Jump to content

Ponniyin Selvan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ponniyin Selvan
AuthorKalki Krishnamurthy
  • Pavithra Srinivasan
  • Indra Neelameggham (1993)
  • C.V. Karthik Narayanan (1999)
  • Rajalakshmi Srinivasan - Sanskrit (2015)
  • Sajith M. S - Malayalam (2022)
Cover artistManiam
GenreHistorical, romance, espionage, thriller, fiction
  • Serialised: 29 October 1950 – 16 May 1954
  • Book form: 1955 (Mangala Noolagam)
Publication date
30 September 2022
Publication placeIndia
Published in English
Media typePrint (Serial)
ISBN9789672811275 (Kavitha Publication ed.)

Ponniyin Selvan (transl.The Son of Ponni) is a Tamil language historical fiction novel by Indian author Kalki Krishnamurthy. It was first serialised in the weekly editions of Kalki, a Tamil magazine, from 29 October 1950 to 16 May 1954 and later integrated into five volumes in 1955. In about 2,210 pages, it tells the story of early days of Chola prince Arulmozhivarman. Kalki visited Sri Lanka three times to gather information and for inspiration.

Ponniyin Selvan is regarded as one of the greatest novels of Tamil literature.[1] Publication of the series in "Kalki" magazine increased the publication's circulation to 75,000 subscriptions which was a significant number in post-independence India and a reflection of the work's popularity.[2] The book continued to be admired in the modern era, developing a cult following and fanbase among people of all generations. Ponniyin Selvan has garnered critical acclaim for its tightly woven plot, vivid narration, witty dialogue, and portrayal of the intrigues and power struggle of the Chola empire in the 10th-century.

The novels were adapted into two films by Mani Ratnam by condensing the first two volumes into Ponniyin Selvan: I, and volumes 3 to 5 into Ponniyin Selvan: II, which were released on 30 September 2022 and 28 April 2023 respectively.

The first publication of the Ponniyin Selvan series outside of Tamil Nadu was released in 2022, published in Malaysia by Jaya Bakti.[3]

Book volumes[edit]


Volume Title Chapters Note
1 Pudhu Vellam (transl. New Floods) 57 The story unfolds with the journey of the protagonist Vandhiyadhevan to the capital Thanjavur. After discovering a conspiracy, Vandhiyadhevan makes enemies with the royalty.
2 Suzharkaatru (transl. Whirlwind) 53 The events take place in Sri Lanka where Ponniyin Selvan (Raja Raja Cholan) is stationed for "Eezhathu Por" (Battle of Lanka), the tragic stories from the past of the characters' lives.
3 Kolai Vaal (transl. Sword of Slaughter) 46 The revenge set up by the suicide squad of Veera Pandiyan (Aabathuthavigal) against Aditya Karikalan and Chola Empire, the plot devised by Nandhini.
4 Manimagudam (transl. The Crown) 46 The struggle for the crown among the members of the Chola dynasty. The inside conspiracy is being revealed eventually among the patriots.
5 Thiyaaga Sigaram (transl. The Pinnacle of Sacrifice) 91 The Climax is being set. The conspiracy is broken due to a lack of motivation and the head of the conspiracy comes to senses. The rulers are reunited and the danger is averted. The rightful prince offers the throne to his uncle out of magnanimity. The tragic deaths of the main characters also add sorrow to the fact that the story ends.


