Regulative principle of worship
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The regulative principle of worship is a Christian doctrine, held by some Calvinists and Anabaptists, that God commands churches to conduct public services of worship using certain distinct elements affirmatively found in Scripture, and conversely, that God prohibits any and all other practices in public worship. The doctrine further determines these affirmed elements to be those set forth in Scripture by express commands or examples, or if not expressed, those which are implied logically by good and necessary consequence. The regulative principle thus provides a governing concept of worship as obedience to God, identifies the set of specific practical elements constituting obedient worship, and identifies and excludes disobedient practices.
The regulative principle of worship is held, practiced, and vigorously maintained by conservative Reformed churches, the Restoration Movement, and other conservative Protestant denominations. Historic confessional standards stating the doctrine include the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Belgic Confession, and the London Baptist Confession of Faith.
The regulative principle contrasts with the normative principle of worship, which teaches that whatever is not prohibited in Scripture is permitted in worship, as long as it is agreeable to the peace and unity of the Church. In short, there must be agreement with the general practice of the Church and no prohibition in Scripture for whatever is done in worship. The normative principle of worship is the generally accepted approach to worship practiced by Anglicans, Lutherans, Evangelicals, and Methodists.
A broader sense of the term "regulative principle" is occasionally cited on matters other than worship, for example, to constrain designs of church government to scriptural elements. When applied broadly the term becomes indistinct from the principle of sola scriptura.
As the regulative principle is reflected in Calvin's own thought, it is driven by his evident antipathy toward the Roman Catholic Church and her worship, and it associates musical instruments with icons, which he considered violations of the Ten Commandments' prohibition of graven images. On this basis, many early Calvinists also eschewed musical instruments and advocated exclusive psalmody in worship.
In 17th-century English church debates, the Puritans argued that there was a divine pattern to be followed at all times, which they called the ius divinum ("divine law", after a Latin term in the ancient Roman religion). This came to be known by the milder term "regulative principle" in English.
Those who oppose instruments in worship, such as John Murray and G. I. Williamson, argue first that there is no example of the use of musical instruments for worship in the New Testament and second that the Old Testament uses of instruments in worship were specifically tied to the ceremonial laws of the Temple in Jerusalem, which they take to be abrogated for the church. Since the 1800s, however, most of the Reformed churches have modified their understanding of the regulative principle and make use of musical instruments, believing that Calvin and his early followers went beyond the biblical requirements of the Decalogue and that such things are circumstances of worship requiring biblically rooted wisdom, rather than an explicit command. Despite the protestations of those few who hold to a strict view of the regulative principle, the vast majority of modern Calvinist churches make use of hymns and musical instruments, and many also employ contemporary worship music styles and worship bands.
The regulative principle was historically taken to prohibit the use of dance in worship. In 1996 reformed theologian John Frame broke the consensus and argued that the regulative principle does permit dancing, a view that was criticised by more conservative scholars.
While music is the central issue in worship debates, other matters have been contentious as well, including doxologies, benedictions, corporate confession of sin, prayer and the readings of creeds or portions of scripture. The presence of any one of these, their order and priority have ranged over various denominations.
John Calvin's Liturgy
The original Lord's Day service designed by John Calvin was a highly liturgical service with the Creed, Alms, Confession and Absolution, the Lord's supper, Doxologies, prayers, Psalms, the Lords prayer, Benedictions. The following are Orders of Service for the Lord's Day as designed by John Calvin (Collect is a short prayer; Lection is a Scripture reading; Fraction and Delivery are the breaking of the bread and distribution thereof, respectively):
Liturgy of the Upper Room
|Calvin: Strasbourg, 1540||Calvin: Geneva, 1542|
|Scripture Sentence (Psalm 124,8)|
|Confession of sins||Confession of sins|
|Scriptural words of pardon||Prayer for pardon|
|Metrical Decalogue sung with Kyrie eleison after each Law|
|Collect for Illumination||Collect for Illumination|
|Collection of alms||Collection of alms|
|Lord’s Prayer in long paraphrase||Lord’s Prayer in long paraphrase|
|Preparation of elements while Apostles' Creed sung||Preparation of elements while Apostles' Creed sung|
|Words of Institution||Words of Institution|
|Communion, while psalm sung||Communion, while psalm or Scriptures read|
|Post-communion collect||Post-communion collect|
|Nunc dimittis in metre|
|Aaronic Blessing||Aaronic Blessing|
- Westminster Confession of Faith, Chapter XXI. - Of Religious Worship, and the Sabbath Day. "... The acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by Himself, and so limited by His own revealed will, that He may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the holy Scripture."
