Basil, Thai basil, or sweet basil, is a common name for the culinary herb Ocimum basilicum (UK //; US //) of the family Lamiaceae (mints), sometimes known as Saint Joseph's Wort in some English speaking countries.
Basil is possibly native to India, and has been cultivated there for more than 5,000 years. It was thoroughly familiar to the Greek authors Theophrastus and Dioscorides. It is a half-hardy annual plant, best known as a culinary herb prominently featured in Italian cuisine, and also plays a major role in Southeast Asian cuisines of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Taiwan. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell.
There are many varieties of Ocimum basilicum, as well as several related species or species hybrids also called basil. The type used in Italian food is typically called sweet basil, as opposed to Thai basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora), lemon basil (O. X citriodorum) and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum), which are used in Asia. While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates, including holy basil and a cultivar known as 'African Blue'.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Nomenclature and taxonomy
- 3 Culinary use
- 4 Folk use
- 5 Other cultivars
- 6 Chemical components
- 7 Cultivation
- 8 Potential health effects
- 9 Cultural aspects
- 10 Toxicity studies
- 11 List of the cultivars and their nomenclature
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The word basil comes from the Greek βασιλεύς (basileus), meaning "king", as it has come to be associated with the Feast of the Cross commemorating the finding of the True Cross by St. Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine I. The herbalist John Gerard noted that those stung by scorpions would feel no pain if they ate of basil, and Nicholas Culpeper noted of basil that it was "an herb of Mars and under the Scorpion, and therefore called Basilicon", relating it to basilisk. The Oxford English Dictionary quotes speculations that basil may have been used in "some royal unguent, bath, or medicine". Basil is still considered the "king of herbs" by many cookery authors.
Nomenclature and taxonomy
Most commercially available basils are cultivars of sweet basil. There are over 160 named cultivars available, with new ones appearing every year. There are also a number of species sold. Here are some basils commonly sold in the US.
For a more complete list, see List of basil cultivars
- African blue basil (Ocimum basilicum X O. kilimandscharicum)
- Anise basil or Persian basil (Licorice basil || O. basilicum 'Licorice'||)
- Camphor basil, African basil (O. kilimandscharicum)
- Cinnamon basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Cinnamon')
- Dark opal basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Dark Opal')
- Globe basil, dwarf basil, French basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Minimum')
- Hoary basil (Ocimum americanum formerly known as O. canum)
- Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum, formerly known a O. sanctum)
- Spice basil (a cultivar of Ocimum americanum, which is sometimes sold as holy basil)
- Lemon basil (Ocimum americanum)
- Lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Crispum')
- Purple basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Purpurescens')
- Queen of Siam basil (Ocimum basilicum citriodorum)
- Rubin basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Rubin')
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||94 kJ (22 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||1.6 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Basil is most commonly used fresh in cooked recipes. In general, it is added at the last moment, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. The fresh herb can be kept for a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling water. The dried herb also loses most of its flavor, and what little flavor remains tastes very different, with a weak coumarin flavor, like hay.
Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto—a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce.
The most commonly used Mediterranean basil cultivars are "Genovese", "Purple Ruffles", "Mammoth", "Cinnamon", "Lemon", "Globe", and "African Blue". The Chinese also use fresh or dried basils in soups and other foods. In Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves to thick soups (Chinese: 羹湯; pinyin: gēngtāng). They also eat fried chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. Basil (most commonly Thai basil) is commonly steeped in cream or milk to create an interesting flavor in ice cream or chocolates (such as truffles). The leaves are not the only part of basil used in culinary applications, the flower buds have a more subtle flavor and they are edible.
Thai basil is also a condiment in the Vietnamese noodle soup, phở.
Basil is used for its medicinal properties in Ayurveda, the traditional medicinal system of India and Siddha medicine, a traditional Tamil system of medicine. They are also used as a drinks in Southeast Asia.
Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species, are grown in many regions of Asia. Most of the Asian basils have a clove-like flavor that is, in general, stronger than the Mediterranean basils. The most notable is the holy basil or tulsi, a revered home-grown plant in India and Nepal. In China, the local cultivar is called (Chinese: 九層塔; pinyin: jiǔ céng tǎ; literally: "nine-level pagoda"), while the imported varieties are called (Chinese: 羅勒; pinyin: luó lè) or (Chinese: 巴西里; pinyin: bā xī lǐ), although [巴西里] often refers to a different plant—parsley.