Chart of characters involved in Ponniyin Selvan.
  • Vallavaraiyan Vandiyathevan: The brave, adventurous and sarcastic warrior prince of the Vaanar clan, who later becomes the Commander for Southern Troops under the reign of Utthama Chola. He is the bodyguard and close friend of Karikalan,who sends him as a messenger to Sundara Chola in Thanjavur to invite him to the newly built golden palace in Kanchi. His impulsive actions put himself and others in danger but he comes out of them with trickery and luck. He is the lover of Princess Kundavai. He is loved one-sidedly by Manimekalai, the sister of Kandanmaran.
  • Nandhini: Pazhuvoor Queen and wife of Periya Pazhuvettaraiyar whose birth and origin was doubtful in the beginning. The main antagonist of the story. She was born in Madurai and grew up in a priest family along with royal children in Pazhayarai until her youth. She is the foster-sister of Azhwarkadiyan Nambi. She is described as the most beautiful women in the entire novel. She hated Kundavai as Kundavai was jealous of Nandhini's beauty. Nandhini and Prince Aditya Karikalan developed a liking for each other in their childhood which nobody in the royalty liked. She was forced to flee Pazhaiyarai and live in Madurai. After Aditya Karikalan beheaded the injured Veerapandiyan, Nandhini joined Pandya conspirators and vowed to avenge Veerapandiyan's death by killing Karikalan and destroying the Chola dynasty. By marrying Periya Pazhuvettaraiyar who had lusted for her and by using him, she helped the Pandya conspirators. She had a deep hatred towards the Chola royals for their ill-treatment and also had a desire for the throne. She had a terrible childhood that affected her badly and wanted to be with her mother Mandakini. Parthibendra Pallava and Kandanmaran fell for her beauty and she used them for her plot too. [Mandakini Devi went to Thanjavur (while she was pregnant), Sembiyan Maadevi was pregnant too, so she took care of Mandakini during her pregnancy. During child birth Sembiyan Maadevi gave birth to a still born son but Mandakini gave birth to twins - a boy (Madhurantaka) and a girl (Nandhini). Sembiyan Maadevi swapped her still born son with Mandakini's son. She asked Vaani Ammal (a maid in the place at that time) to bury her still born son and gave the daughter to Azhwarkadiyan's parents. After leaving the palace, Vaani Ammal notices that Sembiyan Maadevi's son (Senthan Amuthan) is alive. She fosters him and raises him as her own son.
  • Azhwarkadiyan Nambi alias Thirumalaiappan: A Veera Vaishnavite spy who works for the Prime Minister Aniruddha Brahmarayar and Queen Mother Sembiyan Mahadevi. He is the foster-brother of Nandhini and also a close friend of Vandiyathevan. He works closely with Vandiyathevan and saves him from many dangers. He was a loyal, trustful servant to the Chola royal government. He often engages in verbal battles with Veera Shaivites and Advaitis.
  • Periya Pazhuvettaraiyar: The chancellor and treasurer of the Chola kingdom from the Pazhuvettaraiyar clan who was respected for his valor, as demonstrated by his 64 battle scars. The second most powerful man in the empire. Enamoured by her beauty, he marries a much younger Nandini, and gets scapegoated by her. He was the leader of the conspirators who tried to make Madhurantakan the next emperor.
  • Kundavai alias Ilaya Pirattiyar: The Chola princess. Second child and only daughter of Sundara Chola. Lover of Vandiyathevan. She was respected much by her father and the people for her intelligence and wit. Unlike other princesses of those times, she had ambitions of expanding the Chola empire and enhancing its glory and took a vow to never leave her motherland. She used her brother Arulmozhivarman and his son to achieve her ambition. She raised and taught Arulmozhivarman to be an intelligent prince and wished to make him the Chola emperor. She was jealous of Nandini's beautiful appearance and intelligence and hated her. She sent Vandiyathevan to bring back Arulmozhivarman from Sri Lanka to guard him.
  • Vaanathi: The shy but playful princess of Kodumbalur. She was raised by her uncle Periya Velar Boothi Vikramakesari because both her father, Siriya Velar and mother are killed. She was sent to Pazhayarai to be one of Kundavai Devi's many friends/ helpers. She tends to faint in stressful situations due to which Ilaya Piratti takes special care of her, making the other princesses envious. She receives a prophecy from Kudanthai Jothidar stating she will bear an extraordinary warrior son who will conquer all 7 seas. She has an immense devotion for Ponniyin Selvan and wishes to marry him but due to Poonguzhali's accusation that her motive to marry Arulmozhi is for the throne, she vows to never sit on the throne if she marries him.
  • Arulmozhivarman/ Ponniyin Selvan later known as Rajaraja I: The titular protagonist. The youngest son of Sundara Chola. He was raised in Pazhayarai by Periya Piratti and Ilaya Piratti. He was taught well by his sister and was sent to Sri Lanka at the age of 19 for battle. He was said to be saved by Mother Kaveri herself from drowning in the river when he was 5, earning him the title "Ponniyin Selvan" ("Son of Kaveri").
  • Aditha Karikalan: Eldest son of Sundara Chola, the crown prince and the commander of Northern troops during Sundara Chola's reign. He was a distinguished warrior who began fighting at the age of 12. He was known all over the empire for his valiant acts. His haste and irascibility alienated many, and resulted in a conspiracy against him.
  • Poonguzhali: A boat woman, she was born and raised in Kodaikkarai. She was adventurous and fearless. She deeply distrusted and disliked men and civilisation. She holds great affection for her aunt Mandakini Devi. She also has an intense love for Ponniyin Selvan and yearns to be Queen because she believes her Aunt should have been the rightful Queen. She saves Arulmozhivarman when he drowns in the ocean and secretly takes him to Nagapattinam to recuperate. She was named "Samudrakumari" (The Maiden of the Ocean) by Prince Arulmozhivarman himself. She marries Senthan Amuthan/ Madhuranthakan and attains her desire of being Queen.
  • Madhurantaka Uttama Chozhan alias Senthan Amudhan: He is the son of Sembian Madevi who was given to the flower seller Vaani Ammal, assuming to be a still born baby. . He is a close friend of Vandiyathevan, and helped the latter many times in his missions when he was still known as the son of Vaani Ammal and a calm, humble and honest Shaivite devotee.
  • Vaani Ammai: The deaf and mute foster mother of Senthan Amuthan, sister of Mandakini and Thiyaaga Vidankar. Aunt of Poonguzhali. She was skilled in traditional medicine remedies.
  • Chinna Pazhuvettaraiyar: alias Kaalandhakandar: The chief in-charge of Thanjavur fort. Younger brother of Periya Pazhuvettaraiyar to whom he had huge respect and love. He is the father-in-law of Mathuranthakar. Both Pazhuvettaraiyar brothers hated Vandiyathevan at first. Chinna Pazhuvettaraiyar constantly warns his brother about Nandini and her conspiracy, but his cautionary words fall on deaf ears.
  • Sundara Chola alias Parantaka II: The emperor of Chola empire. He was known for his facial beauty which gave him his name 'Sundara'. When his legs became paralysed and his health began rapidly deteriorating, the Pazhuvettaraiyar brothers moved the emperor from Pazhayarai to Thanjavur so they could better protect him. This sparked the debate for the next rightful heir. His wish was to appoint his uncle's son as his successor. There was a widespread rumor that the emperor was kept as a prisoner by the Pazhuvettaraiyar brothers.
