Pretoria Central Prison
Pretoria Central Prison, renamed Kgosi Mampuru II Management Area by President Jacob Zuma on 13 April 2013 and sometimes referred to as Kgosi Mampuru II Correctional Services is a large prison in central Pretoria, within the City of Tshwane in South Africa. It is operated by the South African Department of Correctional Services.
The complex comprises six correctional centres, including the notorious C Max, Pretoria Local Prison, and a women's prison. The new name is the same as the street name (renamed in the previous year), with both now bearing the name of Kgosi Mampuru, a 19th century local chief who resisted colonial rule and was subsequently hanged in 1883.
1948-1991: Apartheid era
During the apartheid years, the huge complex was often known incorrectly as "Pretoria Central". In fact there were three separate clusters of prisons: Pretoria Central Prison proper, Pretoria (Local) Prison and a third known only as "Maximum" or "Beverley Hills". The latter was the ultra-maximum security section. There were also housing and recreational facilities for the prison wardens. divided into separate prisons for males and females of different racial classifications. It was on what was then Potgieter Street, later renamed Kgosi Mampuru Street.
Pretoria Central Prison was the official site of capital punishment in South Africa during the apartheid era. Condemned prisoners were held in a section of the prison called "The Pot". At one time, the prison gallows could hang up to 7 people at a time.
Pretoria Central proper consisted of a number of separate prison buildings, each housing various divisions of prisoners based on racial classification and gender. This was a national prison and reception centre where many prisoners started and ended their sentences.
Pretoria Prison, or Pretoria Local, housed local prisoners (split by race) as well as having a maximum security section for white political prisoners (black political prisoners being held in Robben Island, recidivists, habitual escapees, and the condemned. The section housing the white male political prisoners was an L-shaped three-storey building built in the late 1960s, consisting of 52 cells. As of 1978, the maximum number housed had been 22, with the average about 10; for this reason the remaining cells were occupied by prisoners awaiting trial. The inmates included Denis Goldberg (who had been sentenced at the Rivonia Trial with Nelson Mandela and other ANC leaders), Raymond Suttner, and Jeremy Cronin.
The old Pretoria Local Prison building was demolished around 1978 after other buildings had been built adjacent to it.
In 1979 white political prisoners Tim Jenkin, Alex Moumbaris and Stephen Lee escaped from "the Local". After this escape, the building in which they had been held was completely refurbished with increased security features.
2006: C Max escape
The complex was renamed Kgosi Mampuru II Management Area by President Zuma on 13 April 2013
A prison warden and an inmate were injured during a prison riot in July 2017, after prisoners' concerns over delays in processing parole applications, poor food, overcrowding and violence by warders were sent in a memorandum to the justice minister Michael Masutha, who had been Minister of Justice and Correctional Services since 2014.
The complex comprises six correctional centres, and includes a women's prison and Pretoria Local Prison.
- Jeremy Cronin - writer, poet, anti-apartheid activist
- Eugene de Kock - commanding officer of C10, a counter-insurgency unit of the South African Police which functioned as a death squad for the apartheid government.
- Bram Fischer - lawyer and anti-apartheid activist who died of cancer in 1975 while serving a life sentence.
- Denis Goldberg - anti-apartheid campaigner and Rivonia Trialist.
- Mike Hoare - mercenary charged with hijacking an Air India jet in an attempt at a coup in the Seychelles.
- Tim Jenkin - political prisoner who escaped in 1979.
- Dave Kitson – anti-apartheid campaigner and Little Rivonia Trialist.
- Radovan Krejčíř - a Czech former billionaire and convicted criminal
- Stephen Lee - political prisoner who escaped in 1979.
- Winnie Madikizela-Mandela - wife of Nelson Mandela
- Nelson Mandela - held in pre-trial cells in Pretoria Local (in cells no longer standing).
- John Matthews – anti-apartheid campaigner and Little Rivonia Trialist.
- Alex Moumbaris - political prisoner who escaped in 1979.
- Butana Almond Nofomela - former South African security policeman.
- Oscar Pistorius - sentenced to five years for culpable homicide on 21 October 2014, he was released on 19 October 2015. After his conviction was changed to murder in December 2015, Pistorius was sentenced to six years imprisonment on 6 July 2016. He left the prison in November 2016 after being transferred to the Atteridgeville Correction Centre.
- Raymond Suttner - academic, writer, anti-apartheid activist.
- "Pretoria prison renamed after hanged man". News24. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- Makatile, Don (10 July 2016). "Pics: Welcome to Pretoria's biggest prison". iol.za. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Pretoria, City of Tshwane: Pretoria's New Street Names". ShowMe. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- Jenkin, Tim (1987). "Escape from Pretoria" (PDF). South African History Online: 67–69. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Robert Adams (1998). The Abuses of Punishment. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 178. ISBN 0-312-17617-1.
- "Before the Hangman Arrives". Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, South African Journal on Human Rights. 1989.
- Jenkin, Tim (1987). "Escape from Pretoria" (PDF). South African History Online: 76. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Jenkin, Tim (1987). "Escape from Pretoria" (PDF). South African History Online: 189. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- BBC News (2006-11-20). "S Africa manhunt after jailbreak". Retrieved 2006-11-20.
- BBC News (2006-12-04). "S Africa's 'most-wanted' caught". Retrieved 2006-12-04.
- Pijoos, Iavan (3 July 2017). "Kgosi Mampuru II warder and prisoner injured during riot". News24. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- Ritchie, Kevin (2011-12-12). "Inside SA's factory of death". IOL. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
- City of Tshwane. "The Mandela way (draft)" (PDF). Tshwane Heritage Tours. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- "Pistorius released under house arrest". 20 October 2015 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Pistorius sentenced to six years in jail". 6 July 2016 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
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