Oppido Mamertina

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Oppido Mamertina
Comune
Comune di Oppido Mamertina
Coat of arms of Oppido Mamertina
Coat of arms
Oppido Mamertina is located in Italy
Oppido Mamertina
Oppido Mamertina
Location of Oppido Mamertina in Italy
Coordinates: 38°18′N 15°59′E / 38.300°N 15.983°E / 38.300; 15.983Coordinates: 38°18′N 15°59′E / 38.300°N 15.983°E / 38.300; 15.983
Country Italy
Region Calabria
Province / Metropolitan city Reggio Calabria (RC)
Frazioni Castellace, Messignadi, Piminoro, Tresilico
Government
 • Mayor Domenico Giannetta
Area
 • Total 58 km2 (22 sq mi)
Elevation 342 m (1,122 ft)
Population (December 2007)[1]
 • Total 5,484
 • Density 95/km2 (240/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Oppidesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 89014
Dialing code 0966
Patron saint Annunciation
Saint day 25 March
Website Official website

Oppido Mamertina (Greek-Calabrian dialect: Oppidù, Ofidus) is a town and comune of the province of Reggio Calabria in Calabria in southern Italy at about 62 kilometres (39 mi) northeast of Reggio Calabria and about 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Catanzaro.

It is the seat of the Diocese of Oppido Mamertina.

The municipality includes the following boroughs (frazioni): Castellace, Messignadi, Piminoro, and Tresilico.

History[edit]

The ancient history of the town is largely unknown, but archeological excavations in Mella might point its origins to the mythical Mamerto (3rd century BC – 1st century AD).[2] The first mention of the town (Oppidum in Latin, meaning citadel) is 1040, during the Byzantine Era.[2]

The town is famous for its prolonged resistance before falling to Roger the Norman in 1056.[2]

On February 5, 1783, an earthquake completely destroyed the town killing 1,198 people.[3] The town was rebuilt near the neighbouring village Tresilico (incorporated in the municipality in 1927). Other earthquakes hit the town in 1894 and on December 28, 1908, which destroyed the neighbouring township Castellace.[2]

Economy[edit]

The economy is based on agriculture, in particular olive groves and the production of olive oil, as well citrus orchards in the plain. Forestry and sheep husbandry are also sources of income.[2]

Crime[edit]

The town is home to the 'Ndrangheta, a Mafia-type criminal organization based in Calabria. Several powerful criminal clans originate from the town, such as the Mammoliti-Rugolo.[4] The town achieved a sad notoriety in July 2014 when, two weeks after Pope Francis, visiting Calabria, had publicly excommunicated the Mafia, a procession carrying a statue of the Madonna stopped to pay homage outside the house of an home confined local mafia leader. [1]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Oppido Mamertina is Mediterranean climate/subtropical. The temperature extremes temperature annual are +46,2 °C on July 1983 and 0,2°C on 9 February 2015. Snow is a rare event . It has appeared a few times and most in the form of rain .

Also here, like many other cities in southern Italy, temperatures in the years 2000 have declined compared with 1900. In recent years the snowfall and rains have become more frequent. The snowfall which is known are: February 1901 (0 cm), February 1915 (3 cm), March 1949 (0,9 cm), February 1956 (0,5 cm), January 1963 (0,5 cm), January 1999 (0 cm), January 2002 (mixed), December 2014 (0 cm) and February 2015 (4-7 cm).

Unlike the real snow itself, are the countless graupel or hail extras .