- "Heidelberg Catechism".
96. Q. What does God require in the second commandment? A. We are not to make an image of God in any way, nor to worship Him in any other manner than He has commanded in His Word.
- "Belgic Confession, Article 32: The Order and Discipline of the Church".
... Those who govern the churches ... ought always to guard against deviating from what Christ, our only Master, has ordained for us. Therefore we reject all human innovations and all laws imposed on us, in our worship of God, which bind and force our consciences in any way. So we accept only what is proper to maintain harmony and unity and to keep all in obedience to God.
- "1689 Baptist Confession, Chapter 22: Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day".
... The acceptable way of worshipping the true God, is instituted by himself, and so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshipped according to the imagination and devices of men, nor the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representations, or any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scriptures.
- John Muether (April 2017). "The Reformation of Church Polity" (PDF). New Horizons. The Orthodox Presbyterian Church. pp. 8–9. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
... the regulative principle of church government: Christ’s Word clearly reveals the structure of the church, and so the government of the church must find its basis in apostolic teaching and practice. ... the 'regulative principle of polity'
- Thornwell 1842, p. 252: "Regulative principles define only ends to be aimed at, or conditions to be observed."
- Schwertley (1998).[verification needed]
- Iain Murray (1991). Richard Baxter - The Reluctant Puritan? in Advancing in Adversity, annual conference papers. London: The Westminster Conference. p. 5.
- Frame (1996).[page needed]
- Pipa, Joseph. "A book review of Worship in Spirit and Truth".
- Maxwell, William D. (1936). An Outline of Christian Worship: Its Development and Forms. London: Oxford University Press.
- Barber, John (June 25, 2006). "Luther and Calvin on Music and Worship". Reformed Perspectives Magazine. 8 (26). Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Frame, John. "A Fresh Look at the Regulative Principle". Third Millennium Ministries. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- — (August 2006). "The Doctrine of the Christian Life: Regulating worship". Reformed Perspectives Magazine. 8 (32). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- — (1992). "Some Questions About The Regulative Principle". Westminster Theological Journal. 54 (2): 357–66. ISSN 0043-4388.
- — (1994). "Reply to T. David Gordon". Westminster Theological Journal. 56 (1): 181–3.
- — (1996). Worship in Spirit and Truth. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P&R Pub. ISBN 0-87552-242-4.
- — (1997). Contemporary Worship Music: A Biblical Defense. Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R Publ. ISBN 0-87552-212-2.
- Frame, John and Darryl Hart (1998). "The Regulative Principle: Scripture, Tradition, and Culture (a written debate)". Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Gordon, T. David (1993). "Some Answers about the Regulative Principle". Westminster Theological Journal. 55 (2): 321–29.
- —. "Nine Lines of Argument in Favor of the Regulative Principle of Worship". Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Johnson, Terry L. (2000). Reformed Worship: Worship that Is According to Scripture. Greenville, SC: Reformed Academic Press. ISBN 1-884416-33-0.
- Kraeuter, Tom. "An Honest Look at the Regulative Principle of Worship". Training Resources. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- McMahon, C. Matthew. "The Regulative Principle in Worship: A brief article". A Puritan's Mind. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Pratt, Richard. "The Regulative Principle". Third Millennium Ministries. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Schwertley, Brian M. (2000). Pribble, Stephen, ed. Sola Scriptura and the Regulative Principle of Worship. Southfield, MI: Reformed Witness. OCLC 45414021.
- Schwertley, Brian M. (1999). Musical Instruments in the Public Worship of God. Southfield, MI: Reformed Witness. OCLC 41962530.
- Thornwell, James Henley (1841). "Argument Against Church-Boards". Collected Writings. 4.
- Thornwell, James Henley (1842). "The Argument For Church Boards Answered". Collected Writings. 4.
- Williamson, G. I. "The Scriptural Basis for the Regulative Principle of Worship" (PDF). Retrieved December 2, 2011.