Politics of Somaliland
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The politics of Somaliland take place within a hybrid system of governance, which, under the Somaliland region's constitution, combines traditional and western institutions. The constitution separates government into an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch, each of which functions independently from the others.
For its first twelve years, Somaliland had no political parties but instead followed more traditional clan-based forms of political organization. Political parties were introduced during the presidential elections and it was hoped that the recent parliamentary elections would help to usher in a representative system without allowing representation to be overtly clan-based.
District elections then held determined which parties were allowed to contest the parliamentary and presidential elections, where a party was required to demonstrate at least twenty percent of the popular vote from four out of the six regions. This was designed to ensure that parties would not organize around ethnic lines. Three parties were selected to submit presidential candidates: the United Democratic Peoples’ Party (UDUB), Kulmiye, and the Party for Justice and Welfare (UCID). On April 14, 2003, 488,543 voters participated in the presidential elections, which ran more or less smoothly. The result was a slim eighty vote controversial victory for UDUB over the Kulmiye, complicated by allegations of ballot stuffing against the incumbent UDUB. Despite calls for the Kulmiye to form a rival government, the party’s leadership did not do so, instead choosing to abide by the Supreme Court ruling that declared UDUB’s victory. Despite minor demonstrations, the transition to the presidency of Dahir Riyale Kahin proceeded peacefully. A traditional system of governance consisted of clan elders who go by titles such as sultans, guurti or akils. They usually ordered the paying of diya, which is a payment system for any grievances, or dealt in arbitration matters.
System of government
Somaliland has a hybrid system of governance combining traditional and western institutions. In a series of inter-clan conferences, culminating in the Borama Conference in 1993, a qabil (clan or community) system of government was constructed, which consisted of an Executive, with a President, Vice President, and legislative government; a bicameral Legislature; and an independent judiciary. The traditional Somali elderates (guurti) was incorporated into the governance structure and formed the upper house, responsible for managing internal conflicts. Government became in essence a "power-sharing coalition of Somaliland's main clans," with seats in the Upper and Lower houses proportionally allocated to clans according to a pre-determined formula. In 2002, after several extensions of this interim government, Somaliland finally made the transition to multi-party democracy, with district council elections contested by six parties.
Despite setbacks in 1994 and 1996, Somaliland has managed to prosper, assisted by its trade in livestock with Saudi Arabia.
It faces some significant problems to its continued survival. Like other Somali governments, it lacks a consistent taxation base and receives most of its support from private actors. Corruption remains a problem, women are virtually unrepresented in government, and there are growing concerns about voting patterns based on ethnic lines as well as the majority that UDUB has gained over both the regional councils and presidency as well as the parliament.
Economic development has been heavily supported the diaspora, lack of international recognition prevents international aid to it as a country.
In 2005 Somaliland joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO), an international organization dedicated to the promotion of the right to self-determination. The UN still says there are some boundaries Somaliland will have to cross before it is recognized.
On March 1, 2006, the Welsh Assembly invited Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi, the speaker of the Somaliland parliament to the opening of a new Assembly building. Mr. Abdillahi said that Somaliland sees his invitation "as a mark of recognition by the National Assembly for Wales that [Somaliland has] legitimacy." The Somali community in Wales numbers 8.000-10.000, most of whom come from Somaliland.
In December 2006 representatives of the Somaliland Parliament again attended the Welsh Assembly receiving a standing ovation from its members. Two months earlier the Assembly approved the establishment of an aid budget for Africa. These moves were approved by the UK Foreign Office and Department for International Development and are seen as an attempt by the UK to encourage and reward the authorities in its former colony while avoiding the issue of formal recognition.
|President||Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo||PUDP||27 July 2010|
The Parliament (Baarlamaanka) has two chambers. The House of Representatives (Golaha Wakiilada) has 82 members, elected for a five-year term. The House of Elders (Golaha Guurtida) has 82 members, representing traditional leaders.