Lemon basil has a strong lemony smell and flavor very different from those of other varieties because it contains a chemical called citral. It is widely used in Indonesia, where it is called kemangi and served raw, together with raw cabbage, green beans, and cucumber, as an accompaniment to fried fish or duck. Its flowers, when broken up, are a zesty salad condiment.
The various basils have such different scents because the herb has a number of different essential oils that come together in different proportions for various breeds. The strong clove scent of sweet basil is derived from eugenol, the same chemical as actual cloves. The citrus scent of lemon basil and lime basil reflects their higher portion of citral, which causes this effect in several plants including lemon mint, and of limonene, which gives actual lemon peel its scent. African blue basil has a strong camphor smell because it contains camphor and camphene in higher proportions. Licorice basil contains anethole, the same chemical that makes anise smell like licorice, and in fact is sometimes called "anise basil."
Other chemicals that help to produce the distinctive scents of many basils, depending on their proportion in each specific breed, include:
- citronellol (scented geraniums, roses, and citronella)
- linalool (a flowery scent also in coriander)
- myrcene (bay leaf, myrcia)
- pinene (which is, as the name implies, the chemical that gives pine oil its scent)
- linalyl acetate
- fenchyl acetate
- camphor octanane[dubious ]
- methyl eugenol
- methyl chavicol
Based on chemical content, basils can be divided into four groups:
- French; Ocimum basilicum, contains lower amounts of phenols
- exotic; contains methyl chavicol (40–80%)
- methyl cinnamate – ether 90%
- Methyl chavicol
- Methyl cinnamate
- Methyl eugenol
Most culinary and ornamental basils are cultivars of the species Ocimum basilicum, but other species are also grown and there are many hybrids between species. Traditionally a green plant, some varieties, such as 'Purple Delight' have leaves that appear purple.
Basil grows between 30–130 cm (12–51 in) tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves 3–11 cm (1.2–4.3 in) long and 1–6 cm (0.39–2.36 in) broad. The flowers are small, white in color and arranged in a terminal spike. Unusual among Lamiaceae, the four stamens and the pistil are not pushed under the upper lip of the corolla, but lie over the inferior lip. After entomophilous pollination, the corolla falls off and four round achenes develop inside the bilabiate calyx.
Basil is very sensitive to cold, with best growth in hot, dry conditions. It behaves as an annual if there is any chance of a frost. In Northern Europe, Canada, the northern states of the U.S., and the South Island of New Zealand it will grow best if sown under glass in a peat pot, then planted out in late spring/early summer (when there is little chance of a frost). Additionally, it may be sown in soil once chance of frost is past. It fares best in a well-drained sunny spot.
Although basil grows best outdoors, it can be grown indoors in a pot and, like most herbs, will do best on an equator-facing windowsill. It should be kept away from extremely cold drafts, and grows best in strong sunlight, therefore a greenhouse or row cover is ideal if available. It can, however, be grown even in a basement, under fluorescent lights.
If its leaves have wilted from lack of water, it will recover if watered thoroughly and placed in a sunny location. Yellow leaves towards the bottom of the plant are an indication that the plant has been stressed; usually this means that it needs less water, or less or more fertilizer.
In sunnier climates such as Southern Europe, the southern states of the U.S., the North Island of New Zealand, and Australia, basil will thrive when planted outside. It also thrives over the summertime in the central and northern United States, but dies out when temperatures reach freezing point. It will grow back the next year if allowed to go to seed. It will need regular watering, but not as much attention as is needed in other climates.
Basil can also be propagated very reliably from cuttings with the stems of short cuttings suspended for two weeks or so in water until roots develop.
Once a stem produces flowers, foliage production stops on that stem, the stem becomes woody, and essential oil production declines. To prevent this, a basil-grower may pinch off any flower stems before they are fully mature. Because only the blooming stem is so affected, some stems can be pinched for leaf production, while others are left to bloom for decoration or seeds.
Once the plant is allowed to flower, it may produce seed pods containing small black seeds, which can be saved and planted the following year. Picking the leaves off the plant helps promote growth, largely because the plant responds by converting pairs of leaflets next to the topmost leaves into new stems.