  • Vanavan Madevi alias Idaya Pirattiyar: Empress of the Chola empire. Chief queen, wife and caretaker of Sundara Chola. Mother of all his children. Daughter of Thirukovalur Malaiyamaan.
  • Sembiyan Madevi alias Periya Pirattiyar: Wife of Gandaraditya Chola and mother of Utthama Chola. A Shaivite devotee who donates a lot of resources to build temples for Lord Shiva across the Chola empire. She was steadfast in not making her son the emperor, which was also the dying wish of her husband. [Mandakini Devi went to Thanjavur (while she was pregnant), Sembiyan Maadevi was pregnant too, so she took care of Mandakini during her pregnancy. During child birth Sembiyan Maadevi gave birth to a still born son but Mandakini gave birth to twins – a boy (Madhurantaka) and a girl (Nandhini). Sembiyan Maadevi swapped her still born son with Mandakini's son. She asked Vaani Ammal (she was a maid in the place at that time) to bury her still born son and gave the daughter to Azhwarkadiyan's parents. Vaani Ammal after leaving the palace notices that Sembiyan Maadevi's son (Senthan Amuthan) is alive, she fosters him and raises him as her own son.]
  • Pinaagapani: Son of the traditional healer in Pazhayarai. He was narrow-minded and ambitious and always considered Vandiyathevan his enemy but gets beaten by him all throughout the story. Pinaagapani was sent by Kundavai with Vandiyathevan to lead the way from Pazhaiyarai to Kodikkarai where the former lusts over Poonkuzhali but fails to attract her. His desire to gain high positions in the empire make him prey to Nandini's plans. Killed by Kandhanmaaran
  • Thirukovalur Malaiyaman alias Milaadudaiyar: Father-in-law of Sundara Chola and maternal grandfather to his children. He was a well-wisher and advisor for Karikalan and lived with him in Kanchi. He was a rival of the Kadamboor ruler.
  • Parthibendra Pallavan: Friend of Karikalan, who comes from the lineage of Pallavas. He fought along with him in battles. He lusts Nandhini and hates Vandiyathevan from the beginning.
  • Thiyaaga Vidankar: Father of Poonguzhali and in-charge of the light house at Kodikkarai. He is the younger brother of Mandakini Devi and Vaani Ammal.
  • Rakkammaal: Sister-in-law of Poonguzhali. She joined the Pandiyan conspirators due to her greed for money. Revadasa Kiramavithan was her father.
  • Anbil Aniruddha Brahmarayar: The Prime Minister of emperor Sundara Chola's Court and a close friend and confidante to the emperor. He was highly respected by the people for his wit and intelligence. On Sundara Chola's request, he became the minister and assisted Sundara Chola in matters of administration in addition to being a teacher. He was the keeper of many of the emperor's personal and royal secrets. His network of spies across the Chola empire ensured that almost nothing could happen without his knowledge. One of the best of them is Azhwarkadiyan Nambi.
  • Boothi Vikramakesari alias Kodumbalur Periya Velar: Irunkovel chieftain and uncle of Vaanathi. The Commander of the southern troops during Sundara Chola's reign. He fights alongside Arulmozhivarman against Mahindan's troops in Sri Lanka. He had a desire for Vaanathi to marry Arulmozhivarman and thus become the Queen. He and Thirukovalur Malaiyaman opposed the proposition of making Mathuranthakar the heir to the throne. The Kodumbalur Velars and Pazhuvettaraiyars were rivals though they were both loyal to the Cholas.
  • Theveraalan (alias Parameswaran), Idumbankkari, Ravidasan, Soman Sambavan, Revadasa Kiramavithan: Antagonists of the novel. Bodyguards of the late Veerapandiyan. They conspire to kill the members of the Chola royal family. Ravidasan and Parameswaran were once ministers in Chola court. Ravidasan and Revadasa Kiramavithan were acting as wizards. Idumbankkari was acting as a guard in Kadambur palace.
  • Amarabhujanga Nedunchezhiyan/ former Madhurantakan: Foster Son of Sembiyan Maadevi who was raised as a Shaivite. He was raised a calm and humble Shaivite and taught not to desire the throne. He was brainwashed by his twin sister Nandini to develop a greed for the throne. Kundavai and others thought that he was untalented and lacked the basic characteristics and skills to be an emperor. The people of the Chola kingdom did not want him to become the ruler either. He fled once he discovered he was the son of Veera Pandiyan and the crown prince of Pandya Kingdom, turning into a warrior.
  • Mandakini alias Oomai Rani/ Singala Nachiyar: The deaf and mute mother of twins, Nandini and Amarabhujangan. Love interest of Sundara Chola. She had great affection towards his children and her niece, Poonguzhali. She is always around Arulmozhivarman and saves him from many dangers. [Mandakini Devi went to Thanjavur (while she was pregnant), Sembiyan Maadevi was pregnant too, so she took care of Mandakini during her pregnancy. During child birth Sembiyan Maadevi gave birth to a still born son but Mandakini gave birth twins to a boy (Madhurantaka) and a girl (Nandhini). Sembiyan Maadevi swapped her still born son with Mandakini's son. She asked Vaani Ammal (she was a maid in the place at that time) to bury her still born son and gave the daughter to Azhvarkadiyan's parents. Vaani Ammal after leaving the palace notices that Sembiyan Maadevi's son (Senthan Amuthan) is alive, she fosters him and raises him as her own son.]
  • Sambuvaraiyar: The petty ruler of Kadamboor from the Sambuvaraya family.
  • Chinna Sambuvaraiyar alias Kandhanmaran: Prince of Kadamboor. Son of Sambuvaraiyar and close friend of Vandiyathevan. He is the one who arranges for the petty rulers to gather in Kadamboor and hold a meeting to conspire to make Madhurantakan the next Chola emperor. He then assumes that Vandiyathevan tried to kill him and begins to think of him as his worst enemy.
  • Murugaiyan: Elder brother of Poonguzhali. Husband of Rakkammaal. He rowed the Pandiyan conspirators to Sri Lanka from Kodikkarai. But later compensated for his unknowing wrongdoing by helping Arulmozhivarman reach Thanjavur.
  • Manimekalai: Innocent and shy princess of Kadamboor. Younger sister of Kandanmaaran and daughter of Sambuvaraiyar. She had deep, immense love for Vandiyathevan that he did not reciprocate.
  • Karuthiruman aka Paithiyakaran (The Madman): An assistant of Veerapandian and prisoner in the dungeons of Thanjavur. Claims to know the location of the Pandyan crown and sceptre hidden in Sri Lanka.
  • Kudanthai Jothidar: The astrologer in the town of Kudanthai (present-day Kumbakonam) who predicts that Arulmozhivarman will become a great emperor. He also predicts that Vanathi will marry Arulmozhi and bear a great king who will take the Chola dynasty to its glory. He later moves to Thiruvaiyaru since his house was destroyed in the Kaveri floods.
  • Kalyani: Mother of Sundara Chola. Wife of Arinjaya Chola.
  • Parangusan Nedunchezhiyan: Pandian Prince. The 5-year-old son of Veerapandiyan and his Queen, raised by Nandini and the Aabathudhavigal (Pandyan conspirators) who declared him the successor of Veerapandiyan at Thirupurambiyam Pallipadai.
  • Eesaana Sivabattar: The priest of the Shiva temple in Pazhayarai. Elder brother of Azhwarkadiyan and foster brother of Nandini. He helps Vandiyathevan secretly meet Kundavai in Pazhayarai when the Pazhuvettaraiyar brothers were searching for him there.
  • Aacharya Bhikshu: The head monk of Chudamani Vihara in Nagapattinam who saves Arulmozhivarman when he was affected by Kulir Suram.
  • Chandramathi: Maid and companion of Manimekalai in Kadambur palace who is literate and helps her read the final letter written by Aditha Karikalan.
  • Veera Pandian: Pandian King. Father of Nandhini, Amarbhujangan and Parangusan. Husband of Mandakini. Killed by Aditha Karikalan when he was hiding in Nandhini's hut.

