List of hyperaccumulators

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This article covers known hyperaccumulators, accumulators or species tolerant to the following: Aluminium (Al), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Molybdenum (Mo), Naphthalene, Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn).

See also:

Hyperaccumulators table – 1[edit]

hyperaccumulators and contaminants : Al, Ag, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, Mo, naphthalene, Pb, Se, Zn – accumulation rates
Contaminant Accumulation rates (in mg/kg dry weight) Binomial name English name H-Hyperaccumulator or A-Accumulator P-Precipitator T-Tolerant Notes Sources
Al A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass As(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Al 1000 Hordeum vulgare Barley 25 records of plants. [2][3]
Al Hydrangea spp. Hydrangea (a.k.a. Hortensia)
Al Aluminium concentrations in young leaves, mature leaves, old leaves, and roots were found to be 8.0, 9.2, 14.4, and 10.1 mg g1, respectively.[4] Melastoma malabathricum L. Blue Tongue, or Native Lassiandra P competes with Al and reduces uptake.[5]
Al Solidago hispida (Solidago canadensis L.) Hairy Goldenrod Origin Canada. [2][3]
Al 100 Vicia faba Horse Bean [2][3]
Ag Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Ag Salix spp. Osier spp. Cr, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Ag Amanita strobiliformis European Pine Cone Lepidella Ag(H) Macrofungi, Basidiomycete. Known from Europe, prefers calcareous areas [10]
Ag 10-1200 Brassica juncea Indian Mustard Ag(H) Can form alloys of silver-gold-copper [11]
As 100 Agrostis capillaris L. Common Bent Grass, Browntop. (= A. tenuris) Al(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) [3]
As H- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
As 1000 Agrostis tenerrima Trin. Colonial bentgrass 4 records of plants [3][12]
As 2-1300 Cyanoboletus pulverulentus Ink Stain Bolete contains dimethylarsinic acid Europe [13]
As 27,000 (fronds)[14] Pteris vittata L. Ladder brake fern or Chinese brake fern 26% of As in the soil removed after 20 weeks' plantation, about 90% As accumulated in fronds.[15] Root extracts reduce arsenate to arsenite.[16]
As 100-7000 Sarcosphaera coronaria pink crown, violet crown-cup, or violet star cup As(H) Ectomycorrhizal ascomycete, known from Europe Stijve et al., 1990, in Persoonia 14(2): 161-166, Borovička 2004 in Mykologický Sborník 81: 97-99.
Be No reports found for accumulation [3]
Cr Azolla spp. mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern [3][17]
Cr H- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cu(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][18]
Cr Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) Cultivated in agriculture. [1][7][19]
Cr Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Cr A- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Pb(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]
Cr 1000 Dicoma niccolifera 35 records of plants [3]
Cr roots naturally absorb pollutants, some organic compounds believed to be carcinogenic,[20] in concentrations 10,000 times that in the surrounding water.[21] Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cu(A), Hg(H),[20] Pb(H),[20] Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[20][22] and pesticides.[23] Pantropical/Subtropical. Plants sprayed with 2,4-D may accumulate lethal doses of nitrates.[24] 'The troublesome weed' – hence an excellent source of bioenergy.[20] [1]
Cr Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [1][7]
Cr A- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Hg(H), Pb(H) [1]
Cr Medicago sativa Alfalfa [3][25]
Cr Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce Cd(T), Hg(H), Cr(H), Cu(T) [1][3][26]
Cr Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Cr Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) [1][3][27]
Cr Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Native to North America. [1][3][27]
Cr 100 Jamesbrittenia fodina (Wild) Hilliard
(a.k.a. Sutera fodina Wild)
[3][28][29]
Cr A- Thlaspi caerulescens Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. T. caerulescens may acidify its rhizosphere, which would affect metal uptake by increasing available metals[30] [1][3][7][31][32][33]
Cu 9000 Aeolanthus biformifolius [34]
Cu Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Pb(H), Zn(H) Origin Japan. [1]
Cu A- Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Ni(A), Pb(A), Mn(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]
Cu H- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cr(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][18]
Cu Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) cultivated [1][7][19]
Cu H- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Cr(A), Pb(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]
Cu Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Hg(H), Pb(H), Zn(A), Also Cs, Sr, U,[22] and pesticides.[23] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Cu 1000 Haumaniastrum robertii
(Lamiaceae)
Copper flower 27 records of plants. Origin Africa. This species' phanerogam has the highest cobalt content. Its distribution could be governed by cobalt rather than copper.[35] [3][32]
Cu Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction with rhizofiltration [1][32]
Cu 1000 Larrea tridentata Creosote Bush 67 records of plants. Origin U.S. [3][32]
Cu H- Lemna minor Duckweed Pb(H), Cd(H), Zn(A) Native to North America and widespread worldwide. [1]
Cu Ocimum centraliafricanum Copper plant Cu(T), Ni(T) Origin Southern Africa [36]
Cu T- Pistia stratiotes Water Lettuce Cd(T), Hg(H), Cr(H) Pantropical. Origin South U.S.A. Aquatic herb. [1]
Cu Thlaspi caerulescens Alpine pennycress, Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. Cu noticeably limits its growth.[33] [1][3][7][30][31][32][33]
Mn A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Mn Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Cu(A), Ni(A), Pb(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]
Mn Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard [7][19]
Mn 23,000 (maximum) 11,000 (average) leaf Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. & Sav.) C.B.Shang & J.Y.Huang koshiabura Origin Japan. Forest tree. [37]
