Holland Codes

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John L. Holland's RIASEC hexagon of The Holland Codes.

The Holland Codes or the Holland Occupational Themes (RIASEC) refers to a theory of careers and vocational choice (based upon personality types) that was initially developed by American psychologist John L. Holland.[1][2]

The US Department of Labor ETA has been using an updated and expanded version of the RIASEC model in the "Interests" section of its free online database, The Occupational Information Network (O*NET),[3] since its inception during the late 1990s.[4][5]

Background[edit]

Holland made a career out of studying the world of work, pioneering the theory that if people were aware of their personality type or combination of types - realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising or conventional - then they would be happier workers.

—Amy Lunday[1]

Holland's theories of vocational choice, The Holland Occupational Themes, "now pervades career counseling research and practice."[2] Its origins "can be traced to an article in the Journal of Applied Psychology in 1958 and a subsequent article in 1959 that set out his theory of vocational choices [....] The basic premise was that one's occupational preferences were in a sense a veiled expression of underlying character." [6] The 1959 article in particular ("A Theory of Vocational Choice," published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology) is considered the first major introduction of Holland's "theory of vocational personalities and work environments."[2]

Holland originally labeled his six types as "motoric, intellectual, esthetic, supportive, persuasive, and conforming."[2] He later developed and changed them to: Realistic (Doers), Investigative (Thinkers), Artistic (Creators), Social (Helpers), Enterprising (Persuaders), and Conventional (Organizers)."[7] Professor John Johnson of Penn State suggested that an alternative way of categorizing the six types would be through ancient social roles: "hunters (Realistic), shamans (Investigative), artisans (Artistic), healers (Social), leaders (Enterprising), and lorekeepers (Conventional)."[8]

According to the Committee on Scientific Awards, Holland's "research shows that personalities seek out and flourish in career environments they fit and that jobs and career environments are classifiable by the personalities that flourish in them."[9] Holland also wrote of his theory that "the choice of a vocation is an expression of personality."[10] Furthermore, while Holland suggests that people can be "categorized as one of six types,"[11] he also argues that "a six-category scheme built on the assumption that there are only six kinds of people in the world is unacceptable on the strength of common sense alone. But a six category scheme that allows a simple ordering of a person's resemblance to each of the six models provides the possibility of 720 different personality patterns."[12]

List of types[edit]

R: Realistic (Doers)[edit]

People who like to work with "things". They tend to be "assertive and competitive, and are interested in activities requiring motor coordination, skill and strength." They approach problem solving "by doing something, rather than talking about it, or sitting and thinking about it." They also prefer "concrete approaches to problem solving, rather than abstract theory." Finally, their interests tend to focus on "scientific or mechanical rather than cultural and aesthetic areas."[13] Sample majors and careers include:

I: Investigative (Thinkers)[edit]

People who prefer to work with "data". They like to "think and observe rather than act, to organize and understand information rather than to persuade." They also prefer "individual rather than people oriented activities."[13] Sample majors and careers include:

A: Artistic (Creators)[edit]

People who like to work with "ideas and things." They tend to be "creative, open, inventive, original, perceptive, sensitive, independent and emotional." They rebel against "structure and rules," but enjoy "tasks involving people or physical skills." They tend to be more emotional than the other types.[13] Sample majors and careers include:

S: Social (Helpers)[edit]

People who like to work with "people" and who "seem to satisfy their needs in teaching or helping situations." They tend to be "drawn more to seek close relationships with other people and are less apt to want to be really intellectual or physical."[13] Sample majors and careers include:

E: Enterprising (Persuaders)[edit]

People who like to work with "people and data." They tend to be "good talkers, and use this skill to lead or persuade others." They "also value reputation, power, money and status."[13] Sample majors and careers include:

C: Conventional (Organizers)[edit]

People who prefer to work with "data" and who "like rules and regulations and emphasize self-control...they like structure and order, and dislike unstructured or unclear work and interpersonal situations." They also "place value on reputation, power, or status."[13] Sample majors and careers include:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "John L. Holland, 1919-2008: A Select Bibliography added to the Tribute & Obituary". NCDA. 2008-11-27. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  2. ^ a b c d "The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology." Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 57(1), 2010, 11-22.
  3. ^ "O*NET OnLine: Interests". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  4. ^ Matthew, Mariana (1999). "Replace with a database: O*NET replaces the Dictionary of Occupational Titles" (PDF). Occupational Outlook Quarterly Online, Spring 1999 Vol. 43, Number 1. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  5. ^ Rounds, James Patrick (2008). "Second Generation Occupational Interest Profiles for the O*NET System: Summary" (PDF). The National Center for O*NET Development, June 2008. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  6. ^ Athanasou, James. "Obituary: John L. Holland 1919-2008" Australian Journal of Career Development, September 22, 2009.
  7. ^ "Holland Codes" (PDF). New Hampshire Employment Security, Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  8. ^ Johnson, John (2013-06-13). "Selfless Service, Part II: Different Types of Seva". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  9. ^ "Award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology: John L. Holland." American Psychologist, Vol 63(8), Nov 2008, 672–674.
  10. ^ Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: a theory of careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973): 6.
  11. ^ Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: a theory of careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973): 2.
  12. ^ Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: a theory of careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973): 3.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "About Holland Codes" (PDF). Seattle Central College. Retrieved 2018-01-12. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Majors by Holland Code". University of Oklahoma. Retrieved 2018-02-07. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq "State of Delaware: Department of Labor, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information: Publications-Delaware Career Compass". State of Delaware. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq "Career/Major Interests Game". Georgetown University. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  17. ^ a b c "Degrees with Holland Codes" (PDF). Arizona Western College. Retrieved 2018-02-07. 
  18. ^ a b "Advertising and Graphic Design". Central Piedmont Community College. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  19. ^ a b "Summary Report for:15-2041.01 - Biostatisticians". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  20. ^ a b c "Summary Report for:21-1094.00 - Community Health Workers". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  21. ^ a b "Summary Report for: 19-1041.00 - Epidemiologists". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  22. ^ a b "Summary Report for: 25-3099.02 - Poets, Lyricists and Creative Writers". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2017-06-16. 
  23. ^ a b "Summary Report for: 25-3099.02 - Tutors". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2017-06-16. 
  24. ^ a b "Holland's Occupational Themes". University of California, Davis. Retrieved 2018-02-07. 
  25. ^ a b c "Summary Report for:13-2052.00 - Personal Financial Advisors". ONET. Retrieved 2018-04-30. 
  26. ^ a b "Purdue Career Center" (PDF). Purdue University. Retrieved 2016-05-15. 
  27. ^ a b "Summary Report for:21-1091.00 - Health Educators". Occupational Information Network. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  28. ^ "Job Environment: Social". Rogue Community College. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  29. ^ "Crack Your Holland Code" (PDF). Vermont Student Assistance Corporation. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Free Tests[edit]

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