National service in Singapore
National Service in Singapore, (commonly known as NS), is a statutory requirement for all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent residents to undergo a period of compulsory service in the uniformed services. Depending on physical and medical fitness, they serve a two-year period as National Servicemen Full-time (NSFs), either in the:
- Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) ,
- Singapore Police Force (SPF) or
- Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF).
A two-month reduction in full-time National Service is given for all pre-enlistees who are able to pass their (now-modified) three-station Individual Physical Proficiency Test (IPPT) consisting of push-ups, sit-ups and a 2.4km run, with a minimum of 61 points (previously, the IPPT consisted of six single stations, which are the 2.4km run, sit-ups, pull-ups, the standing-broad jump, the sit-and-reach stretch and a shuttle-run).
When an NSF completes his full-time service, he is considered to be "operationally ready", and is thereafter known as an Operationally-Ready National Serviceman (NSman). In common parlance, the term "reservist" is used, a vestige of the older nomenclature preceding the current terminology.
The majority of NSFs serve in the Army as part of the SAF. The reasons for this include the relative manpower needs of the Army compared to the Navy and Air Force, the SPF, and SCDF. Moreover, as compared to the Army, the Air Force (RSAF) and Navy (RSN) are smaller armed services composed primarily of regular servicemen. As the manpower requirements of the RSAF and the RSN tend to be more specialized, the constant periodic turnover of NSFs is considered to be very disruptive.
Upon completion of their 10-year reservist (ORNS) cycle personnel will be phased into MINDEF Reserve (MR) until they reach their statutory age cap. NSmen can choose to be placed in the Reservist on Voluntary Extended Reserve Service (ROVERS) scheme during their MR phase.
The statutory age cap for reservist obligation is 40 for WOSEs (other ranks) and 50 for commissioned officers (lieutenants onwards in the SAF and the SCDF and police-inspectors and above in the SPF) and they are known as ex-NSmen.
Ex-NSmen can choose to serve beyond their statutory age in the NS Volunteer Scheme until the Compulsory Retirement Age of 50 years for Master Sergeants and below, 55 years for Warrant Officers to Majors, and 60 years for Lieutenant Colonels and above. An annual tax relief of 1500 SGD is eligible for those in the ROVERS and NS Volunteer Schemes, an additional 1500 SGD is eligible for those who participated in ORNS activities in the previous work year while on ROVERS scheme.
- 1 History
- 2 Enlistment
- 3 Type of services
- 4 Controversies
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The NS (Amendment) act was passed on 15 March 1967, making National Service (NS) compulsory for all 18-year-old male Singapore citizens and permanent residents. The Singapore government felt that it was necessary to build a substantial military force to defend itself. The country had only about 1,000 soldiers at independence. In the late 1960s, the British government had decided to withdraw its troops and bases from the East of Suez, including troops stationed in Singapore. That prompted the government to implement a conscription program for the country's defence needs. It adopted a conscription model drawing on elements from the Israeli and Swiss national conscription schemes. Some 9,000 male youths born between 1 January and 30 June 1949 became the first batch of young men to be called up for NS. Singapore had sought assistance through official diplomacy from other countries, but their refusal to provide help prompted Israeli diplomats to extend a helping hand to the new sovereign nation in the establishment of the Singapore armed forces.
The stated rationale behind conscription is twofold. Firstly, because Singapore has a population of about five and a half million (as of 2014), an army solely of regulars would not be practical to defend the country. Secondly, national service is supposed to support racial harmony among the Chinese, Malay and Indian communities. The Malays were virtually excluded from conscription from the beginning of the draft in 1967 until 1977 and, after the policy was eased, were assigned mainly to serve in the police and civil defence (fire brigade), not in military roles.
In 1987, Lee Hsien Loong (then Second Minister for Defence) stated that "If there is a conflict, if the SAF is called to defend the homeland, we do not want to put any of our soldiers in a difficult position where his emotions for the nation may be in conflict with his religion".