Plot summary[edit]

The story revolves around Vandiyathevan, a charming, brave and courageous young man who sets out across the Chola land to deliver a message from the Crown Prince, Aditya Karikalan, to Emperor Sundara Chola and Princess Kundavai. The story shuttles between Vandiyathevan's travels in Chola country and the young Prince Arulmozhivarman's (later known as Raja Raja Chola) travels in Sri Lanka. The narrative details attempts by his sister Kundavai to bring back Arulmozhivarman to establish political peace in a land seemingly beset with unrest and civil war plotted by vassals and petty chieftains. The story begins as the emperor Sundara Chola is ill and bedridden. His son Aditya Karikalan is the general of the Northern Command and lives in Kanchi. The younger son Arulmozhivarman is in Sri Lanka on a military campaign. Their sister Kundavai lives in the Chola royal household at Pazhayarai. The story advances when rumours abound that there is a conspiracy against Sundara Chola and his sons.

Vallavarayan Vandiyathevan, Crown Prince Aditha Karikalan's messenger, is sent by him to investigate the conspiracy and deliver the news to Sundara Chola and his sister Kundavai. Vandiyathevan reaches Veeranarayanapuram where he meets a vaishvite spy, Azhwarkaddiyan Nambi. There he sees Periya Pazhuvettarayar,the country's treasurer along with his wife Nandhini in a closed palanquin who are on their way to Kadambur. After seeing the palanquin, Nambi asks if Vandiyathevan can deliver a message to Ilaya Rani ( Nandhini ) if he meets her in Kadambur. Vandiyathevan reaches Kadambur and meets his friend Kandhamaaran ( Kadambur prince ). He is invited to see the devaralan aatam where he meets many other petty chieftains. At the night, he eavesdroops on a secret meeting at the palace. In the meeting, the chieftains take an oath to make Prince Maduranthaka Thevar, Gandaradithya Chola's son as the next king. While he listens to all of these, he finds Nambi too, trying to listen to their plan. The next day, Vandiyathevan leaves for Thanjavur to reveal the conspiracy to Sundara Chola. On the way he finds Nambi and asks his true motive for visiting Kadambur and what relationship he has with Pazhuvoor Ilaya Rani. To this Nambi reveals that Nandhini was his foster sister and disappeared under mysterious circumstances. After they cross the Kollidam river, Vandiyathevan leaves for Tanjai while Nambi gets a chance to eavesdrop on pandiya spies talking about destroying the Chola kingdom. On the way to Tanjai, Vandiyathevan sees Ilaya Rani's palanquin and goes near it vowing to meet Maduranthakan but is disappointed seeing the actual Nandhini in the palanquin. Nandhini gives Pazhuvoor a signet ring to Vandiyathevan and asks him to use that to access the Tanjavur fort. Vandiyathevan reaches Tanjai and meets a flower-selling youth, Sendhan Amudhan who helps him. The next morning, Vandiyathevan enters the fort using the signet ring outsmarting the fort commander, Chinna Pazhuvettarayar. Vandiyathevan meets emperor Sundar Chola and reveals about the conspiracy against him and his sons. Chinna Pazhuvettarayar suspects him and arrests him but Vandiyathevan escapes smartly and climbs a ladder that leads him to Ilaya Rani's latha mandapam. He meets Nandhini and delivers his message from Azhwarkaddiyan and tells her about his venture. The ladder Vandiyathevan climbed to reach latha mandapam was actually meant for Ravidasa, who is referred to as Mandhiravadi. After talking with Nandhini, Vandiyathevan finds an entrance to a secret passage and tries to escape through it. Periya Pazhuvettarayar reaches Tanjai and meets his brother who reveals his suspicion about Nandhini. Vandiyathevan sees Maduranthakan coming through passage with Kandhamaaran and is welcomed by Periya Pazhuvettarayar and Nandhini. Finally, after exploring the passage he finds the exit to it. There Vandiyathevan finds Kandhamaaran stabbed and saves him but Kandhamaaran thinks Vandiyathevan tried to kill him and turns against him. Learning that Vandiyathevan escaped, Chinna Pazhuvettarayar sends his soldiers to capture him. With the help of Sendhan, Vandiyathevan escapes but Sendhan is captured instead of him. Vandiyathevan reaches Pazhayaarai where Ilaya Pirati Kundavai Devi lives. With Nambi's help Vandiyathevan meets Kundavai and delivers Karikalan's message to her. Kundavai asks Vandiyathevan to bring Arulmozhi Varman, aka Ponniyin Selvan, back from Lanka along with a doctor's son, Pinnagapani, to bring medicines for Sundara Chola. Aditha Karikalan, his grandfather, Thirukovalor Malayaman and friend, Parthibendra Pallavan discuss the country's problems and decide that Parthibendra should go to Lanka to bring Arulmozhi. At night, Parthibendra insists Karikalan reveal his past. In his youth, Aditha Karikalan and Nandhini love each other, they were sure that they will get married and live a happy life, but whole royal family was against their love and plot to separate them. So when Karikalan went to war Nandini was expelled from the kingdom by Karikalan's family as she is an orphan so they don't want her to be Aditha Karikalan's wife who is going to be the king, but Karikalan is unaware of his family's plan. He started to search her everywhere when he returned. Aditha Karikalan and Nandini cannot forget each other even when they are miles apart. Later she becomes vengeful and vows to destroy the Chola dynasty after Aditha Karikalan killed Veerapandiyan unaware of that Veerapandiyan is Nandini's father. She marries Periya Pazhuvettarayar who lusts for Nandini in order to seek revenge but she has no relationship with him.

Vandiyathevan reaches Kodikarai and meets Poonguzhali, lighthouse keeper Thygaravidagar's daughter. He tries to seek Poonguzhali's help but she refuses. Pinnagapani starts to dislike Vandiyathevan and tries to get him caught by Chinna Pazhuvettarayar's soldiers. Poonguzhali helps him to escape. Finally, he convinces her and reaches Lanka to meet Ponniyin Selvan. Ilaya Pirati Kundavai Devi reaches Tanjavur and meets her father Sundara Cholar who is ill and is depressed. To seek the reason behind it, Kundavai talks with her father and learns that in his youth, Sundara Cholar went to Lanka and falls in love with a deaf-mute woman named Mandakini. After some days, Chola ships arrived there and took him to Tanjai and he promised her that he will return but fails. He says that he saw her again multiple times and thinks that she vowed to torture his family. He had said his prime minister, Aniruddha Brahmarayar to bring Mandakini back to him but Brahmarayar lies that she died. From then he is disturbed and falls ill. Ilaya Rani Nandhini helps Kandhamaaran heal. Sendhan Amudhan caught by the soldiers is put in jail. Learning that he is Vandiyathevan's friend, Kundavai asks Chinna Pazhuvettarayar to release him. Nandhini who is known for her beauty, uses Kandhamaaran and asks him to invite Karikalan to Kadambur. Kandhamaaran agrees. Periya Pazhuvettarayar asks Nandhini about the signet ring with Vandiyathevan and she acts as if she did that as a part of their plan. In Lanka, Kodambalur Periya vellar Boothi Vikrama Kesari arrests Vandiyathevan but is saved by Nambi. They together go in search of Ponniyin Selvan. They meet Parthibendra along with some soldiers. They realise that the soldiers are Pandiya Aabathudavigal who are vowing to kill Ponniyin Selvan. They find Ponniyin Selvan is an elephant rider for foreigners. Ponniyin Selvan welcomes Vandiyathevan with a fight. They reach Anuradhapuram for a festival. On the way, they see a tall Buddha statue with some clues that invite Ponniyin Selvan to an underground Buddhist monastery where he is offered the Lankan crown but he refuses it. When they return, they are attacked by Aabathudavigal but are saved by Mandakini. They come back to Anuradhapuram and rest.

Ponniyin Selvan reveals that Mandakini was the one who saved him while he was drowning in Ponni river. This is the reason why he attains that name. Ponniyin Selvan also tells that Mandakini had saved him multiple times in Lanka too. While they talk about her, Mandakini comes there and takes them somewhere to show some drawings about her life. Next day, Kodambalur vellar meets Ponniyin Selvan and advices him to stay in Lanka itself. Parthibendra asks him to come to Kanchi. Vandiyathevan tells him to come along with him to Pazhayarai. Kodambalur vellar also reveals that a Chola ship has come to arrest Ponniyin Selvan with Chakravarthi's orders. He tells that he learned it from Poonguzhali. Poonguzhali who has feelings for Ponniyin selvan reveals about what she saw and heard. Eventhough everyone says Ponniyin Selvan to not go to Tanjavur, he goes with Poonguzhali to the Chola ships only to find that the Chola soldiers were killed by Arabians. Vandiyathevan boards a ship thinking that it is a chola ships but finds Aabathudavigal there. Ponniyin selvan goes to save Vandiyathevan in Parthibendra's ship. Due to the cyclone, Ponniyin Selvan and Vandiyathevan drown in the sea. Poonguzhali saves them.

