Polygonum viviparum L.
Bistorta vivipara (syn. Polygonum viviparum, Persicaria vivipara), commonly known as alpine bistort, is a flowering plant species that is common all over the high Arctic through Europe, Northern America, and temperate and tropical Asia. Its range stretches further south in high mountainous areas like the Alps, Carpathians, Pyrenees, Caucasus and the Tibetan Plateau.
B. vivipara used to be included in either Polygonum or Persicaria. Molecular phylogenetic work demonstrated however that the genus Bistorta represents a distinct lineage within the family Polygonaceae.
Alpine bistort is a perennial herb that grows to 5 to 15 centimetres (2 to 6 in) tall. It has a thick rhizomatous rootstock and an erect, unbranched, hairless stem. The leaves are hairless on the upper surfaces but hairy and greyish-green below. The basal ones are longish-elliptical with long stalks and rounded bases; the upper ones are few and are linear and stalkless. The tiny flowers are white or pink in the upper part of the spike with five perianth segments, eight stamens with purple anthers and three fused carpels. The lower ones are replaced by bulbils. Flowers rarely produce viable seeds and reproduction is normally by the bulbils, which are small bulb-like structures that develop in the axils of the leaves and may develop into new plants. Very often a small leaf develops when the bulbil is still attached to the mother plant. The bulbils are rich in starch and are a preferred food for Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and reindeer; they are also occasionally used by Arctic people. Alpine bistort flowers in June and July.
Alpine bistort grows in many different plant communities, very often in abundance. Typical habitats include moist short grassland, yards, the edges of tracks and nutrient-rich fens.
As with many other alpine plants, Alpine bistort is slow growing and produces embryonic buds one year that will grow and open a few years after their formation, with an individual leaf or inflorescence taking three to four years to reach maturity from the time the buds are formed.
- "Bistorta vivipara (L.) Delarbre". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Sanchez A, Schuster TM, Kron KA. (2009). "A large-scale phylogeny of Polygonaceae based on molecular data". International Journal of Plant Sciences 170 (8): 1044–1055. doi:10.1086/605121.
- "Alpine bistort: Bistorta vivipara". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
- Moss R, Parkinson JA (1975). "The digestion of bulbils (Polygonum viviparum L.) and berries (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Empetrum sp.) by captive ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)". British Journal of Nutrition 33 (2): 197–206. doi:10.1079/BJN19750024. PMID 1167787.
- Diggle PK. (1997). "Extreme preformation in alpine Polygonum vivparum: an architectural and developmental analysis". American Journal of Botany 84 (2): 154–169. doi:10.2307/2446077. JSTOR 2446077.
- Read DJ, Haselwandter K. (1981). "Observations on the mycorrhizal status of some alpine plant communities". New Phytologist 88: 341–352. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1981.tb01729.x.
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