In the past, the duration of the conscription for a typical Singaporean male spanned over a period of either 2 or 2 years and six months depending on his educational qualifications. In 2004, the duration was reduced to 2 years, driven by the technological transformation into the 3rd Generation SAF and the surge in NS intake for the next 10 years. As a bonus incentive, the NS duration can be cut by a further two months when the combat-fit PES A/B1 enlistees are able to obtain a silver or gold for their physical fitness test (NAPFA) prior to enlistment. However, non-combat-fit enlistees (PES B2 and below) will still serve the full 24 months of NS.
|Time Period||Rank||Full-Time NS Duration1||Qualifications||Remarks|
|1971 till Nov 2004||Lance Corporal or lower||2 years||O Level, N Level and ITC or lower|
|1971 till May 2004||Corporal and higher||2 years 6 months||Full A Level and Diploma qualifications or higher||Will be administratively promoted to at least the rank of Corporal.|
|Jun 2004 till Nov 2004||Corporal and higher||2 years 2 months||A Level and Diploma qualifications or higher||NSFs serving then had 2 months reduction instead to compensate them for the policy change|
|From Dec 2004||All ranks||2 years||All qualifications||Performance-based system|
|1. NAPFA Only for combat-fit PES A/B1 pre-enlistees, Silver or Gold before enlistment get a bonus 2 months reduction, serving 1 years 10 months of NS|
According to the Enlistment Act, conscription is mandatory for all "persons subject to [the] act", defined as those who are not less than 16.5 years of age and not more than 40 years of age, with some exemptions and with no specific bias to gender (not limited to males).
Male Singapore citizens and second-generation Permanent Residents (PRs) who have registered for their NRIC are required to register for National Service upon reaching the age of 16 years and six months, during which they would also be required to undergo a mandatory medical examination (PULHHEEMS) to determine their medical status, known as Physical Employment Standards (PES) status, which determines which vocational groups the pre-enlistee is physically able to be posted to.
Pre-enlistees who ran afoul with the law and sentenced to Changi Prison are never released back into Singapore Armed Forces.
There is a voluntary early enlist scheme by the Central Manpower Base (CMPB) for pre-enlistees who opt for early enlistment, with the consent of their parents, to begin their full-time national service at the earliest age of 16 years and six months.
Refers to conscripts who are directly enlisted into battalion units and undergo their BMT in Pulau Tekong before returning to their battalion as of November 2017 after the One-BMT programme was fully implemented with the exception of the Naval Diving Unit, Commandos and Support vocations.  Before November 2017 conscripts undergo their basic military training at their battalion, bypassing the Pulau Tekong BMT, e.g. Naval Diving Unit (Sembawang Camp), Commandos (Loyang), Guards (Bedok), Infantry, Armour (remaining are in Western Water Catchment).
Second generation male Permanent Residents
Sons who take up permanent residency under the sponsorship of their Permanent Resident parent, are required by law to serve National Service, just like Singaporean male citizens. The rationale is that they too enjoy the socio-economic national benefits of schooling and living in "peacetime" Singapore.
Minister for Defence Dr Ng Eng Hen stated in Parliament that between 2006 and 2011, about 8,800 males who had become permanent residents under the sponsorship of their parents were enlisted for and served National Service (NS). On the other hand, 4,200 males who had become permanent residents under the sponsorship of their parents renounced their PR status prior to serving national service. Their failure to serve NS will be taken into account should they decide to study, work or travel in Singapore in future. The government advises of such consequences at the point of renunciation.
In the Singapore Parliament on 5 August 2014, the Minister of Defence stated that, according to records, no such persons have been granted reinstatement of permanent residence or citizenship. He added that the policy has been progressively tightened recently such that no NS-liable permanent resident who has renounced his permanent resident status in the last decade has been granted approval for work or study. For former permanent residents who fail to serve NS, any immediate or future applications including the renewal of their parents' and inclusive of immediate family members' Re-Entry Permits will be adversely affected, including curtailment of the Re-Entry Permit.
After completing mandatory full-time national service, they can qualify to apply for the accelerated Singapore citizenship scheme. However, citizenship is not guaranteed for all applicants, as there are certain criteria that must be met such as educational qualification, income qualification and NS work performance/ conduct appraisal in the NS Certificate of Service issued upon ORD. From 2006 to 2010, about 2% of 3,000 Second Generation Permanent Residents who completed full-time national service and applied for Singapore citizenship were rejected.
If the person is not granted Singapore citizenship but still holds Singapore permanent residency, he is still obliged by law to serve the national service obligations, i.e. operationally-ready reservist duties/in-camp trainings 
Singapore Permanent Residents who served national service but did not acquire Singapore citizenship will be treated equally to those permanent residents without service obligation; they would not have access to the privileges granted to Singapore citizens.