Basil flowers are coloured white through to purple. They have an abundant and pungent nectar and attract pollinators so one basil will cross with other basils. You will need to separate varieties by as much garden space as possible-preferably 50 metres or 150 yards.
The seed mature from the top of the flower, with capsule generally containing four seeds. Either cut the stalks or rub you hands up them with the top seed capsules turn brown and brittle.
In double-blind taste tests, basil has been found not to significantly affect the taste of tomatoes when planted adjacent to them.
Basil suffers from several plant pathogens that can ruin the crop and reduce yield. Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne fungal disease that will quickly kill younger basil plants. Seedlings may also be killed by Pythium damping off.
A common foliar disease of basil is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea; it can also cause infections post-harvest and is capable of killing the entire plant. Black spot can also be seen on basil foliage and is caused by the fungi genus Colletotrichum.
More recently, downy mildew of basil caused by Peronospora belbahrii has been a huge problem for both commercial producers and home growers. The disease was first reported in Italy in 2004, and was also reported in the U.S. in 2007 and 2008 and has been steadily increasing in prevalence, distribution, and economic importance since then.
Potential health effects
Recently, there has been much research into the health benefits conferred by the essential oils found in basil. Scientific studies in vitro have established that compounds in basil oil have potent antioxidant, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, and potential for use in treating cancer. In addition, basil has been shown to decrease the occurrence of platelet aggregation and experimental thrombus in mice. It is traditionally used for supplementary treatment of stress, asthma and diabetes mellitus in India.
Basil, like other aromatic plants such as fennel and tarragon, contains estragole, a known carcinogen and teratogen in rats and mice. While human effects are currently unstudied, extrapolation using body weight from the rodent experiments indicates that 100–1000 times the normal anticipated exposure still probably produces a minimal cancer risk.
There are many rituals and beliefs associated with basil. The French sometimes call basil "l'herbe royale" ("royal herb"), while in Welsh it has the synonymous name "brenhinllys". Jewish folklore suggests it adds strength while fasting. In Portugal, dwarf bush basil is traditionally presented in a pot, together with a poem and a pom-pom, to a sweetheart, on the religious holidays of Saint John and Saint Anthony. However, basil represented hatred in ancient Greece, and European lore sometimes claims that basil is a symbol of Satan. African legend claims that basil protects against scorpions, while the English botanist Culpeper cites one "Hilarius, a French physician" as affirming it as common knowledge that smelling basil too much would breed scorpions in the brain.
Holy basil, also called tulsi, is highly revered in Hinduism. It is believed that the herb was found growing on the original cross of Christ when it was discovered by the Empress Helena, and hence basil has religious significance in the Greek Orthodox Church, where it is used to sprinkle holy water. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church and Romanian Orthodox Church use basil (Bulgarian and Macedonian: босилек; Romanian: busuioc, Serbian: босиљак) to prepare holy water and pots of basil are often placed below church altars.
In Europe, basil is placed in the hands of the dead to ensure a safe journey. In India, they place it in the mouth of the dying to ensure they reach God. The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks believed it would open the gates of heaven for a person passing on.
In Boccaccio's Decameron a memorably morbid tale (novella V) tells of Lisabetta, whose brothers slay her lover. He appears to her in a dream and shows her where he is buried. She secretly disinters the head, and sets it in a pot of basil, which she waters with her daily tears. The pot being taken from her by her brothers, she dies of her grief not long after. Boccaccio's tale is the source of John Keats' poem Isabella or The Pot of Basil – which in turn inspired the paintings Isabella (Millais painting) and Isabella and the Pot of Basil. A similar story is told of the Longobard queen, Rosalind.
In certain central regions of Mexico, basil is used to draw fortune by hanging a bunch of the plant in the door or window of the shop. The plant's growth reflects the wealth of the business, showing how dutifully the owner cares for his shop and the herb.
A study of the essential oil showed antifungal and insect-repelling properties. A similar study reported in 2009 has confirmed that extracts from the plant are very toxic to mosquitos. However, the plant is not toxic to rats. Little information is available about any potential toxicity in humans.
List of the cultivars and their nomenclature
- "British: Basil". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "American: Basil". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Gernot Katzer. "Spice Pages: Basil (Ocimum basilicum/sanctum/tenuiflorum/canum)". gernot-katzers-spice-pages.com.