Periya Pazhuvettarayar learns about Ponniyin Selvan's drowning. He reaches Kodikarai along with Nandhini and lines up his soldiers along the coast to find Ponniyin Selvan if he comes there. Nandhini uses the opportunity and asked Parthibendra to bring Karikalan to Kadambur. Ponniyin Selvan falls ill with a poisonous fever. They consider going to Kodikarai but Pazhuvettarayar's soldiers guard the coast. Poonguzhali leaves them in her own shelter in the forest and goes to investigate learning about Aabathudavigal's relationship with her brother's wife, Rakkamma. She finds Sendhan Amudhan who follows her. Mandhiravadi Ravidasa follows her to find Ponniyin Selvan but fails, getting caught inside a mud pond. He is saved but Vandiyathevan and Poonguzhali fool Ravidasa and escape. Poonguzhali learns that Sendhan bought news from Kundavai who wants Ponniyin Selvan to arrive at Nagapattinam. They take him there after Vandiyathevan leaves for Pazhayarai. On the way, he stops at an iron smelter to give his horse some iron protection for its legs. There he finds a sword with the fish emblem of the Pandiya. After he sleeps there for so awhile, he learns that the Pazhuvettarayar family crossed him by telling him about Ponniyin Selvan's drowning and are on their way to Tanjavur. On the way to Pazhayarai, he finds Devaralan who takes him to Nandhini. He reaches Pazhayarai. To enter the fort he claims that he is an astrologer to Maduranthakan and fools him. Maduranthakan is stopped by his mother who tells him to leave all his will to become the Chola emperor but he does not pay heed to her request. Vandiyathevan meets Kundavai and reveals everything to her. Brahmarayar and Kundavai send Vandiyathevan to warn Karikalan about Nandhini and protect him. Vanathi who is worried about Ponniyin Selvan, learns about his presence in Nagapattinam and ventures there. On the way, she is interrupted by Shaivites who force her to reveal Ponniyin Selvan's whereabouts. She refuses and they attack her. She falls unconscious and gets up to find herself in Kundavai's lap. Kundavai tells her that all of it was a dream but it was just a plan made by her to test Vanathi. When Vanathi is attacked even Vandiyathevan sees it. He goes to save her but on the way meets Maduranthakan. He reaches a pallipadai where Aabathudavigal were gathered to crown a young boy as a Pandiya prince. Vandiyathevan is found but Nandhini stops them from killing him. Kundavai and Vanathi reach Aanaimangalam and meet Ponniyin Selvan and discuss their next step.

Paying heed to Nandhini's request, Karikalan goes to Kadambur. Vandiyathevan and Nambi go to Kadambur where they find a secret passage to enter the palace. Vandiyathevan enters it to go into vettai mandapam. There he sees some aabathudavigal. He opens another exit of the passage that leads to Nandhini's room where he sees Kadhamaaran's sister Manimegalai, who hearing about Vandiyathevan, has fallen in love with him. He then escapes by using Manimegalai. He meets Karikalan and warns him about Nandhini but Karikalan doesn't listen. Aditha Karikalan cannot forget Nandini and is unable to hate her even though he knows her evil plans against him and the Chola dynasty, revealing his pure love for Nandini. Pazhuvettarayar and Nandhini come to Kadambur. Karikalan also reaches Kadambur and is welcomed by the Sambuvarayar family. Periya Pazhuvettarayar talks with Karikalan about the next emperor. Karikalan agrees to crown Maduranthaka as the king but puts in a condition stating that he should be given permission to seize lands towards the north and be the emperor for the places he annexed. The chieftains agree to this and send Pazhuvettatayar to bring Maduranthaka from Tanjavur. Pazhuvettarayar leaves Nandhini in Kadambur and ventures to Tanjavur. In Kodikarai, Poonguzhali sends Sendhan back to Tanjavur and tries to take her aunt Mandakini to Nagapattinam to meet Ponniyin Selvan. They are interrupted by men who take Mandakini to Tanjavur. Poonguzhali and Sendhan reunite again and follow Mandakini. When they are almost near Tanjai, heavy rain causes flooding in the Chola country. Intending to save Mandakini, Poonguzhali exchanges herself with her aunt and sits in the palanquin and goes to Tanjai Fort. Sendhan Amudhan takes his aunt to his home. Kundavai comes to Brahmarayar's home to talk about her father's bad condition and the damage to Chola country because of the flood. Actually, Brahmarayar's men were those who kidnapped Mandakini. After learning about Poonguzhali's exchange, they send her to bring Mandakini but she fails as Mandakini enters a secret tunnel through which some aabathudavigal have entered that leads to Sundara Chola's room. Mandakini that night exits the tunnel and meets Sundara Chola. Sundara Chola is shocked by her arrival and gets angry. The next morning, Mandakini enters the tunnel again, spying on the aabathudavigal. In Kadambur, Nandhini gains Manimegalai's friendship and uses her for her plan. They leave for veeranarayana pond for a picnic where they meet Vandiyathevan and Karikalan who come to the forest for hunting, where Nandini had a conversation with Karikalan.