Pre-enlistees are allowed to defer NS to complete full-time tertiary studies, up to the 1st pre-university qualification bar (GCE 'A' Levels or Polytechnic Diploma, or their equivalent) before enlistment for Basic Military Training (BMT), following these criteria:
- JC students will automatically be granted deferment, if less than 16 years old (Sec 4) or 17 years old (Sec 5)
- Polytechnic students from secondary school will automatically be granted deferment – if less than 19 years old (Sec 4) or 20 years old (Sec 5)
- Polytechnic students from ITE will automatically be granted deferment if less than 21 years old, or 22 years old depending on the academic stream (DPP – Direct Poly Progression students will be given priority. Those going on a longer way will not be given priority.)
- ITE students will automatically be granted deferment
- Cross-ITE streams (NITEC to Higher NITEC) will be granted deferment if less than 21 years old. A grace period may be issued if you are entering the 2nd year Higher Nitec if you are just reached 21 years old before the entry date.
- Private schools will be granted deferment if less than 19 years old (Sec 4) or 20 years old (Sec 5)
Those granted approval in national sports teams to compete in national/ overseas events will be drafted as soon as they returned from one of the national level events. As of July 2018, only three people namely Joseph Schooling, Quah Zheng Wen both national swimmers and Maximilian Soh a national sailor have been granted deferment, no national footballers have been granted deferment.
Complete NS exemptions are rare, usually resulting from permanent disabilities or severe medical conditions to be graded PES F by the SAF Medical Board. National policies have been progressively tightened to close up any loopholes that are exploited by draft evaders.
Failure to enlist
Those who are liable to serve national service as a national duty to the country but refuse are charged under the Enlistment Act. If convicted, they face up to both three years' imprisonment and a fine of S$10,000. Draft defaulters' penalties were increased significantly in January 2006 after Melvyn Tan, who was born in 1956 in Singapore, received a composition fine for defaulting on his National Service obligations in the 1970s after attaining British citizenship.
There have also been cases whereby defaulters who return to Singapore to renew their passports and visas are detained and arrested. Defaulters above 40 will also have to face a maximum of three years of imprisonment and a fine of up to $10,000.
Some NS pre-enlistees are court-martialled for their failure to enlist or refusal to be conscripted. Most of them were Jehovah's Witnesses, who are usually sentenced to three years' imprisonment by default at the SAF detention barrack facility, and are separated from other conscription offenders. The government does not consider conscientious objection to be a legal reason for refusal of national service.
Type of services
There are several types of Basic Military Training (BMT) conducted by the SAF at its BMT Centre on Pulau Tekong, an offshore island off the north-east coast of Singapore, or at selected battalion units which directly draft mono-intake recruits. Combat-fit NSFs with higher education undergo a 9-week Enhanced BMT program. NSFs with other educational certificates and mono-intake recruits undergo a similar program (standard BMT program), less a Situational Test (Sit Test), for assessing recruits in the selection posting to command schools, the Specialist Cadet School (SCS) and Officer Cadet School (OCS). Also, a selected handful of top candidates are transferred to the Singapore Police Force to get accelerated advanced training as an Inspector at the Home Team Academy for a period of 9 months, likewise for the Singapore Civil Defence Force where a few are also carefully groomed to become lieutenants. Recently, selected NSFs having at least NITEC certificates who perform exceptionally well are recommended to undergo the Situational Test model to deem assessment suitability for commander training.
NSFs who are medically graded PES C and E (non-combat-fit), either have to go a 9-week Modified BMT or a 4-week induction program for recruits to be trained for combat service support vocations NSFs who are graded PES A and B1, but did not pass the pre-enlistment National Physical Fitness Award (NAPFA) test, will have to undergo an additional 2-month Physical Training Phase (PTP), making it a 17-week BMT program for additional physical conditioning. Conscripts who are considered medically obese go through a weight-loss 19-week BMT. The obesity of a conscript is determined by his body mass index (BMI) during the pre-enlistment medical checkup. A BMI of above 27 is considered indicative of obesity, as opposed to the World Health Organization's guideline of 30 and above.
