the Old French limon, then Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, which is a cognate of Sanskrit (nimbū, “lime”).[6]

Varieties

Detailed taxonomic illustration by Franz Eugen Köhler.

The 'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, smooth, thin-skinned, and seedless,[7] mostly grown in San Diego County, USA.[8]

The 'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon,[9] also known as 'Four Seasons' (Quatre Saisons) because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year. This variety is also available as a plant to domestic customers.[10] There is also a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green and yellow variegated outer skin.[11]

The 'Femminello St. Teresa', or 'Sorrento'[12] is native to Italy. This fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello.

The 'Meyer' is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons require more care when shipping and are not widely grown on a commercial basis. Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color. They are slightly more frost-tolerant than other lemons.

The 'Ponderosa' is more cold-sensitive than true lemons; the fruit are thick-skinned and very large. It is likely a citron-lemon hybrid.

The 'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar.[13]

Lemon, raw, without peel
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 121 kJ (29 kcal)
9.32 g
Sugars 2.5 g
Dietary fiber 2.8 g
0.3 g
1.1 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
0.04 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.1 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(4%)
0.19 mg
Vitamin B6
(6%)
0.08 mg
Folate (B9)
(3%)
11 μg
Choline
(1%)
5.1 mg
Vitamin C
(64%)
53 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(3%)
26 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.6 mg
Magnesium
(2%)
8 mg
Manganese
(1%)
0.03 mg
Phosphorus
(2%)
16 mg
Potassium
(3%)
138 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.06 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutritional value and phytochemicals

Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving (table). Other essential nutrients, however, have insignificant content (table).

Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols, terpenes, and tannins.[14] As with other citrus fruits, they have significant concentrations of citric acid (about 47 g/l in juice).[15]

Culinary uses

Lemon juice, rind, and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks. The whole lemon is used to make marmalade, lemon curd and lemon liqueur. Lemon slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings, rice, and other dishes.

Juice

Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, and cocktails. It is used in marinades for fish, where its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts, and meat, where the acid partially hydrolyzes tough collagen fibers, tenderizing the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked. Lemon juice is frequently used in the United Kingdom to add to pancakes, especially on Shrove Tuesday.

Lemon juice is also used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced (enzymatic browning), such as apples, bananas, and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes.

Peel

In Morocco, lemons are preserved in jars or barrels of salt. The salt penetrates the peel and rind, softening them, and curing them so that they last almost indefinitely. The preserved lemon is used in a wide variety of dishes. Preserved lemons can also be found in Sicilian, Italian, Greek, and French dishes.


Leaves

The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked meats and seafoods.

Other uses

Industrial

Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation-based processes.[16]

As a cleaning agent

The juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware. The acid dissolves the tarnish and the abrasives assist the cleaning. As a sanitary kitchen deodorizer the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, and disinfect; when mixed with baking soda, it removes stains from plastic food storage containers.[17] The oil of the lemon's peel also has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax, fingerprints, and grime. Lemon oil and orange oil are also used as a nontoxic insecticide treatment.

A halved lemon is used as a finger moistener for those counting large amounts of bills, such as tellers and cashiers.

Medicinal

Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon oil aroma does not influence the human immune system,[18] but may contribute to relaxation.[19]

Other

One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although very low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch.[20] These experiments also work with other fruits and vegetables.

Lemon juice may be used as a simple invisible ink, developed by heat.[21]

Horticulture

Lemons need a minimum temperature of around 7 °C (45 °F), so they are not hardy year round in temperate climates, but become hardier as they mature.[22] Citrus require minimal pruning by trimming overcrowded branches, with the tallest branch cut back to encourage bushy growth.[22] Throughout summer, pinching back tips of the most vigorous growth assures more abundant canopy development. As mature plants may produce unwanted, fast-growing shoots called ‘water shoots’, these are removed from the main branches at the bottom or middle of the plant.[22]

Production

Lemon production (with limes)

(in millions of tonnes)

Country
2014
 India
2.8
 Mexico
2.2
 China
2.1
 Argentina
1.4
 Brazil
1.1
World
16.3

In 2014, world production of lemons (data combined with limes) was 16.3 million tonnes.[23] The top producers were India, Mexico, China, Argentina, and Brazil, collectively accounting for 59% of total production (table).[23]

Lemon alternatives

Many plants taste or smell similar to lemons.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Plant List:Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved February 20, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Julia F. Morton (1987). "Lemon in Fruits of Warm Climates". Purdue University. pp. 160–168. 
  3. ^ Gulsen, O.; M. L. Roose (2001). "Lemons: Diversity and Relationships with Selected Citrus Genotypes as Measured with Nuclear Genome Markers". Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science. 126: 309–317. 
  4. ^ Genetic origin of cultivated citrus determined: Researchers find evidence of origins of orange, lime, lemon, grapefruit, other citrus species", Science Daily, January 26, 2011 (Retrieved February 10, 2017).
  5. ^ James Lind (1757). A treatise on the scurvy. Second edition. London: A. Millar. 
  6. ^ Douglas Harper. "Online Etymology Dictionary". 
  7. ^ Spalding, William A. (1885). The orange: its culture in California. Riverside, California: Press and Horticulturist Steam Print. p. 88. Retrieved March 2, 2012. 
  8. ^ Carque, Otto (2006) [1923]. Rational Diet: An Advanced Treatise on the Food Question. Los Angeles, California: Kessinger Publishing. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-4286-4244-7. Retrieved March 2, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Complete List of Four Winds Dwarf Citrus Varieties". Fourwindsgrowers.com. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 
  10. ^ Buchan, Ursula (January 22, 2005). "Kitchen garden: lemon tree". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  11. ^ Vaiegated pink at the Citrus Variety Collection.
  12. ^ "Taste of a thousand lemons". Los Angeles Times. September 8, 2004. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  13. ^ "New Zealand Citrus". ceventura.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved June 13, 2010. 
  14. ^ Rauf A, Uddin G, Ali J (2014). "Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum". Org Med Chem Lett. 4: 5. doi:10.1186/2191-2858-4-5. PMC 4091952Freely accessible. PMID 25024932. 
  15. ^ Penniston KL, Nakada SY, Holmes RP, Assimos DG (2008). "Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products" (PDF). Journal of Endourology. 22 (3): 567–570. doi:10.1089/end.2007.0304. PMC 2637791Freely accessible. PMID 18290732. 
  16. ^ M. Hofrichter (2010). Industrial Applications. Springer. p. 224. ISBN 978-3-642-11458-8. 
  17. ^ "6 ingredients for a green, clean home". Shine. Retrieved April 24, 2008. 
  18. ^ Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K.; Graham, J. E.; Malarkey, W. B.; Porter, K; Lemeshow, S; Glaser, R (2008). "Olfactory influences on mood and autonomic, endocrine, and immune function". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 33 (3): 328–39. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.11.015. PMC 2278291Freely accessible. PMID 18178322. 
  19. ^ Cooke, B; Ernst, E (2000). "Aromatherapy: A systematic review" (PDF). British Journal of General Practice. 50 (455): 493–6. PMC 1313734Freely accessible. PMID 10962794. 
  20. ^ "Lemon Power". California Energy Commission. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  21. ^ Mirsky, Steve (April 20, 2010). "Invisible Ink and More: The Science of Spying in the Revolutionary War". Scientific American. Retrieved October 15, 2016. 
  22. ^ a b c "Citrus". Royal Horticultural Society. 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
  23. ^ a b "Production in 2014; Crops/Regions/World/Production Quantity from pick lists". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 

External links