On the way to Tanjai, Pazhuvettarayar is caught in the storm and drowns in Kollidam. After suffering a lot he reaches a Durga temple near the river. There he gets a chance to follow Pandiya aabathudavigal who talks about murdering Sundar Chola and his sons tomorrow. Listening to this, Pazhuvettarayar attacks them but they escape. During their talk, they also reveal about Nandhini's motive. Pazhuvettarayar goes to Kudanthai where he meets Kundavai and Vanathi, alerts them about the conspiracy and returns to Kadambur. On the same night, Nagapattinam Choodamani Viharam gets drowned while Ponniyin Selvan saves the head Buddhist monk and reaches Aanaimangalam palace. There he is forced to reveal himself to the people and plans to leave for Tanjai. The aabathudavigal plan to kill Ponniyin Selvan using his elephant rider but fails miserably as Ponniyin Selvan knows how to control elephants. While going to Tanjai, Vanathi gets caught in a flood. Ponniyin Selvan reaches there on time and saves her. Along with Vanathi, Ponniyin Selvan reaches Tanjavur, enters the fort as an elephant rider and meets his father Sundara Chola. There the aabathudavigal try to kill Sundara Chola but is stopped by Mandakini who sacrifices her life for him revealing her love for him and his family. In Kadambur, Nandhini plans to kill Karikalan and arranges for it. Vandiyathevan and pandyas were also hiding in Nandhini's room. Karikalan comes to Nandini's room even after he knows her plan to kill him. When Nandini sees Karikalan she hesitates. She hates Aditha Karikalan for changing her fate but she also loves him for accepting her for herself. Vandiyathevan became unconscious by Pandyas. Aditha Karikalan and Nandini reveal their love for each other and regret their fate. Suddenly lights go off and when the lights turn on again Aditha Karikalan is found dead in the room. The room catches fire. Vandiyathevan regains consciousness, finds Aditha Karikalan, and brings his body out of the room. Everyone suspects Vandiyathevan because there was no one in the place except him so they tie him up. They take them to Tanjavur, read Karikalan the last rites and discuss the next step. Nambi and Poonguzhali save Pazhuvettarayar and reveal the true motive of Nandini. Periya Pazhuvettarayar realises his mistake and feels guilty for betraying the Chola kingdom in his lust for Nandini. Nandhini escapes on a horse. Vandiyathevan is put in jail where he meets Paithiyakaran, aka Karuthiruman, who reveals he knows a great secret of the Chola dynasty. They work together and escape the jail and with the help of Nambi reach Sendhan's house. There Madurantaka and his mother are found. Karuthiruman escapes with Maduranthaka. Maduranthaka badly wants to become the next king, but his mother reveals that he is not her son but the son of an orphan woman, Mandakini. She exchanged her child, since her child was lifeless. She gives her child to Vaani Amai ( mandakini's deaf sister) who is alerted by Karuthiruman that the child is alive. The child now seems to be Sendhan Amudhan. Upon learning it Madurantaka thinks that he is the Pandiya heir and goes with Karuthiruman. Pinnagapani tries to kill Sendhan but fails. He stabs Vandiyathevan but then thinks it was Adurantaka. Then he follows Karuthiruman along with Kandhamaaran who attack Maduranthaka thinking he is Vandiyathevan. Pinnagapani dies there. Vandiyathevan is saved by Kundavai and Poonguzhali. Since Madurantakan goes missing, Nambi dresses up Sendhan Amudhan as Madurantaka and brings him inside the fort. Manimegalai comes to Tanjai and meets Kundavai and says that she was the one who killed Karikalan just to save Vandiyathevan. She tries to drown in the river where Vandiyathevan saves her. He goes to Sundara Chola's court. Pazhuvettarayar reveals that he was the one who killed Aditha Karikalan releasing Vandiyathevan and killing himself. Before dying he tells Nambi that he did not kill Aditha Karikalan, when he went to the palace Karikalan is already found dead. He accepts the blame because he knows that Vandiyadevan and Kundavai love each other and doesn't want to separate them and also feels guilty for betraying Chola kingdom. Arulmozhi reveals that he will become the next Chakravarthi. Sendhan marries Poonguzhali. Vandiyathevan and Ponniyin Selvan dress as China traders and bring silk clothes for Kundavai and Vanathi. Sembiyan Maadevi asks Ponniyin Selvan to marry Vanathi but he says that she has taken a oath to not become the chakravarthini. During Ponnoyin Selvan's coronation, he makes Chinna Pazhuvettarayar move away from there and crowns Sendhan Amudhan the real madurantakan. Later Arulmozhi Varman meets Nandini who is hiding in a village where she reveals to Arulmozhi about her birth secret and truth behind Karikalan's death. Chinna Pazhuverttarayar realises that his daughter is married to Pandiya's heir and she has gone there. The old madurantaka fights with Chinna Pazhuvettarayar pushing him. Nambi saves him. After Aditha Karikalan's death Nandini loses her will to live as she loves him truly and he is the only man who loved her truly and accepted her even though the whole dynasty was against them, while others only lust after Nandini for her beauty. In her sorrow, she drowns herself in the Ponni River, revealing her pure love for Aditha Karikalan. Aditha Karikalan and Nandini's love story has a tragic end, even though they find true love, they cannot be together. They went from being in love to becoming enemies, but never lost the love they had for each other and died because of it as well.

Vandiyathevan meets Kundavai who both reveal their feelings about each other. Meanwhile, he learns that Ponniyin Selvan married Vanathi. Vandiyathevan receives a message from Kandhamaaran asking him to come and meet Manimegalai. Vandiyathevan goes to meet Manimegalai, who loved him, and dies in his hands.


2015 Sanskrit Translation of Ponniyin Selvan by Rajalakshmi Srinivasan and published by Central Sanskrit University, Delhi, India.

The novel was first serialised in the weekly editions of Kalki during the period from 29 October 1950 to 16 May 1954 resulting the total period of development of work be 3 years, 6 months, and 18 days. The following year, Managala Noolagam released the novel in book form.[4][5]


Film and television[edit]

There have been several attempts to create film adaptations of Ponniyin Selvan, beginning with an attempt in 1958 by M. G. Ramachandran. He bought the film rights to the novel for 10,000 (equivalent to 960,000 or US$11,000 in 2023), and announced that he would produce, direct and star in the adaptation which would feature an ensemble cast including Gemini Ganesan, Vyjayanthimala Bali, Savitri, and Padmini. Ramachandran chosen Mahendran to write screenplay for the film.[6] Before shooting could begin, Ramachandran met with an accident, and the wound took six months to heal, Ramachandran was unable to continue with the film despite renewing the rights four years later.[7][8][9]

In the late 1980s, actor Kamal Haasan and Mani Ratnam worked together on adapting the novel into a film.[10][11] Ratnam revealed that he worked on a first draft of the film alongside Kamal Haasan, who had bought the rights of the novel from Ramachandran, but the pair shelved their plan as the project did not make financial sense at the time.[12][8] Ramachandran also requested Bharathiraja to make the film.[13] Kamal Haasan then attempted to make the story into a forty-part television series during the early 1990s, and worked with writer Ra. Ki. Rangarajan on the screenplay, but the project was later stalled.[14]

In the 2000s, there were further attempts to make the book into television series by Makkal TV and by Kalaignar TV, through a project directed by Naga.[15] A 32-hour animation film was planned by Rewinda Movie Toons, a Chennai-based animation studio, in 2008 and took seven years to complete. The film was set to be released by April 2015, but remains unreleased as of October 2022.[16] In late 2010, Ratnam renewed his interest in his film project and worked alongside writer Jeyamohan to finalise the script for the film adaptation of Ponniyin Selvan. The film was later shelved before the start of the filming stage, as the expected cost of production escalated. Jeyamohan stated that the film did not materialise as the team struggled to find available locations to shoot the film. He revealed that temple officials in Tamil Nadu refused to allow the team to film scenes on the premises and that the expensive cost of producing replica sets meant that it would not be a viable solution.[17]