|NS Ranks||Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) NSF / NSmen Rank (Basic) allowance in SGD|
|1970s||1980s||1990s – Jun 2002(a)||Oct 2009 – Mar 2012||-||-||-||Apr 2012 – Nov 2015||Dec 2015–present|
|Private First Class (PFC)||$130|
|Lance Corporal (LCP)||$50||$135||$250||$370||$420||$440||$500||$580|
|Corporal First Class (CFC)||NA||$160||NA||$510||$530||$590||$670|
|Specialist Cadet (SCT)||NA||$490||$510||$570||$650|
|Third Sergeant (3SG)||NA||$160||$280||$560||$570||$580||$590||$800||$880|
|Second Sergeant (2SG)||NA||$340||$600||$650||$660||$680||$900||$980|
|Officer Cadet (OCT)||$90||$300||$525||$630||$680||$700 ($900)||$760 ($960)||$840 ($1,020)|
|Second Lieutenant (2LT)||$120||$400||$650||$870||$920||$940 ($1,140)||$1,000 ($1,200)||$1,080 ($1,280)|
|Lieutenant (LTA)||NA||$450||$780||$1,050||$1,100||$1,120 ($1,320)||$1,180 ($1,380)||$1,260 ($1,460)|
|a. Additional vocationalist or combat allowances ranging from $40–$140|
b. Additional vocationalist or combat allowances ranging from $100–$300 from July 2002 onwards
c. Additional allowance for Key Appointment Holders (KAHs) are reduced by approx 50% due to basic service pay increased from July 2002 onwards
d. Additional allowance for Specialist and NS Men from Oct 2009 onwards
e. Figures in () applies to NSF Medical Officer/Dental Officer
Personal Income Tax Relief (NSman (self/wife/parent) relief): All eligible operationally ready (ORD) National Servicemen (NSmen) are entitled to NSmen tax relief to recognise their contributions to National Service in the previous work year (i.e. from 1 Apr to 31 Mar). 'Operationally ready National Serviceman' means any person who has completed national service under the Enlistment Act (Cap. 93) or been deemed to have completed such service by the proper authority. These exclude regulars from MINDEF, SPF or SCDF and NSmen who have committed any disciplinary or criminal offences in the preceding work year. NSman wife and NSman Parent Reliefs are also given to the wife and parents of NSmen respectively to recognise the support they give to their husband and son.
Though a majority will serve in the SAF (predominantly in the Army) for their National Service, a number of enlistees will serve their NS years in the Singapore Police Force (SPF). Those who have been chosen to serve in the SPF undergo training at the Home Team Academy where they study the Penal Code and standard police protocol. After training at the Academy, they will be posted to various departments of the SPF, such as Special Operations Command (SOC), Logistics, Land divisions, Airport Police Division (APD). Those posted to the Police Coast Guard (PCG) or Police KINS will undergo further training. Selection of Officer Cadets (OCTs) to undergo the NS Probationary Inspector Course (NSPI) is a stringent process for Police National Servicemen (Full-time). A very small number, usually one who is awarded the Best Trainee Award, from each cohort will be selected, with the majority of the OCTs being carefully chosen from the Singapore Armed Forces' National Servicemen (Full-time) who have completed their Basic Military Training (BMT) forming the senior officers corps for the Singapore Police Force.
The national service ranks in the SPF differ from the Military and Civil Defence forces slightly and official usage within official correspondence within the organization clearly differentiates an NS officer versus a regular. 
|NS Ranks (Police)|
|Staff Sergeant (NS)|
|Senior Staff Sergeant (NS)|
|Station Inspector (NS)|
|Senior Station Inspector (NS)|
|Senior Station Inspector II (NS)|
|National Service Probationary Inspector|
|Assistant Superintendent (NS)|
|Deputy Superintendent (NS)|
Civil defence service
The Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) is the emergency rescue force of Singapore and they provide firefighting, rescue and ambulance services, and has been one of the three National Service postings since 1972. Those enlisted into the SCDF typically undergo 12 weeks of training at the Basic Rescue Training Centre (BRTC), where they are given basic rescue training (BRT), exposed to regimental discipline, and trained to maintain a level of fitness required of all NSFs in Singapore.
Much like the SAF's SISPEC course, selected NSFs are also posted to the Civil Defence Academy (CDA) to undergo the Firefighter Course (FFC) or the Emergency Response Specialist Course (ERSC) within the first two weeks of their BRT stage, passing out as Firefighters for FFC trainees, and as Fire & Rescue Specialists for ERS trainees who would also simultaneously be conferred with the Sergeant rank (Firefighters mostly pass out as Lance Corporals prior to station posting). Firefighters would typically be posted out to the various fire stations island-wide after passing out, while Fire & Rescue Specialists would be posted as Section Commanders at territorial division, fire stations or at the Special Rescue Battalion; based largely on rankings at the time of course completion, a small number may also be posted as Instructors back in the CDA to staff the Command and Staff Training Center (CSTC), Specialist Training Center (STC), or Firefighting Training Center (FFTC).