Mn Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [7]
Mn 1000 Macadamia neurophylla
(now Virotia neurophylla (Guillaumin) P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast)
28 records of plants [3][38]
Mn 200 [3]
Hg A- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cr(H), Cu(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][18]
Hg Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Hg Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Pb(H), Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[22] and pesticides.[23] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Hg H- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Cr(A), Pb(H) [1]
Hg 1000 Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce Cd(T), Cr(H), Cu(T) 35 records of plants [1][3][32][39]
Hg Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Cr, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Mo 1500 Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) phytoextraction [1][3][7][30][31][32][33]
Naphthalene Festuca arundinacea Tall Fescue Increases catabolic genes and the mineralization of naphthalene. [40]
Naphthalene Trifolium hirtum Pink clover, rose clover Decreases catabolic genes and the mineralization of naphthalene. [40]
Pb A- Agrostis castellana 'Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(H), Mn(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Pb Ambrosia artemisiifolia Ragweed [6]
Pb Armeria maritima Seapink Thrift [6]
Pb Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Cu(H), Zn(H) Origin Japan. [1]
Pb A- Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Cu(A), Ni(A), Mn(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]
Pb A- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cr(H), Cu(H), Hg(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][18]
Pb H- Brassica juncea Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) 79 recorded plants. Phytoextraction [1][3][6][7][19][30][32][33][41]
Pb Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Pb Brassica oleracea Ornemental Kale et Cabbage, Broccoli [6]
Pb H- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]
Pb Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Hg(H), Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[22] and pesticides.[23] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Pb Festuca ovina Blue Sheep Fescue [6]
Pb Imopoea trifida Morning glory Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [1][6][7][8][41]
Pb H- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Cr(A), Hg(H) [1]
Pb H- Lemna minor Duckweed Cd(H), Cu(H), Zn(H) Native to North America and widespread worldwide. [1]
Pb Salix viminalis Common Osier Cd, U, Zn,[8] Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products (S. spp.);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [8]
Pb H- Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Origin India. [1]
Pb Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Cr(H), Ni(H), Zn(A) Native to North America. [1][3][27]
Pb Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress, Alpine pennygrass Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo(H), Ni(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. [1][3][7][30][31][32][33]
Pb Thlaspi rotundifolium Round-leaved Pennycress [6]
Pb Triticum aestivum Common Wheat [6]
Se .012-20 Amanita muscaria Fly agaric Cap contains higher concentrations than stalks[42]
Se Brassica juncea Indian mustard Rhizosphere bacteria enhance accumulation.[43] [7]
Se Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn Phytoextraction. [6][7]
Se Low rates of selenium volatilization from selenate-supplied Muskgrass (10-fold less than from selenite) may be due to a major rate limitation in the reduction of selenate to organic forms of selenium in Muskgrass. Chara canescens Desv. & Lois Muskgrass Muskgrass treated with selenite contains 91% of the total Se in organic forms (selenoethers and diselenides), compared with 47% in Muskgrass treated with selenate.[44] 1.9% of the total Se input is accumulated in its tissues; 0.5% is removed via biological volatilization.[45] [46]
Se Bassia scoparia
(a.k.a. Kochia scoparia)
burningbush, ragweed, summer cypress, fireball, belvedere and Mexican firebrush, Mexican fireweed U,[8] Cr, Pb, Hg, Ag, Zn Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). Phytoextraction. [1][7]
Se Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Cr, Hg, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalis);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). [7]
Zn A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(H), Mn(A), Pb(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Zn Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Cu(H), Pb(H) Origin Japan. [1]
Zn Brassicaceae Mustards, mustard flowers, crucifers or cabbage family Cd(H), Cs(H), Ni(H), Sr(H) Phytoextraction [7]
Zn Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A). Larvae of Pieris brassicae do not even sample its high-Zn leaves. (Pollard and Baker, 1997) [1][7][19]
Zn Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se Phytoextraction [6][7]
Zn Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [7][8]
Zn Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Hg(H), Pb(H). Also Cs, Sr, U,[22] and pesticides.[23] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Zn Salix viminalis Common Osier Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U (S. viminalis);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). [8]
Zn A- Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Origin India. [1]
Zn 1400 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) Bladder campion Ernst et al. (1990)
Zn Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H) Native to North America. [1][3][27]
Zn H-10,000 Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H) 48 records of plants. May acidify its own rhizosphere, which would facilitate absorption by solubilization of the metal[30] [1][3][7][31][32][33][41]
Zn Trifolium pratense Red Clover Nonmetal accumulator. Its rhizosphere is denser in bacteria than that of Thlaspi caerulescens, but T. caerulescens has relatively more metal-resistant bacteria.[30]

Cs-137 activity was much smaller in leaves of larch and sycamore maple than of spruce: spruce > larch > sycamore maple.

References[edit]

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