In 2016, Eros International engaged Jeyamohan and Soundarya Rajinikanth, as a creative producer, to make the book into a web-series but the project did not develop into production.[18][19] In early 2019, Soundarya Rajinikanth associated with another production house, May 6 Entertainment, and director Sooriyaprathap to make a web-series of the novel for MX Player. After years of little promotion, Soundarya announced that the project was still under the planning phase during September 2021.[20] In January 2021, a further adapted web series produced by Eternitee Motion Krafte and directed by Ajay Pratheeb titled Chiranjeevi Ponniyin Selvan was announced. The makers announced that the series would have 125 episodes, with technicians such as Ilaiyaraaja and Sabu Cyril joining the team.[21][22]

2022 & 2023 Mani Ratnam film adaptation[edit]

In early 2019, Mani Ratnam officially restarted production on his film project. His two-film adaptation featured an ensemble cast consisting of Vikram, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Jayam Ravi, Karthi and Trisha.[23] In September 2021, the filming for both the parts got completed.[24] The film was released on 30 September 2022 in five Indian languages and extends to a sequel Ponniyin Selvan: II.[25]

Stage play[edit]

Avvai Shanmugam was the first to organise a conference on Tamil drama in Erode, and the first to organise a drama contest, in 1945. One of the prize winning scripts was 'Raja Raja Chozhan,’ which was staged in 1955 with Shanmugam as prince Rajendra. 'Raja Raja Chozhan' was also presented at the Motilal Nehru Centenary celebrations in Delhi in 1961, earning compliments from Nehru for the splendid acting. In Singapore, 'Raja Raja Chozhan' was also enacted 90 times. Overall it was staged 2,146 times.[citation needed]

Avvai Shanmugam played the role of Maamallan in Kalki's 'Sivakamiyin Sabatham' and the sets were grand, befitting the story. For the scene in which Paranjothi tames an elephant that runs amok, two men inside a specially made elephant, operated levers as they walked in unison.[26]

In 1999 the book was adapted into a stage play by E. Kumaravel and was staged by Magic Lantern Theater in Buck's Theatre inside YMCA Nandanam, Chennai.[27] The script's length was originally over nine hours long, but was shortened into a performance time of four hours and 20 minutes and featured 72 actors on a multi-level setting.[28]

Again, the book was adapted into a stage play in a very grand scale by SS International Live along with Magic Lantern theatre group in Chennai, in June 2014. The crew includes Kumaravel, who penned the screenplay & dialogues, Thotta Tharani as art director, Preethi Athreya as costume designer and Bhanu leading the make-up and hair styling department. Pravin directed the play.[29]

Chicago Tamil Sangam staged the play in May 2013 with over 40 volunteers in cast and crew.[30]

Novels and Comic books[edit]

The Tiger Throne by Preetha Rajah Kannan is an English retelling of this vast 5 volume epic in one complete novel.[31][32]

In 2017, Nila comics started releasing series of comic books where every comic book is an adaptation of two chapters from the novel.[33] It is available in Tamil and English. As of January 2019, There have been 18 comic books released in Tamil and 10 in English.[34][35]

English and other translations[edit]

There are at least six different translations of Ponniyin Selvan available in English by Preetha Rajah Kannan,[31] Indra Neelamegam,[36] Pavithra Srinivasan, CV Karthik Narayanan, Varalotti Rengasamy and Sumeetha Manikandan. On 21 February 2015, a Sanskrit translation by Rajalakshmi Srinivasan was released at a public function in Chennai.[37][38]

English translations[edit]

Translator Title Pages Publication date Publisher(s) Ref(s)
Pavithra Srinivasan Ponniyin Selvan Book 1: Fresh Floods 454 1 December 2019 [39][40]
Ponniyin Selvan Book 2: Whirlwinds 482 1 December 2019
Ponniyin Selvan Book 3: Sword of Slaughter 424 1 October 2020
Ponniyin Selvan Book 4: The Jewelled Crown 426 2 April 2021
Ponniyin Selvan Book 5: The Zenith of Sacrifice 866 1 January 2022
C.V.Karthik Narayanan Ponniyin Selvan Part 1 : The First Floods 404 Macmillan Publishers,

Laxmi Publications,

Trinity Press,

Pustaka Digital Media

Ponniyin Selvan Part 2 : The Cyclone 370
Ponniyin Selvan Part 3 : The Killer Sword 288
Ponniyin Selvan Part 4 : The Crown 274
Ponniyin Selvan Part 5 : The Pinnacle of Sacrifice – Volume 1 300
Ponniyin Selvan Part 5 : The Pinnacle of Sacrifice – Volume 2 387
Ponniyin Selvan – All Volumes 2831
Indra Neelamegam Ponni's Beloved: Part 1– New Floods 264 1993, updated 2022 Free on Project Madurai

ePub available at Smashwords, Barnes and Noble

Ponni's Beloved: Part 2 -- Whirlwind 254 1995, updated 2022
Ponni's Beloved: Part 3 -- A Killing Sword 252 Updated 2022
Ponni's Beloved: Part 4 -- Jeweled Crown 280 2022
Varalotti Rengasamy Kalki's Ponniyin Selvan Part-1 to Part-5 Set 2128 2016 Kavitha Publication [44]
Sumeetha Manikandan Ponni's Beloved Volume 1: New Floods 341 2019 [45]
Ponni's Beloved Volume 2: The Storm 389 2019
Ponni's Beloved Volume 3: The Sword 386 2020 [46]
Ponni's Beloved Volume 4: The Crown 314 2020 [47]
H. Subhalakshmi Narayanan Ponniyin Selvan, Book 1: New Waters 2150 2016 Ailum Books
Ponniyin Selvan, Book 2: Whirling Cyclone
Ponniyin Selvan, Book 3:The Killer Sword
Ponniyin selvan, Book 4: The Crown
Ponniyin Selvan, Book 5 & 6:The Epitome of sacrifice

Malayalam translations[edit]

Translator Title Pages Publication date Publisher(s) Ref(s)
G.Subramanian Ponniyin Selvan 1200 2022 DC Books
Sajith M. S Ponniyin Selvan (പൊന്നിയിൻ സെൽവൻ ) 2022 Pratilipi Malayalam Free Reading Also Available in Pratilipi FM