While a certain level of health and fitness pre-requisites are expected by both the FFC and ERSC administrators before one can be selected for these courses, admission into the ERS course typically requires a certain set of additional qualifications, namely either a minimum of a GCE Advanced Level certificate, a Diploma or a Higher Nitec Certificate. These added pre-requisites are viewed as necessary in the light of a Section Commander's operational and administrative role when posted out. One marked difference between the FFC and ERSC is the added rescue and emergency training received by ERS Specialist Cadet Trainees (SCTs), as well as the General Command & Control Term, which includes the Basic Home Team Course held at the Home Team Academy and an outward-bound Brunei trip which serves to equip and develop the necessary leadership skills required of a specialist junior officer. In terms of administration and duration, the FFC is under the charge of the FFTC and lasts three months, while the ERSC is under the purview of the CSTC and lasts six months.
In addition, there is also the Basic Officer Course under the charge of the CSTW, designed to train NSFs and regulars as Senior Officers of the SCDF, with NSFs graduating as Lieutenants (LTA). While the BOC is traditionally largely made up of NSFs from the SAF who had just completed their Basic Military Training (BMT) at Pulau Tekong, the top 5-10% of the ERSC will also be offered to cross over to the Basic Officer Course (BOC) to be trained and commissioned as Senior Officers after passing out, spending the last three months of the BOC together with Officer Cadet Trainees (OCTs).
NSFs who undergo the full 7-week basic rescue training at the BRTC are subsequently posted and trained to become medical orderlies (medics), dog handlers, provosts, information and communications and logistics specialists or instructors (such as Physical Training Instructors) among many other vocations upon passing out from the BRTC.
Discrimination against Malays
Military analyst Sean Walsh who authored The Roar of the Lion City (2007), claimed that "official discrimination against the Malay population remains an open secret". The Ministry of Defence contests the charge, noting that there are "Malay pilots, commandos and air defence personnel" and stating that "the proportion of eligible Malays selected for specialist and officer training is similar to the proportion of eligible non-Malays."
Tan, a classical pianist, left Singapore at the age of 12 to study at Yehudi Menuhin School in 1969. He did not return to serve his national service when he reached the age for enlistment. He came back only in 2005 and was given a $3000 fine for defaulting NS. Since his conviction, Tan has returned to Singapore several times to perform. The lack of a custodial sentence for his offence and his ability to perform in Singapore despite objections drew ire from members of the public who criticised the government for allowing the reputation of the nation and SAF to be sullied.
Dr Puthucheary, a PAP MP, did not serve national service, as first-generation new citizens are not required to do so. Having been compared to Chen Show Mao, a foreign-born new candidate of the Workers' Party who volunteered for national service at naturalisation, he mentioned that he has instead spent the last 10 years saving kids' lives. He was criticised for his comment due to the advantages of a professional career compared with national service. His candidacy has led to Low Thia Khiang, the leader of the Workers' Party, to call for an amendment to the Singapore constitution to allow only male candidates who have served their national service to run for elections.
During the lead up to the 2011 presidential election, PAP's endorsed candidate Tony Tan's son, Patrick Tan, was accused of receiving preferential treatment because he received 12 years disruption from full-time NS and was deployed as a medical scientist in the Defence Medical Research Institute (DMRI) when he resumed for national service, both of which is quite rare.
The defence minister, Ng Eng Hen explained that prior to 1992, full-time national servicemen were allowed to disrupt for overseas medical studies. A total of 86 applicants were disrupted under this scheme, including Patrick Tan, who went to the U.S. to study medicine in 1988. Tan deferred his NS for 12 years because he had to complete his premedical course from 1988 to 1992, before taking his combined medical degree and PHD programme. In 2000, he re-enlisted and was deployed to the DMRI. Ng noted that other NS men have been posted to the same institute before.
On 22 August 2018, Mindef revealed that Kevin Kwan the author of the novel Crazy Rich Asians which was adapted into a film, is wanted for defaulting on his NS obligations. There are no records of him entering Singapore after the year 2000, he will be arrested and charged under the Enlistment Act Cap 93 should he return to Singapore in the future.