- Father Kino's Herbs: Growing & Using them Today, 2011 Jacqueline A. Soule, Ph. D., Tierra del Sol Institute Press, Tucson, AZ.
- Theophrastus mentions its woody root, i.vi.6.
- In Ancient Greek, basil is ῴκίμον, okymon.
- There is no mention of basil in early sources, Eusebius of Caesarea, Socrates Scholasticus and Sozomen.
- Gerard, Herball.
- Nicholas Culpeper. "Culpeper's Complete Herbal – Garden Bazil, or Sweet Bazil".
- See, for example "Basil, king of the herb garden".
- "Ocimum minimum information from NPGS/GRIN". ars-grin.gov.
- Fandohan, P.; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, JD; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M et al. (2008). "Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (7): 2493–2497. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.04.006. PMID 18511170.
- Pessoa, L. M.; Morais, SM; Bevilaqua, CM; Luciano, JH (2002). "Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus". Veterinary Parasitology 109 (1–2): 59–63. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00253-4. PMID 12383625.
- Md Shahidul Islam (4 February 2011). Transient Receptor Potential Channels. Springer. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
Eugenol is a vanilloid contained in relatively high amounts in clove oil from Eugenia caryophyllata, as well as cinnamon leaf oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and oil from the clove basil Ocimum gratissimum. While eugenol is often referred to as ...
- Jeffrey B. Harborne; Herbert Baxter (30 August 2001). Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-471-49226-9. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- J. Janick (ed.), James E. Simon, Mario R. Morales, Winthrop B. Phippen, Roberto Fontes Vieira, and Zhigang Hao, "Basil: A Source of Aroma Compounds and a Popular Culinary and Ornamental Herb", reprinted from: Perspectives on new crops and new uses (1999), ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, ISBN 978-0-9615027-0-6.
- Eberhard Breitmaier (22 September 2006). Terpenes: Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-3-527-31786-8. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
Acyclic monoterpenoid trienes such as p-myrcene and configurational isomers of p- ocimene are found in the oils of basil (leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Labiatae), bay (leaves of Fimenta acris, Myrtaceae), hops (strobiles of Humulus lupulus, ...
- Johnson, B. Christopher et al. (1999). "Substantial UV-B-mediated induction of essential oils in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)". Phytochemistry 51 (4): 507–510. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00767-5.
- Baritaux, O.; Richard, H.; Touche, J.; Derbesy, M. et al. (1992). "Effects of drying and storage of herbs and spices on the essential oil. Part I. Basil, Ocimum basilicum L.". Flavour and Fragrance Journal 7 (5): 267–271. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730070507.
- Klimánková, Eva; Holadová, Kateřina; Hajšlová, Jana; Čajka, Tomáš; Poustka, Jan; Koudela, Martin et al. (2008). "Aroma profiles of five basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under conventional and organic conditions". Food Chemistry 107 (1): 464–472. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.062.
- Brophy, J. J.; M. K. Jogia (1986). "Essential oils from Fijian Ocimum basilicum L.". Flavour and Fragrance Journal 1 (2): 53–55. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730010203.
- Miele, Mariangela; Dondero, R; Ciarallo, G; Mazzei, M et al. (2001). "Methyleugenol in Ocimum basilicum L. Cv. 'Genovese Gigante'". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (1): 517–521. doi:10.1021/jf000865w. PMID 11170620.
- "Purple Delight". Backyardgardener.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
- Fanton, Michel and Jude (1993). The Seed Savers' Handbook. Byron Bay, Australia: The Seed Savers' Network. ISBN 0-646-10226-5.
- Fanton, Michel and Jude (1993). The Seed Savers' Handbook. Byron Bay, Australia: The Seed Savers' Network. ISBN 0-646-10226-5.
- Bomford, Michael K. (2004) Yield, pest density, and tomato flavor effects of companion planting in garden-scale studies incorporating tomato, basil, and Brussels sprout. Thesis, West Virginia University, Plant and Soil Science, Unpublished
- Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Minuto, G., Gullino, M.L., 2004. First Report of Downy Mildew on Basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Italy. Plant Disease 88, 312–312
- Roberts, P.D., Raid, R.N., Harmon, P.F., Jordan, S.A., Palmateer, A.J., 2009. First Report of Downy Mildew Caused by a Peronospora sp. on Basil in Florida and the United States. Plant Disease 93, 199–199.