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Jayaram joins Mani Ratnam's Ponniyin Selvan?". indianexpress. Indian Express. 27 August 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Age hardly withers charm of Ponniyin Selvan". The Hindu. 19 October 2011. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  3. ^ "Ponniyin Selvan - First Edition Published in Malaysia". Jaya Bakti. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  4. ^ Ponniyin Selvan Eng Pt. 1 (1999), p. xv, Introduction. Ponniyin Selvan was first published in serial form in the Tamil weekly magazine Kalki ; it was begun in the issue dated 29 October 1950 and concluded in the issue for 16 May 1954.
  5. ^ Ponniyin Selvan Book (1955).
  6. ^ "எம்.ஜி.ஆர். மூலமாக திரை உலகில் நுழைந்த மகேந்திரன்". Maalai Malar. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  7. ^ Bali, Karan (14 March 2018). "Films Announced But Never Started: Ponniyin Selvan". Upperstall.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b Srivathsan, A. (19 October 2011). "Age hardly withers charm of Ponniyin Selvan". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Mani is likely to drop Ponniyin Selvan". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  10. ^ "பொன்னியின் செல்வன்: கமலின் கனவுகள்..." Kalki (in Tamil). 29 October 1989. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Mani Ratnam first discussed 'Ponniyin Selvan' with Kamal Haasan in 1989. Details inside". The Times of India. 6 September 2022. Archived from the original on 7 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  12. ^ Mohammed, Khalid (January 1994). "Mani Matters". Filmfare. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  13. ^ Life History of Bharathiraja: Ep 62 - Ponniyin Selvan -ஐ படமா எடுனு MGR சொன்னார் (in Tamil). En Iniya Tamil Makkale. 30 November 2020. Archived from the original on 27 December 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2022.[time needed]
  14. ^ "Ponniyin Selvan lures all — from MGR to Kamal Haasan to Mani Ratnam". The Federal. 8 July 2022. Archived from the original on 16 July 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  15. ^ "Ponniyin Selvan: It took 60+ years to bring the story on screen!".
  16. ^ B. Kolappan (9 April 2015). "Ponniyin Selvan in 32-hour animation film".
  17. ^ "Writer Jeyamohan reveals why Mani Ratnam's Ponniyin Selvan was shelved". The News Minute. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  18. ^ Kolappan, B. (27 March 2015). "Ponniyin Selvan to come alive on screen". The Hindu.
  19. ^ "Live Chennai: Ponniyin Selvan serial in internet: Eros announces,Ponniyin Selvan serial,internet, Eros announces".
  20. ^ "Puthu Vellam: Soundarya Rajinikanth announces Ponniyin Selvan web series". Cinema Express. 10 September 2021.
  21. ^ "Another Ponniyin Selvan adaptation: A 125-episode series with music by Ilaiyaraaja". Cinema Express.
  22. ^ "MGR's dream project to be turned into film, web series by Ajay Pratheeb". DT Next. 17 January 2022.
  23. ^ "Mani Ratnam's 'Ponniyin Selvan' poster out, lyricist not mentioned in crew". www.thenewsminute.com. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Mani Ratnam wraps 'Ponniyin Selvan' shoot". The New Indian Express. 18 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  25. ^ Palisetty, Ramya (19 September 2021). "Mani Ratnam wraps up Ponniyin Selvan shoot, film is set to release in 30th September 2022". India Today. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  26. ^ Krishnamachari, Suganthy (16 August 2012). "Labour of love". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  27. ^ "The stage is his world". The Hindu. 27 February 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  28. ^ "சுருக்குப் பையில் ராட்சஸத் திணிப்பு!". Kalki (in Tamil). 15 August 1999. pp. 88–89. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
  29. ^ மு, ராகினி ஆத்ம வெண்டி (5 July 2017). "வறட்சியால் பாதிக்கப்பட்ட விவசாயிகளுக்கு இழப்பீட்டுத் தொகை!". www.vikatan.com/ (in Tamil). Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  30. ^ "Ponniyin Selvan".
  31. ^ a b Rajah Kannan, Preetha (10 September 2022). The Tiger Throne: Kalki's Ponniyin Selvan Retold (3rd ed.). Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House. ISBN 978-93-91019-97-6.
  32. ^ p-themes. "The Tiger Throne [English]". Bookkish. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  33. ^ Poorvaja, S. (31 October 2017). "Ponniyin Selvan, now in comic book avatar". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  34. ^ "Buy Tamil Books – Nila Comics". Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  35. ^ "Buy English Books – Nila Comics". Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  36. ^ "Ponniyin Selvan".
  37. ^ "Linguistic diversity an asset: Smriti Irani". The Hindu. Chennai. 22 February 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  38. ^ Ponniyin Selvan Eng Indra (1993); Centenary Volume (1999).
  39. ^ "Amazon.in: Ponniyin Selvan". Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  40. ^ "Writer Pavithra Srinivasan no more". The Hindu. 16 July 2021.
  41. ^ "C.V.Karthik Narayanan English Novels | English ebooks online | Pustaka". www.pustaka.co.in. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  42. ^ "Amazon.in: C.V.Karthik Narayanan ponniyin selvan: Kindle Store". www.amazon.in. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  43. ^ Neelameggham, Indra. "Book Links". IndrasPonniyinSelvan. Indra Neelameggham. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  44. ^ Kalki's Ponniyin Selvan Part-1 to Part-5 Set (English) (Historical Novel) Paperback – 2016. ASIN 8183455476.
  45. ^ "Amazon.in: Sumeetha Manikandan Ponniyin Selvan: Kindle Store". www.amazon.in. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  46. ^ Krishnamurthy, Kalki (15 March 2020). The Sword - Ponni's Beloved Volume 3: An English Translation Of Kalki Krishnamurthy's Ponniyin Selvan. Translated by Manikandan, Sumeetha (1st ed.). Sumeetha Manikandan.
  47. ^ Krishnamurthy, Kalki. The Crown - Ponni's Beloved Volume 4: An English Translation of Kalki Krishnamurthy's Ponniyin Selvan. Translated by Manikandan, Sumeetha.


  • Krishnamurthy, Kalki (1955). Ponniyin Selvan பொன்னியின் செல்வன் (in Tamil). Madras: Mangala Noolagam. OCLC 84057533.
    • Krishnamurthy, Kalki. Puthu Vellam புது வெள்ளம் (in Tamil). Vol. 1.
    • Krishnamurthy, Kalki. Chuzharkaattru சுழற்காற்று (in Tamil). Vol. 2.
    • Krishnamurthy, Kalki. Kolaivaal கொலை வாள் (in Tamil). Vol. 3.
    • Krishnamurthy, Kalki. Manimakudam மணிமகுடம் (in Tamil). Vol. 4.
    • Krishnamurthy, Kalki. Thyaaga Sigaram தியாகச் சிகரம் (in Tamil). Vol. 5.
  • Neelameggham, Indra (1993). Ponniyin Selvan of Kalki Krishnamurthy.
    • Neelameggham, Indra. Neelameggham, R; Ramadorai, Elizabeth (eds.). Part 1A New Floods. Online: Project Madurai.
    • Neelameggham, Indra. Neelameggham, R; Ramadorai, Elizabeth (eds.). Part 1B New Floods. Online: Project Madurai.
    • Neelameggham, Indra. Neelameggham, R (ed.). Part 2A Whirwind. Online: Project Madurai.
    • Neelameggham, Indra. Neelameggham, R (ed.). Part 2B Whirwind. Online: Project Madurai.
    • Neelameggham, Indra. Neelameggham, R (ed.). Part 3A A Killing Sword. Online: Project Madurai.
  • Krishnan, Mini, ed. (1999). Kalki R. Krishnamurthy's Ponniyin Selvan. New Delhi: Macmillan India. OCLC 263145239.

External links[edit]