Kidney, with renal papilla labeled at upper right.
The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney. Histologically it is marked by medullary collecting ducts converging to form a papillary duct to channel the fluid. Transitional epithelium begins to be seen.
Some chemicals toxic to the kidney, called nephrotoxins, damage the renal papillae. Damage to the renal papillae may result in death to cells in this region of the kidney, called renal papillary necrosis. The most common toxic causes of renal papillary necrosis are NSAIDs[dubious ], such as ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, and phenylbutazone, in combination with dehydration. Perturbed renal papillary development has also been shown to be associated with onset of functional obstruction and renal fibrosis.
Renal papillary damage has also been associated with nephrolithiasis and can be quantified according to the papillary grading score, which accounts for contour, pitting, plugging and randall plaque. 
- Wilkinson, L; Kurniawan, ND; Phua, YL; Nguyen, MJ; Li, J; Galloway, GJ; Hashitani, H; Lang, RJ; Little, MH (August 2012). "Association between congenital defects in papillary outgrowth and functional obstruction in Crim1 mutant mice.". The Journal of pathology. 227 (4): 499–510. doi:10.1002/path.4036. PMID 22488641.
- Phua, YL; Gilbert, T; Combes, A; Wilkinson, L; Little, MH (April 2016). "Neonatal vascularization and oxygen tension regulate appropriate perinatal renal medulla/papilla maturation.". The Journal of pathology. 238 (5): 665–76. doi:10.1002/path.4690. PMID 26800422.
- Phua, YL; Martel, N; Pennisi, DJ; Little, MH; Wilkinson, L (April 2013). "Distinct sites of renal fibrosis in Crim1 mutant mice arise from multiple cellular origins.". The Journal of pathology. 229 (5): 685–96. doi:10.1002/path.4155. PMID 23224993.
- Cohen, Andrew J.; Borofsky, Michael S.; Anderson, Blake B.; Dauw, Casey A.; Gillen, Daniel L.; Gerber, Glenn S.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Coe, Fredric L.; Lingeman, James E. (2017). "Endoscopic Evidence That Randall's Plaque is Associated with Surface Erosion of the Renal Papilla". Journal of Endourology. 31 (1): 85–90. doi:10.1089/end.2016.0537. ISSN 0892-7790.
- Anatomy photo:40:06-0107 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Internal Structure of a Kidney"
- Histology image: 15901loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Urinary System: neonatal kidney"
- posteriorabdomen at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (renalpelvis)
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