- Wick, R.L., Brazee, N.J., 2009. First Report of Downy Mildew Caused by a Peronospora Species on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Massachusetts. Plant Disease 93, 318–318.
- Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Simin N, Anackov G (March 2006). "Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (5): 1822–8. doi:10.1021/jf051922u. PMID 16506839.
- Chiang LC, Ng LT, Cheng PW, Chiang W, Lin CC (October 2005). "Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum". Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 (10): 811–6. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2005.04270.x. PMID 16173941.
- de Almeida I, Alviano DS, Vieira DP et al. (July 2007). "Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil". Parasitol. Res. 101 (2): 443–52. doi:10.1007/s00436-007-0502-2. PMID 17342533.
- Manosroi J, Dhumtanom P, Manosroi A (April 2006). "Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines". Cancer Lett. 235 (1): 114–20. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.021. PMID 15979235.
- Tohti I, Tursun M, Umar A, Turdi S, Imin H, Moore N (2006). "Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin in vitro and rats arterio—venous shunt thrombosis in vivo". Thromb. Res. 118 (6): 733–9. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2005.12.011. PMID 16469363.
- Duke, James A. "Basil as the Holy Hindu Highness". doi:10.1089/act.2008.14101. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- EMEA (3 March 2004). "Position Paper on the use of HMP containing estragole" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
In particular, rodent studies show that these events are minimal probably in the dose range of 1–10 mg/kg body weight, which is approximately 100–1000 times the anticipated human exposure to this substance
- Anstice Carroll; Embree De Persiis Vona; Gianna De Persiis Vona (2006). The Dictionary of Wholesome Foods: A Passionate A-to-Z Guide to the Earth's Healthy Offerings, with More Than 140 Delicious, Nutritious Recipes. Da Capo Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-56924-395-4. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
The name "basil" comes from the Greek word for "king" — so greatly did the Greeks esteem this king of herbs. Herbe royale, the French respectfully call it. In Italy basil serves the goddess Love; a sprig of it worn by a suitor bespeaks his loving ...
- Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1654). Originum gallicorum Liber. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
Brenhinllys dqf, basil, Ocimum
- John Walters (1828). An English and Welsh Dictionary: Wherein Not Only the Words, But Also the Idioms and Phraseology of the English Language are Carefully Translated Into Welsh, by Proper and Equivalent Words and Phrases; with a Regular Interspersion of the English Proverbs and Proverbial Expressions Rendered by Corresponding Ones in the Welsh Tongue. 3d Ed., Corrected and Improved. Clwydian-Press. pp. 92–. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
[herb] Brenhinllys dot', basil. Wild, or small basil
- Nancy Arrowsmith (2009). Essential Herbal Wisdom: A Complete Exploration of 50 Remarkable Herbs. Llewellyn Worldwide. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-0-7387-1488-2. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
During one of their talks, Satan told God to pick a bunch of basil flowers, lay them under his pillow, and sleep on them overnight. In the morning, God should take them to a virgin, have her smell them, and she would conceive. This one time ...
- "Blessing of the Waters known as Agiasmos conducted by a Greek Orthodox priest". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- Mercia MacDermott (1998). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-1-85302-485-6. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Amy Felder, CEPC (7 March 2007). Savory Sweets: From Ingredients to Plated Desserts. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 92–. ISBN 978-0-470-07968-3. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Lucy Bregman (2010). Religion, Death, and Dying. ABC-CLIO. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-313-35180-8. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
A basil-like tulsi leaf, which is considered to be a holy plant, may be placed in the mouth as well.
- Robin Nelson-Shellenbarger (25 February 2013). Family Herbal Wellness. Booktango. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-1-4689-2481-7. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Dube, S. et al. (1989). "Antifungal, physicochemical, and insect-repelling activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum". Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Maurya, Prejwltta; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Batabyal, Lata; Srivastava, C.N. et al. (2009). "Evaluation of the toxicity of different phytoextracts of Ocimum basilicum against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus". Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 12 (2): 113–115. doi:10.1016/j.aspen.2009.02.004.
- Copetta, A. et al. "Three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differently affect growth, distribution of glandular trichomes and essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum var. genovese". Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
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