The snowfall graupel is the most common. He makes an appearance once every 2-3 years. Since 1900 his appearances are: January 1905 (2 cm), January 1913 (0 cm), the greatest of February 1929 (22-25 cm), January 1935 (2 cm), January 1940 (2 cm), January 1945 (1 cm), January 1954 (0 cm), February 1956 (3 cm), March 1956 (0 cm), December 1957 (0 cm), January 1962 (5 cm), January 1968 (1 cm), March 1973 (0 cm) , December 1977 (0 cm), January 1979 (2 cm), January 1981 (5 cm), December 1988 (2 cm), January 1993 (6 cm), December 1996 (2 cm), February 1999 (0 cm) December 2001 (1 cm), January 2002 (2-5 cm), February 2003 (1-3 cm), March 2005 (1 cm), February 2008 (0 cm), February 2009 (3-5 cm), February 2013 (0 cm), April 2015 (0 cm). The hail has the same appearance of graupel, it appeared: in January 1909, February 1929, January 1938, January 1947, January 1954, February 1956, February 1962, January 1968, March 1973 January 1981 January 1985 February 1986 December 1988, February 1991, February 1992, January 1993, March 1997, December 2001, February 2003, January 2005, March 2005, February 2009, December 2010, February 2012, March 2013, December 2014, January 2015, February 2015, March 2015.

Climate data for Oppido Mamertina
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F 84.9 86.4 90.3 102.9 106.3 113 115.2 113.9 111.2 109.8 93.2 88 115.2
Average high °F 62.6 63.3 66.2 77 78.8 86 89.6 89.6 87.1 84.9 76.5 65.8 77.28
Average low °F 52.2 51.8 54.7 60.8 64.4 73.4 77 77.4 76.3 70.9 63.1 56.8 64.9
Record low °F 36 32.4 38.1 48.2 51.1 58.1 70.7 69.8 59.4 51.8 50.9 34.9 32.4
Average precipitation inches 2.68 2.24 1.81 0.59 0.47 0 0 0 0.28 1.5 3.07 2.6 17.91
Record high °C 29.4 30.2 32.4 39.4 41.3 45.0 46.2 45.5 44.0 43.2 34.0 31.1 46.2
Average high °C 17.0 17.4 19.0 25.0 26.0 30.0 32.0 32.0 30.6 29.4 24.7 18.8 25.16
Average low °C 11.2 11.0 12.6 16.0 18.0 23.0 25.0 25.2 24.6 21.6 17.3 13.8 18.28
Record low °C 2.2 0.2 3.4 9.0 10.6 14.5 21.5 21.0 15.2 11.0 10.5 1.6 0.2
Average precipitation mm 68 57 46 15 12 0 0 0 7 38 78 66 455
Average precipitation days 9 9 7 2 1 0 0 0 1 5 11 8 59
Average relative humidity (%) 73 72 68 66 65 60 58 61 63 72 75 73 67.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 201 218 287 304 310 375 400 357 311 289 250 188 3,490
Source:[citation needed]
Temperatures: 1910–2015; Extremes: 1910–2015; Rain data: 1912–2015

[5]

The wettest month ever in November 1765 was 307 mm, while the driest was in April 1730, 1863, 1912, 1918, 1990.2007, 2012 and 2014, June 1990 and 2012, in July 1782, 1789, 1802, 1884, 1890, 1896, 1905, 1912, 1914, 1929, 1944, 1945, 1949, 1990, 2007, 2009 and 2012, August 2012, September 1809, 1912, 1918, 1927, 1929, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1988, 1999 2000, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2012 and October 1869 and 2012 with 0 mm. The wettest year was 1765 with 598 mm, while the one with lower rainfall was 1918 and 2012 with 184 mm.

The wind is a phenomenon that appears constantly and sometimes it's really destructive. The gusts were recorded faster 27 December 1907 with 212.2 km / h from East

Demographic evolution[edit]

The population halved during the last century. Many inhabitants moved to the industrial centres in northern Italy or joined the Italian diaspora to escape the extreme poverty.[2]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ All demographics and other statistics from the Italian statistical institute (Istat)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Oppido Mamertina: Tour in City
  3. ^ Faulting and earthquake triggering during the 1783 Calabria seismic sequence, Jacques E., Monaco C., Tapponnier P., Tortorici L. & Winter T., Geophysical Journal International, Volume 147, Number 3, 2002, pp.499-516
  4. ^ Woman of honour, The Independent, February 25, 1996
  5. ^ "Stazione Meteorologica di Oppido Mamertina centro". 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Oppido Mamertina". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.