Political parties and elections
2005 Parliamentary election
|UDUB For Unity, Democracy, and Independence (Ururka dimuqraadiga ummadda bahawday)||261,449||39.0||33|
|KULMIYE Peace, Unity, and Development Party (KULMIYE Nabad, Midnimo iyo horumar)||228,328||34.1||28|
|UCID For Justice and Development (Ururka Caddaalada iyo Daryeelka)||180,545||26.9||21|
|Total votes cast||674,907|
2003 Presidential election
|Candidates - Nominating parties||Votes||%|
|Dahir Riyale Kahin - For Unity, Democracy, and Independence||205,595||41.23|
|Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo - Peace, Unity, and Development Party||205,515||41.21|
|Faysal Cali Warabe - For Justice and Development||77,433||15.52|
|Total (Turnout ?%)||498,639||100.0|
|Source: African elections|
- Minister of Agriculture: Mahamed Aw Dahir Ibrahim (Somali: Maxamed Aw Daahir Ibraahim)
- Minister of Civil Aviation: Mr. Farhan Ahmed Aadan (Somali: Mud. Farxaan Axmed Aadan)
- Minister of Commerce:Dr Omar Shuayb(Somali: Dr Cumar Shucayb)
- Minister of Defence: Mr. Ahmed Haji Ali Adam (Somali: Mud. Axmed Xaaji Cali Cadami)
- Minister of Education & Higher Education: Abdillahi Ibrahim Habane (Somali: Cabdilaaahi Ibraahim Habane)
- Minister of Finance: Mrs Samsam Mohamed Adam (Somali: Samsam Maxamed Adam)
- Minister of Fisheries: Mr. Ali Jama Farah (Somali: Mud. Cali Jaamac Faarax)
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Dr. Sa´ad Ali Shire (Somali: Dr. Sacad Cali Shire)
- Minister of Health: Dr. Saleiban Esa Ahmed Somali: Dr. Saleebaan Ciise Axmed (Xaglo-toosiye)
- Minister of Industry: Shu'ayb Mohamed Muse (Somali: Shucayb Maxamed Muuse)
- Minister of Information: Mr. Osman Abdilahi Sahardid Adaani (Somali: Mud. Cismaan C/laahi Saxardiid Cadaani)
- Minister of Interior: Mr. Yasin Mohamoud Faraton (Somali: Mud. Yaasiin Maxamuud Xiir Faratoon)
- Minister of Justice: Mr. Ahmed Farah Adare (Somali: Mud. Axmed Faarax Cadare)
- Minister of Labour and Social Development: Mr. Mohamoud Obsiye (Somali: Mud. Maxamuud Obsiiye
- Minister of Livestock: Omar Sh.Mohamoud Farah (Somali: Cumar Sh.Maxamuud Farax )
- Minister of Planning & Development: Mohamed Ibrahim Qabo (Somali: Maxamed Ibraahim Qabo)
- Minister of Post and Telecommunications: Mr. Mohamoud Abdilahi Egeh (Somali: Mud. Maxamuud Cabdilaahi Cige)
- Minister of Presidency: Mr. Mohamoud Hashi Abdi (Somali: Mud. Maxamuud Xaashi Cabdi,)
- Minister of Public Work and Housing: Mr. Ali Hassan Mohamed Somali: Mud. Cali Xasan Maxamed (Cali Mareexaan))
- Minister of Religion: Sheikh Khalil Abdilahi Ahmed (Somali: Sheekh Khaliil Cabdilaahi Axmed)
- Minister of Resettlement and Rehabilitation: Mr. Ali Said Raigal (Somali: Mud. Cali Siciid Raygal)
- Minister of Rural Development and Environment: Miss. Shukri Ismael Bandare (Somali: Marwo. Shukri Ismaaciil Baandare)
- Minister of Sports: Mr. Abdirasaq Waberi Robleh (Somali: Mud.Cabdirisaaq Waabeeri Rooble)
- Minister of Mineral Resources And Energy: Mr. Hussein Abdi Du'aale(Somali: Mud. Xuseen Cabdi Ducaale)
- Minister of Water: Hussein Abdi Bos: Somali (Somali: Xuseen Cabdi Boos)
- Minister of Culture and Tourism Kadar Hagi Yousuf Abdilahi (Somali: Khadar Xaaji Yuusuf Cabdilaahi)
- "Somaliland Government". The Somaliland Government. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- World Disasters Report retrieved 25 February 2012
- "Somaliland: Wales Strikes Out On Its Own In Its Recognition of Somaliland". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. 6 March 2005.