On 28 August 2018, 24-year-old Thai national Ekawit Tangtrakarn pleaded guilty to breaching the Enlistment Act for not having a valid exit permit between 17 April 2010 and 16 October 2015 while he was still a Singapore citizen. Apart from short visits to his grandmother, Ekawit who is born and raised in Thailand, had not spent his life in Singapore. The charge came about because Ekawit was registered as a Singapore citizen by his mother when he was one even though the family had already migrated to Thailand before he was born.
On 18 September 2018, Ekawit was sentenced to a $6,000 fine. District Judge John Ng acknowledged that Ekawit was "first and foremost a Thai national" and that there was "there was nothing to show that he had intentionally placed his personal pursuits above his obligations or chose to do his NS at his convenience". This was different from other cases where individuals wanted to take on citizenship in other countries without fulfilling their NS obligations. 
In 2006, Deputy Prime Minister and then Defence Minister Teo Chee Hean stated that "only those who have emigrated at a young age and have not enjoyed substantial socio-economic benefits are allowed to renounce their citizenship without serving national service." But paradoxically, one cannot renounce citizenship until the age of 21 while NS liability begins at age 16 and a half.
In popular culture
- From Boys To Men: A Literary Anthology Of National Service In Singapore - edited by Koh, Buck Song and Bhatia, Umej (2002) Landmark Books, Singapore. ISBN 981-3065-67-2
- Shoulder To Shoulder: Our National Service Journal - Ministry of Defence, Singapore (2002) ISBN 981-04-6931-4
- Army Daze directed by Ong Keng Sen (1996)
- Ah Boys to Men series (2012-present), directed by Jack Neo and produced by J Team and mm2 Entertainment, which includes three sequels:
- Zombiepura directed by Jacen Tan (2018) (also produced by mm2 Entertainment, a horror thriller film)
- The Recruit Diaries (2013)
- When Duty Calls (2017)
- Army Daze by Michael Chiang (1987, 2006)
- Full Tank! (2008)
- Radio Silence (2008)
- Botak Boys (2008)
- Charged (2010)
- FRAGO (2017)
- Every Singaporean Son (2010)
- Every Singaporean Son - Epilogue (2011)
- Making The Cut: Guards Conversion Course (2011)
- Every Singaporean Son II - The Making of an Officer (2012)
- Commandos: Documentary (2015)
- Singapore Armed Forces (SAF)
- Singapore Police Force (SPF)
- Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF)
- Awards for Singapore National Serviceman
- 1954 National Service Riots – Chinese opposition to conscription service during British rule
- List of Singapore NSmen who died in training
- iPrepNS - information on Preparation for National Service in Singapore
- Singapore Statutes Chapter 93: Enlistment Act (1967), archived in the Attorney General Chamber (AGC) of Singapore.
- The NSmen Website
- The NSmen's portal
- Enlistment Act
- Basic Military Training Graduation
- "Enlistment Act (Chapter 93)". Singapore Statutes Online.
- Amnon Brazilai, "A Deep, Dark, Secret Love Affair" (reprint), Haaretz, July 2004.
- Alon Peled, A Question of Loyalty: Ethnic Minorities, Military Service and Resistance, 3 March 1993. Seminar Synopses of the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard.
- Straits Times, 2 April 1987
- MINDEF - News - Ministerial Statement on Full-time National Service Duration
- "Enlistment Act". Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- Enlistment Act
- http://www.jw.org/en/news/legal/by-region/singapore/jehovahs-witnesses-in-prison/ "Imprisoned for Their Faith"
- "Refusing to Bear Arms: A worldwide survey of conscription and conscientious objection to military service: Singapore". War Resisters' International. 3 October 1998.
- "Types of BMT Training". About BMT. Ministry of Defence (Singapore). 13 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- "iPrepNS: Frequently asked questions". Ministry of Defence. 2008. Archived from the original on 7 April 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Newspaper archive of The Straits Times, 12 October 1988.
- "https://www.police.gov.sg/about-us/our-heritage/police-heritage-centre/ranks". www.police.gov.sg. Retrieved 2018-05-03. External link in
- Sean Walsh (2007). "The Roar of the Lion City: Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture in the Singapore Armed Forces". Armed Forces & Society. 33 (2): 265. doi:10.1177/0095327X06291854.
- "US soldier takes potshots at SAF". Today. 12 March 2007. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- Loh, Andrew (15 April 2011). "PAP's Janil Puthucheary: "I did not do NS…"". The Online Citizen. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Loh, Andrew (3 May 2011). "PAP has abused power to secure political advantage: WP". The Online Citizen. Retrieved 3 May 2011.